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Please Look After Mom, is composed of four chapters and epilogue. The author sets the eldest daughter, eldest son, and husband as the main character of the first three chapters each, who confess their feelings of guilt about disappearance of their mother and wife. Uniquely, the story is developed from the Mom’s perspective throughout the novel, with the first and third chapters written in the first person point-of-view, while the second chapter written in the third person point-of-view. Please Look After Mom was translated into both English and French. While the English version is generally considered to succeed in a faithful translation of the original, though criticized for incomplete transmission of the meanings of the source text due to a domesticating translation, the French version, Prends soin de maman, has more serious problems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the problems of the French version by comparing it with the English version. First, the French version has lots of inaccurate translation that may result from a lack of understanding of the original. Such inaccuracies frequently failed to highlight the delicate style of writing unique to the author. Second, the English version utilized the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters in a free direct speech in the first person in the same way as the original, and marked them in italics. It would have helped make a clear distinction of this kind of soliloquies from others. In contrast, unlike the original, the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters were translated in a free indirect speech in the French version. It might have caused some confusion about whom these soliloquies belong to. Finally, while the source texts were translated faithfully in the English version, they weren’t in the French version. This translational unfaithfulness in the French version is considered to result from the various causes, including the omission, excessive abridgment, and redundant explanation of the contents of the original as well as the arbitrary insertion of the contents that do not appear in the original. While the literal translation, used in the English version, is thought to have successfully conveyed the contents of the original stories, the excessive liberal translation, used in the French version, seems to have failed to get an achievement as good as in the original. We have a prejudice that “natural translation” should be done with a liberal translation, not with a literal translation. Although the English version of Shin Kyung-Sook’s novel, Please Look After Mom, also contains faults which are mostly related to a domesticating translation, its success in gaining public favor by the faithful translation using a literal translation suggests that the literary translators keep this in mind to improve the quality of their translation.Kim, Kyunghee. 2015. A study on Prends soin de maman. Shin Kyung-Sook’s novel, Please Look After Mom, is composed of four chapters and epilogue. The author sets the eldest daughter, eldest son, and husband as the main character of the first three chapters each, who confess their feelings of guilt about disappearance of their mother and wife. Uniquely, the story is developed from the Mom’s perspective throughout the novel, with the first and third chapters written in the first person point-of-view, while the second chapter written in the third person point-of-view. Please Look After Mom was translated into both English and French. While the English version is generally considered to succeed in a faithful translation of the original, though criticized for incomplete transmission of the meanings of the source text due to a domesticating translation, the French version, Prends soin de maman, has more serious problems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the problems of the French version by comparing it with the English version. First, the French version has lots of inaccurate translation that may result from a lack of understanding of the original. Such inaccuracies frequently failed to highlight the delicate style of writing unique to the author. Second, the English version utilized the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters in a free direct speech in the first person in the same way as the original, and marked them in italics. It would have helped make a clear distinction of this kind of soliloquies from others. In contrast, unlike the original, the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters were translated in a free indirect speech in the French version. It might have caused some confusion about whom these soliloquies belong to. Finally, while the source texts were translated faithfully in the English version, they weren’t in the French version. This translational unfaithfulness in the French version is considered to result from the various causes, including the omission, excessive abridgment, and redundant explanation of the contents of the original as well as the arbitrary insertion of the contents that do not appear in the original. While the literal translation, used in the English version, is thought to have successfully conveyed the contents of the original stories, the excessive liberal translation, used in the French version, seems to have failed to get an achievement as good as in the original. We have a prejudice that “natural translation” should be done with a liberal translation, not with a literal translation. Although the English version of Shin Kyung-Sook’s novel, Please Look After Mom, also contains faults which are mostly related to a domesticating translation, its success in gaining public favor by the faithful translation using a literal translation suggests that the literary translators keep this in mind to improve the quality of their translation.
