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      • New and noteworthy species of the lichen genus <i>Lecanora</i> (Ascomycota; <i>Lecanoraceae</i>) from South Korea

        LÜ,, Lei,JOSHI, Yogesh,ELIX, John A.,LUMBSCH, H. Thorsten,WANG, Hai Ying,KOH, Young Jin,HUR, Jae-Seoun Cambridge University Press 2011 The Lichenologist Vol.43 No.4

        <B>Abstract</B><P>Two new species, <I>Lecanora hafelliana</I> L. Lü, Y. Joshi & Hur and <I>L</I>. <I>loekoesii</I> Y. Joshi, L. Lü & Hur, are described as new to science from South Korea and eight species, <I>L. campestris</I> (Schaer.) Hue, <I>L. cenisia</I> Ach., <I>L. nipponica</I> H. Miyaw., <I>L. perplexa</I> Brodo, <I>L. plumosa</I> Müll. Arg., <I>L. polytropa</I> (Hoffm.) Rabenh., <I>L. subrugosa</I> Nyl. and <I>L. sulcata</I> (Hue) H. Miyaw., are recorded from South Korea for the first time. <I>Lecanora hafelliana</I> is characterized by the presence of hafellic acid, which is reported for the first time in this genus, while <I>L. loekoesii</I> is characterized by multispored asci and a thallus containing norstictic acid.</P>

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        Reduction of d-lactate content in sauerkraut using starter cultures of recombinant Leuconostoc mesenteroides expressing the ldhL gene

        Jin, Q.,Li, L.,Moon, J.S.,Cho, S.K.,Kim, Y.J.,Lee, S.J.,Han, N.S. Society for Bioscience and Bioengineering, Japan ; 2016 Journal of bioscience and bioengineering Vol.121 No.5

        <P>The n-form of lactate, which causes metabolic stress upon excessive dietary intake, is mainly produced by Leuconostoc sp., the predominant species in sauerkraut. To shift the metabolic flux of D-lactate from pyruvate to L-lactate, we expressed the L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) gene in Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293. The IdhL gene from Lactobacillus plantarum was introduced into L. mesenteroides using the shuttle vectors pLeuCM and pLeuCM42. To elevate the expression level of IdhL in L. mesenteroides, the nucleotides for pyruvate kinase promoter were fused to IdhL and cloned into above vectors to construct pLC18pkL and pLC42pkL. As results, introduction of pLC42pkL in L. mesenteroides significantly improved both L-LDH activity and L-lactate productivity during fermentation, decreasing the D-/L-lactate ratio. When used as a starter culture for sauerkraut fermentation, recombinant L. mesenteroides harboring pLC42pkL increased L-lactate concentration and decreased D-lactate concentration compared to the wild type strain. We newly developed a recombinant L. mesenteroides which has high L-lactate dehydrogenase activity and applied this strain to minimize the harmful effect of D-lactate during the sauerkraut fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the effective use of recombinant Leuconostoc sp. for quality improvement of fermented foods. (C) 2015, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.</P>

      • SP.7-3 : Microbiological Quality of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Environment

        ( J. P. S. Sidhu ),( W. Ahmed ),( L. Hodgers ),( K. Smith ),( S. Toze ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2017 한국물환경학회·대한상하수도학회 공동 춘계학술발표회 Vol.2017 No.-

