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A small-spored Alternaria was found from black spots of storaged Koerle pear (Pyrus sinkiangensis), one of the economically important fruit in Xinjiang province, China. The morphology is similar to A. limoniasperae but obviously different in secondary conidiophores and conidial septa. A phylogenetic analysis using sequence datasets of ITS, GAPDH, TEF1, RPB2, Alt a1, OPA10-2, and EndoPG genes revealed that it belonged to the Alternaria alternata complex group. Pathogenicity tests illustrated that the fungus was the causal pathogen of black spot on Koerle pear fruit.
In this paper, a novel method called location-based delivery (LBD), which combines the short message service (SMS) and global position system (GPS), is proposed, and further, a realistic system for tracking a target's movement is developed. LBD reduces the number of short message transmissions while maintaining the location tracking accuracy within the acceptable range. The proposed approach, LBD, consists of three primary features: Short message format, location prediction, and dynamic threshold. The defined short message format is proprietary. Location prediction is performed by using the current location, moving speed, and bearing of the target to predict its next location. When the distance between the predicted location and the actual location exceeds a certain threshold, the target transmits a short message to the tracker to update its current location. The threshold is dynamically adjusted to maintain the location tracking accuracy and the number of short messages on the basis of the moving speed of the target. The experimental results show that LBD, indeed, outperforms other methods because it satisfactorily maintains the location tracking accuracy with relatively fewer messages.
Lai,,Er-Yong,Chen,,Zhen-Guo,Zhou,,Xuan,Fan,,Xiao-Rong,Wang,,Hua,Lai,,Ping-Lin,Su,,Yong-Chun,Zhang,,Bai-Yu,Bai,,Xiao-Chun,Li,,Yun-Feng Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.11
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is upregulated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). DEPTOR is an mTOR inhibitor whose expression is negatively regulated by mTOR. However, the role of DEPTOR in the development of CRC is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of DEPTOR and mTORC1 activity (P-S6) in a subset of CRC patients and determine their relation to tumor differentiation, invasion, nodal metastasis and disease-free survival. Here, Immunohistochemical expression of P-S6 (S235/236) and DEPTOR were evaluated in 1.5 mm tumor cores from 90 CRC patients and in 90 samples of adjacent normal mucosa by tissue microarray. The expression of P-S6 (S235/236) was upregulated in CRC, with the positive rate of P-S6 (S235/236) in CRC (63.3%) significantly higher than that in control tissues (36.7%, 30%) (p<0.05). P-S6 (S235/236) also correlated with high tumor histologic grade (p=0.002), and positive nodal metastasis (p=0.002). In contrast, the expression level of DEPTOR was correlated with low tumor histological grade (p=0.006), and negative nodal metastasis (p=0.001). Interestingly, P-S6 (S235/236) expression showed a significant negative association with the expression of DEPTOR in CRC (p=0.011, R= -0.279). However, upregulation of P-S6 (S235/236) (p=0.693) and downregulation of DEPTOR (p=0.331) in CRC were not significantly associated with overall survival. Thus, we conclude that expression of DEPTOR negatively correlates with mTORC1 activity and tumor progression in CRC. DEPTOR is a potential marker for prognostic evaluation and a target for the treatment of CRC.
Human plasma Hp is classified as 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2. They are inherited from two alleles Hp 1 and Hp 2, but there is only Hp 1 in almost all the animal species. Hp 2-2 molecule is extremely large and heterogeneous associated with the development of inflammatory-related diseases. In this study, we expressed entire bovine Hp in E. coli as a $\alpha\beta$ linear form. Interestingly, the antibodies prepared against this form could recognize the subunit of native Hp. In stead of a complicated column method, the antibody was able to isolate bovine Hp via immunoaffinity and gelfiltration columns. The isolated Hp is polymeric containing two major molecular forms (660 and 730 kDa). Their size and hemoglobin binding complex are significantly larger than that of human Hp 2-2. The amino-acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is similar to human Hp 2 containing a tandem repeat over the $\alpha$ chain. Thus, the Hp 2 allele is not unique in human. We also found that there is one additional -SH group (Cys-97) in bovine $\alpha$ chain with a total of 8 -SH groups, which may be responsible for the overall polymeric structure that is markedly different from human Hp 2-2. The significance of the finding and its relationship to structural evolution are also discussed.