'Joe'(調) implies the harmony or the regulation, and 'Kyung'(經) indicates a meridian on that is translating meridian blood and Meridian-Qi. The Meridian channel is opened to the Five viscera(五藏) and the Six bowels(六腑) internally and that is connected with three hundred and sixty five joints externally. The body never occurs disease until Qi-hyul(氣血) is harmonied and Yin-Yang(陰陽) is balanced. If the disease occurs by means of the internal cause-the eating and drinking, the living of dwelling space, the importance of the emotion etc, I or by means of the external cause- the wind and rain, and the cold and dampness, it has influence on the Qi-hyul(氣血) of the body. Therefore with disharmony of the body has Qi-hyul, each kind of the Hei-shil disease brake(&實病燮) occur. From this chapter, Joe kyung(調經) implies the regulation that each kind of Hei-shil disease brake with ocwrance of the disorder of the body Yin-Yang-Qi-hyul(陰陽氣血), the shortage(&) is supplied, and the surplus(R) is decreased. Summerizing the contents of the "Joe Kyung Ron(調經陰)" in reference to the contents of successive generation note, the contents were as follows; In chapter 1, it was made clear that the revelation of the body normal physiological function had an action that connected human being's inside with it's outside, and that play the part of a passage in Qi-hyul(氣血) risvolving. In chapter 2, it was made clear about the plentiful disease, and it's administration of the Shen-Qi-Hyul-Hyung-Zhi(神·氣·血·形·志) with kept in the five viscera. In chapter 3, it was made clear about the Hei-shil(虛實) of the cause of the disease(病機), Qi-Hyul(氣血) union malim(雅氣), that by Qi-Hyul(氣血) itself union how Hei syndrome(虛證) and Shil syndrome(#%) are? In chapter 4, it was made clear that cause of a disease about Hei-Shil(虛實) has an attack of disease by pung(風)·woo(雨)·han(寒)·seo(署), and by the eating and drinking, the living of dwelling space and it explained the cause of a disease. In chapter 5, it explained the cause of a disease about Yin-Yang-Han-Yul(陰陽寒熱). In chapter 6, it explained an acupuncture technique about Hei syndrome(虛證) and Shil syndrome(l實證). chapter 7, it explained the method of Joe Kyung(調經) through the region of the body. The above contents had significient influence on the assortment and demonstration of the method of the acupuncture and moxibustion and disease in the future.
『수사일록』은 1747년 11월에 한양을 떠나 1748년 6월에 쿄오토에서 전명(傳命)을 마치고 7월에 귀국한 무진통신사의 자제군관 홍경해가 쓴 일기체 사행록이다. 『수사일록』 에는 서기 이봉환과 츠시마 서기 키 코쿠즈이 사이의 필담이 실려 있다. 이 필담에서 이봉환은 이 대마도 서기와의 필담을 통해 에도 시대의 관학의 주도권을 누가 잡고 있는지, 새로운 학문은 어떤 것이 있는지 탐문해 보았고, 일본에 들어온 중국서적에 대해서 관심을 보였으며, 코쿠즈이에게 선배 제술관들의 시의 우열을 가려달라는 부탁을 하기도 했다. 또 『수사일록』 에는 정주학을 선호하는 홍경해의 학문적 지향이 잘 드러나 있다. 그는 일본의 정주학자들과 학문적으로 교유하였고, 정주학 이외의 학문을 하는 선비들과 만나 그들을 비판하기도 하고, 새로운 학문적 기풍을 담고 있는 책에 대한 정보를 얻기도 하였다. 마지막으로 홍경해는 통신사절이 시, 그림, 글씨를 증답하느라 노력하고 있는 모습을 실감나게 전달하였다. 간혹 일본인 문사들이 수창한 시와 그들이 펴낸 필담창화집에 실린 시들을 수준이 떨어진다고 평가하였으며, 1719년 통신사절의 시가 실려 있는 『계림창화집』 에 붙인 일본인의 서문을 보편적이지 않고 불경하다는 이유로 비판하기도 하였다. 그동안 학계에서는 무진통신사행을 살피기 위한 자료로 주로 종사관 조명채의 『봉사일본시문견록』 을 집중적으로 조명해 왔다. 그러나 『수사일록』 역시 『봉사일본시문견록』 과 비교하여 담고 있는 내용이나 가치에 손색이 없다고 생각된다. 자료의 가치에 걸맞은 후속 연구가 이루어져야 할 것으로 보인다. In 1747, the Joseon court sent a diplomatic mission to Japan. The Joseon envoy and his large retinue, almost 500 people, arrived in Edo, the next year. The envoy congratulate Tokugawa Ieshige on the successon of his father as shogun. The chief envoy of this Joseon delegation was Hong Kye-hui(洪啓禧), and this delegation is called Mujin-tongsinsa(戊辰通信使). Susaillok(隨槎日錄) was written during the time of this mission by Hong Kyung-hae(洪景海), chief envoy Kye-hui’s son. and this book shows some interesting information of Joseon’s academic and cultural exchange with Japanese. Yi Bong-hwan(李鳳煥), Kye-hui’s subordinate asked Ki Kokuzui, Japanese attendant about several facts, such as who was taking powers over Tokugawa’s academic world, and which Chinese books were published and in circulation in Japan at that time. and Yi asked Kokuzui to evaluate the works of Joseon’s writers, who used to be the delegation members of former missions. and Hong Kyung-hae wanted to share his academic concerns with Japanese scholars and tried to know about Japanese scholars’ opinion. and besides, Hong Kyung-hae gave vivid descriptions of the scene of Japanese, who were eager to have Joseon’s poetry and calligraphy works. The conventional study of Mujin-tongsinsa has been based on Bongsailbonsimungyunlok(奉使日本時聞見錄), written by Jo Myungchae( 曺命采), the third envoy, but Susaillok is comparable with it, and leaves much room for being studied.