        In Australia, decreasing rainfall, frequent drought and population growth in urban environments, along with an overall desire to achieve greater water sustainability, has increased the demand for alternative water sources such as stormwater, roof-harvested rainwater, and treated wastewater effluent. The potential public health risks associated with alternative water sources predominantly originate from the presence of enteric viruses, pathogenic bacteria, and protozoan parasites. Empirical data on the presence of pathogens is a prerequisite to accurately determine human health risks and the extent of treatment required prior to use for potable and nonpotable purposes. We have carried out a number of targeted studies on the microbiological quality of the roof-harvested rainwater, stormwater, and treated wastewater effluent in the Southeast Queensland (Australia). The main of aim these studies was to collect quantitative data on the presence of pathogens and make an assessment of the potential health risk associated with water reuse. A dedicated survey of the roof-harvested rainwater tanks in Brisbane has shown the presence of Campylobacter spp. (21%), Salmonella spp., (4%), and Giardia lamblia (13%). In addition, opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp. (99%) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (78%) were also detected\. The numbers of bacteria ranged up to 3.1 x 10<sup>6</sup> PCR detectable units (pdu) L<sup>-1</sup> for Legionella spp., 9.6 X 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for P. aeruginosa, 6.8 X 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for M. intracellulare, 6.6 x 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1 x 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for M. avium, and 9.8 X 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for L. pneumophila. The presence of potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks if un-treated water is for potable and non-potable use in the house. Stormwater runoff from two urban catchments with different drainage area, impervious area, and land use, a potential source of pollution and population density was collected and analyzed for the presence of pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. The mean FIB numbers in water samples collected after the storm event ranged from 10 <sup>3</sup> to 10<sup>4</sup> L<sup>-1</sup> for E. coli and 10 <sup>4</sup> to 10<sup>5</sup> L<sup>-1</sup> for Enterococcus spp. Salmonella enterica numbers varied between 10 to 2400 MPN L<sup>-1</sup>. Human adenovirus (HAdV) numbers in the stormwater varied between 10 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>, human polyomavirus (HPyV) numbers varied between 1 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. Torque teno virus (HTtV) numbers varied between 10 to 7.45 x 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. Somatic coliphages (Microviridae) was also widely prevalent with numbers varying between 10 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. The results of this study suggest that enteric virus and bacterial pathogens frequently occur in the stormwater runoff in significant numbers which could lead to increased human health risks. A quantitative survey HAdV, HPyV, HTtV and somatic coliphage (Microviridae) numbers in influent and effluent samples was carried out from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) employing an activated sludge process to produce secondary treated effluent in Brisbane. HPyV, HAdV, HTtV and Microviridae were consistently detected in the primary influent in high numbers (10<sup>5</sup> to 10<sup>6</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>) and secondary treated effluent (10<sup>2</sup> to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>) across all three treatment plants. Under appropriate conditions, WWTPs with activated sludge process could be an effective treatment barrier with > 3 log10 removal of enteric. The results confirm the occurrence of enteric viruses in significant numbers in secondary treated effluent, tertiary treatment may be required prior to effluent reuse or discharged into the environmental to prevent exposure of people to health hazards.

      • FC 2-12 : Dose-dependent effects of visible light irradiance on human skin are dependent on constitutive skin color

        ( Hyojin Kim ),( Sewon Kang ),( Anna L. Chien ) 대한피부과학회 2020 대한피부과학회 학술발표대회집 Vol.72 No.1

        Backgrounds: Visible light (VL) induces differential effects across light and dark skin types. We previously showed that these variations are influenced by irradiance. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the clinical response to different irradiance of VL in light and dark skin types. Methods: Subjects (n=29) were classified into two groups based on L value (L< 55 [=darker] vs L >55 [=lighter]) measured on photoprotected skin. Two photoprotected sites were irradiated with VL (95.3% VL, 1.5% UVA, 3.2% infrared) at 480J/cm<sup>2</sup> daily over 4 consecutive days. In L< 55 group, 150mW, 175mW, 200mW were used while 150mW, 175mW, 200mW, 225mW, 250mW, 275mW were used in L >55 group. Colorimetry assessments were conducted before and after treatment. Results: A total of 54 sites were irradiated (L< 55=20, L >55=34 sites). Blister developed in 9 sites in L< 55, 1 in L >55. Average change in L and a* from baseline of non-blistered sites (n=44) at day 5 showed significant difference between L< 55 and L >55 regardless of the irradiance (L< 55: L=-5.30, a*=-0.17; L >55: L=-2.12, a*=1.55, p<0.05). In the L<55 group, L value decreased immediately after treatment in a dose-dependent manner (p< 0.05). In L >55 group, a* value increased in a dose-dependent manner (NS; p>0.05). Conclusions: Human skin response to VL is dose-dependent, but is also influenced by the constitutive skin color. These variables are important to consider in devising strategies to lessen the deleterious consequences of VL on human skin.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        STAR FORMATION LAWS IN BOTH GALACTIC MASSIVE CLUMPS AND EXTERNAL GALAXIES: EXTENSIVE STUDY WITH DUST CONINUUM, HCN (4-3), AND CS (7-6)

        Liu, Tie,Kim, Kee-Tae,Yoo, Hyunju,Liu, Sheng-yuan,Tatematsu, Ken’ichi,Qin, Sheng-Li,Zhang, Qizhou,Wu, Yuefang,Wang, Ke,Goldsmith, Paul F.,Juvela, Mika,Lee, Jeong-Eun,,th, L. Viktor,Mardones, D American Astronomical Society 2016 The Astrophysical journal Vol.829 No.2

        <P>We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of similar to 100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L-TIR) and molecular line luminosities (L-mol') of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L-TIR similar to 10(3) L-circle dot. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L-TIR-L-mol' correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and sigma(line)/sigma(vir). Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L-TIR-L-mol' correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L-TIR larger than L-TIR similar to 10(4.5) L-circle dot. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M-clump-L-mol' and L-TIR-L-mol' relations.</P>

      • PS 1-2 : Oral L-Carnitine on Quality of Life and Cognition in Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo-Controlled (HELIOS) Study