A poem contains a practical judgment of the poet's values about the existing world and objects, so it gives a chance to transform into a new meaning. At that moment, a poet has a special poetic experience: creating a new world. It is natural for the poet to form a separate type of reality-cognition. Reality-cognition is not resulted from the poet's artificial leading or absolute external factors, but rather from independent experiences of the poem who is connected to the world, therefore shares the experiences, and it belong to an field of independent revelation established based on the experiences. Thus, it would be a multifaceted approach to analyzing a poet's poetic work to derive a type of reality-cognition. With these background knowledge, in terms of the poet's cognition of reality revealed through the poems, this research is intended to study the reality-cognition of Kim Kyung-rin's biographical poems. In his poems, his reality-cognition has been revealed by period through ‘relief of anxiety through space division,’ ‘forming of reverse consciousness through progressive transformation,’ and ‘modern attempts and a sense of direction.’ This research will be meaningful in that the study could be a more active analysis of Kim Kyung-rin's Coterie activity, which was relatively unpopular compared to Park In-hwan and Kim Soo-young who have worked as the same 동 인. Also, the study makes Kim Kyung-rin’s authorism which is connected to Korean modernism accessible. Moreover, this research will take a role of the starting point to derive the characteristics of modern Korean modernism that led to the 1960s and 1980s by organizing the general flow of modernist literature 동인 starting from before liberation to after the Korean War.
This paper aims that it is necessary to approach the work culturally in the classical literature education. Because through the classical literature education, we pursue that our learner should reach the level of cultural creation as well as understanding the work essentially. So in this paper it is examined how tragic characteristic is expressed and how it can be applicated in to the literature education. Lim Kyung-up Cheon shows positively that how the fact of the specific history as called Lim Kyung-up merges with the expression-culture. Accordingly when we receive Lim Kyung-up Cheon as the literary work, we should consider the specialty of contemporary culture. Especially, in the field of literature education, this specialty such as tragic characteristic and expression culture is the primary factor of education. At the same time, the universality of Lim Kyung-up Chon as the literary work can be a means to the more abstract and general goal. Because both the sameness and the difference furnish the important framework of education from the viewpoint of the literature education. In the side of the discussion on the expression, it is significant that a certain convention of the expression continues from old times to now and the current audience can reproduce in different way. In the side of the discussion on the reception, it is suggestive that audience can recognize by regarding the culture of enjoying literature as the object and take pleasure in reading again. Consequently, this viewpoint of culture offer the audience not only learning the expression and reception of the work but also the experience of the empathy and appropriation.