        ( Eileen L. Yoon ),( Dae Won Jun ),( Sang Bong Ahn ),( Yong Kyun Cho ),( Do Seon Song ),( Jae Yoon Jeong ),( Hee Yeon Kim ),( Young Kul Jung ),( Myeong Jun Song ),( Sung Eun Kim ),( Hyoung Su Kim ),( 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1

        Aims: To evaluate the impact of L-carnitine on the improvement of quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function in liver cirrhosis patients with covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Methods: We conducted a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, phase III clinical trial in patients with covert HE. A total of 150 covert HE patients were randomized 1:1 to L-carnitine (1 g) or placebo for 24 weeks. Changes in QOL and cognitive function were assessed at 6 months. West Haven criteria, 36- Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), and the Stroop Test were evaluated in all patients. Results: The L-carnitine supplement improved QOL compared to baseline. PHES scores were improved and normalization rates of minimal HE were increased in the L-carnitine group compared to baseline; however, median PHES scores and normalization rates were not different between the L-carnitine group and the placebo group at Week 24. Assessment of cognitive inhibition via the Stroop test showed significant improvement following 24 weeks of treatment in the L-carnitine group. Model for end stage liver disease scores were increased in the placebo group and significantly decreased in the L-carnitine group. Changes in total carnitine level positively correlated with rate correct scores of the Stroop test in the L-carnitine group. The incidence of adverse events was not different between the treatment groups. Conclusions: L-carnitine supplement was safe and effective for the improvement of QOL and cognitive dysfunction in covert HE patients with liver cirrhosis. (Clinical trial No. KCT0002029)

      • Confirmation of the VeLLO L1148−IRS: star formation at very low (column) density

        Kauffmann, J.,Bertoldi, F.,Bourke, T. L.,Myers, P. C.,Lee, C. W.,Huard, T. L. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011 Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Vol.416 No.3

        <P><B>ABSTRACT</B></P><P>We report the detection of a compact (∼5 arcsec; about 1800 au projected size) CO outflow from L1148−IRS. This confirms that this <I>Spitzer</I> source is physically associated with the nearby (≈325 pc) L1148 dense core. Radiative transfer modelling suggests an internal luminosity of 0.08 to 0.13 L<SUB>⊙</SUB>. This validates L1148−IRS as a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO; <I>L</I>≤ 0.1 L<SUB>⊙</SUB>). The L1148 dense core has unusually low densities and column densities for a star‐forming core. It is difficult to understand how L1148−IRS might have formed under these conditions. Independent of the exact final mass of this VeLLO (which is likely <0.24 M<SUB>⊙</SUB>), L1148−IRS and similar VeLLOs might hold some clues about the isolated formation of brown dwarfs.</P>

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        Interaction of silver(I) and copper(I) with an O<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>-macrocycle - A comparative structural study

        Kim, S.,Lee, E.,Lee, S.Y.,Lee, S.S.,Lindoy, L.F. Elsevier Sequoia [etc.] 2014 Inorganica chimica acta Vol.417 No.-

        The 14-membered O<SUB>2</SUB>S<SUB>2</SUB>-macrocycle L reacts with AgPF<SUB>6</SUB> in acetonitrile/dichloromethane (1:1) to yield the cyclic, double S-Ag-S bridged complex, [Ag<SUB>2</SUB>L<SUB>2</SUB>(CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN)<SUB>4</SUB>](PF<SUB>6</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB> (2), in which each Ag(I) is bound to two exo-oriented S donors arising from different macrocycles to form a 12-membered, di-Ag metallacycle. Two PF<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>-</SUP> ions form weak intramolecular contacts [Ag...F, 2.925(2)A] between the Ag centres in a bridging bidentate fashion. The coordination sphere of each Ag is completed by two weakly bound acetonitrile molecules. The respective macrocyclic ligands are arranged trans to the mean plane through the metallacycle. When the above synthetic procedure was repeated employing methanol/dichloromethane (1:1) as solvent, a complex of type [Ag<SUB>2</SUB>L<SUB>2</SUB>](PF<SUB>6</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB> (3) was obtained whose structure incorporates a similar 12-membered metallacycle but with the respective macrocyclic rings now oriented towards the same side of the metallacyclic plane. The reaction of L with AgCF<SUB>3</SUB>SO<SUB>3</SUB> yields [Ag<SUB>2</SUB>L<SUB>2</SUB>(CF<SUB>3</SUB>SO<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB>].2CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN (4) whose structure resembles that of [Ag<SUB>2</SUB>L<SUB>2</SUB>(CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN)<SUB>4</SUB>](PF<SUB>6</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB> (2); each complex unit incorporates a di-Ag(I) 12-membered metallacycle, with symmetrical bridging bidentate CF<SUB>3</SUB>SO<SUB>3</SUB><SUP>-</SUP> ions weakly linking Ag centres. Long Ag1...Ag1C contacts are present between pairs of complex units. Reaction of Cu(CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN)<SUB>4</SUB>PF<SUB>6</SUB> (one equiv.) with L in methanol/dichloromethane (1:1) resulted in isolation of [CuL<SUB>2</SUB>]PF<SUB>6</SUB> (5) incorporating a distorted tetrahedral S<SUB>4</SUB>-coordination sphere, with each macrocycle binding as a bidentate ligand via its two (exo-orientated) S atoms. In contrast, reaction of [Cu(CH<SUB>3</SUB>CN)<SUB>4</SUB>]PF<SUB>6</SUB> (two equiv.) with L in either acetonitrile/dichloromethane (1:1) or methanol/dichloromethane (1:1) yielded [Cu<SUB>2</SUB>L<SUB>3</SUB>]PF<SUB>6</SUB> (6) in which the Cu(I) centres are bound exo to the macrocyclic cavity by individual S-donors from one L, with the coordination sphere of each Cu(I) completed by out-of-plane binding of the S<SUB>2</SUB>O donors from a second L. Unsymmetrical F...Cu contacts from a PF<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>-</SUP> anion weakly link the pair of Cu centres in a bridging bidentate fashion.

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        유도초음파를 이용한 열 교환기 튜브 결함 탐상

        신현재,Rose, Joseph L.,송성진 한국비파괴검사학회 2000 한국비파괴검사학회지 Vol.20 No.1

        본 연구에서는 유도초음파를 이용하여 열 교환기와 증기발생기 튜브의 결함을 비파괴적으로 탐상하고 그 크기를 산정하였다. 이론적인 해석을 위해 인코넬(Inconel) 튜브에 대한 위상 및 군속도 분산선도를 Longitudinal 모드와 Flexural 모드에 대해 구하였다. 튜브의 원주방향 레이저노치와 튜브 지지대 하단의 방전가공결함(EDM wear)을 각각 비대칭 및 대칭 탐촉자 세트를 사용하여 탐상하였다. 실험결과 방전가공결함은 L(0, 2), L(0, 3), L(0, 4) 모드로 탐상되었으며, 그 중 L(0, 4) 모드가 결함으로부터 가장 잘 반사되었다. 레이저노치의 경우에는 L(0, 1) 모드 주변의 Flexural 모드가 결함을 탐상하고 크기를 산정하는데 사용될 수 있음을 보였다. This study shows the defect detection and sizing capability of ultrasonic guided waves in the nondestructive inspection of heat exchanger and steam generator tubing. Phase and group velocity dispersion curves for the longitudinal and flexural modes of a sample Inconel tube were presented for the theoretical analysis. EDM(Electric Discharge Machining wears in tubing under a tube support plate and circumferential laser notches in tubing were detected by an axisymmetric and a non-axisymmetric transducer set up, respectively. EDM wears were detected with L (0, 2), L(0, 3) and L(0, 4) modes and among them L(0, 4) mode was found to be the most sensitive. It was also found that the flexural modes around L(0, 1) mode could be sued for the detection and sizing of laser notches in the tubing.

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        Effect of dietary lactulose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers

        Zhao, P.Y.,Li, H.L.,Mohammadi, M.,Kim, I.H. Elsevier 2016 Poultry science Vol.95 No.1

        <P>A 35 d trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lactulose on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 816 1-day-old male Ross broilers (40.2 +/- 0.4 g) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments using 12 cages with 17 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) L05, CON + 0.05% lactulose; 3) L10, CON + 0.10% lactulose; and 4) L15, CON + 0.15% lactulose. Higher (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and lower (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet during d 22 to 35. During d 0 to 35, BWG was higher (P < 0.05) and FCR was lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed lactulose diets than those fed the CON diet. Additionally, broilers fed L15 diets had the highest BWG (P < 0.05) and lowest FCR (P < 0.05). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and nitrogen (N) was increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the L15 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. Drip loss was decreased (P < 0.05) in L10 and L15 treatments compared with CON treatment on d 1, d 3, and d 5. On d 3, lowest (P < 0.05) drip loss was observed in the L15 treatment. Excreta E. coli counts in the L15 treatment were decreased (P < 0.05) on d 14, but Lactobacillus counts in the L15 treatment were increased (P < 0.05) on d 14 and d 35 compared with the CON diet. A linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed on BWG (d 22 to 35), FCR (d 0 to 35), the ATTD of DM and N, drip loss, E. coli (d 14), and Lactobacillus (d 14 and d 35) counts. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.15% lactulose can improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility; as well as increase the proliferation of Lactobacillus and decrease E. coli counts in excreta.</P>

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