이 논문은 이 논문은 정경운의 일기 『고대일록』을 통해서 지방의 한 개인인정경운이 임진왜란이라는 전란을 어떻게 극복해 나갔는지를 읽어낸 글이다. 『고대일록』은 여타의 일기와는 달리 다양한 문학 작품을 수록하고 있다. 漢詩를 비롯해 안음·거창에 보내는 <通文>, 도사 김영남에게 보낸 <書簡文>, 제문인 <祭盧參奉文>, <移安祭文>, <祭智異山祈雨文>, 說 문학인 <牧丹側柏說>, 친구와 가족의 죽음을 애도한 <卒記>, 그리고 <自傳> 등이 그것이다. 특히 유사로 활약하면서 통문을 작성한 점은 정경운이 함양 지역을 대표하던 문장가였음을 알게 해준다. 이러한 문학적 재능은 과거에 도전해 관직에 진출할 수 있는 요인이 되었던 것으로 보인다. 임진왜란 중 정경운이 관직 진출을 위하여 관심을 기울인 흔적들은 곳곳에서 발견된다. 과거 시험의 잦은 응시와 함께 과거의 결과에 대한 기록이 그것이다. 정 경운은 전란기간 내내 관직 진출을 염원하였지만 결과는 그리 성공적이지 못하였다. 정경운은 문학적 재능을 바탕으로 전란이라는 상황에서도 과거시험이나 관직 진출을 포기하지 않았고 기회만 주어진다면 언제든지 진입할 준비를 하고 있었다. 과거를 통해 관직에 진출하려는 욕망은 전란이라는 불안한 시대를 이겨내고 자신 과 가문을 회복할 수 있는 길이었던 것이다. This study examines - through 『Godaeillok』 (Daily Journal of Jeong Kyungun) - how an individual could overcome the turmoil of Imjin Waeran (the Japanese Invasion of 1952). Unlike other journals, 『Godaeillok』used distinctively different expressions. The Journal contained diverse-style articles, including Chinese poems, notices, letters, memorial articles, editorials, commentaries on dead people, and biographies. This suggests that Jeong Kyung-un was an excellent writer, and presumably that his literary talent helped him pass the highest-level state examination and enter the officialdom. Evidences were discovered that during the war, Jeong Kyung-un tried to enter the officialdom. He tried numerous times to sit for the highest-level state examination, and wrote down the results of the examination. Throughout the war, he longed to enter the officialdom, but was not so successful. Using his literary talent, he continued efforts to enter the officialdom despite the war situations, and tried to sit for the examination whenever the opportunities came. Such ambition sustained him through the turmoil of war, and finally brought honor to him and his family.
이경성과 크리에이티브 바키(Creative VaQi)의 연극은 희곡의 재현이 아니라 `공간`에 대한 질문에서 출발한다. 광화문이나 문화역 서울과 같은 일상적 공간 속에서 행해졌던 그의 작업은 이들 공간으로부터 고유의 장소성, 즉 그 공간에 축적된 역사적, 사회적 맥락을 드러냈다. 이후 그들은 일상적 공간으로부터 극장이라는 제도적 공간으로 중심을 옮겨 극장의 장소성에 대해 근본적인 질문을 던지는데, 이것은 연극이 무엇인가에 대한 자기질문이기도 하다. 이로써 이경성과 바키의 연극은 예의 그 `장소특정적 공연`의 카테고리를 벗어나 보다 더 미학적 지평을 확장해가고 있다. 그 과정에서 우리는 그들의 작업을 공간과 함께, 좀더 시각을 달리하여 공간을 점유한 몸의 문제를 근거로 새롭게 논의할 수 있는 단초를 얻게 된다. 사실 공간에 대한 질문에서 출발한 바키의 작업은 애초부터 그 공간을 점유하고 있는 배우의 몸을 배제하고는 논의할 수가 없는 것이었다. 본 논문은 크리에이티브 바키의 연극을 배우, 배우의 몸으로부터 새롭게 논의하고자 한다. 통상적 연극과 다르게 그들은 연출과 배우 모두가 직접 공연 전 과정을 이끌면서 관련 자료를 조사하고 인터뷰하며, 여러 번의 발제와 토론 등의 과정을 거쳐 공연의 틀을 잡아간다. 이런 작업과정에서 배우는 어떻게 대상을 체험하는지, 그리고 체화된 감각을 바탕으로 무대를 그들 연극의 주요 화두인 공간과 시간, 더 나아가 타자에 대한 감각의 장소로 발생시키는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 무대 위의 배우의 몸은 공간을 점유한 몸으로서 `여기`에 대해 질문하기도 하고, 시간을 점유하고 `지금`에 대해 묻는다. 그런가하면 보이지 않는 타자의 고통을 감각하는 몸으로서, 기억에 대해 묻기도 한다. 배우의 몸에 기반한 이경성의 연출미학을 풀어내는 이론적 근거는 몸과 지각의 문제를 중심에 둔 현상학에서 가져왔으며, 구체적인 사례들은 최근 2년 동안 발표된 이들의 작품들에서 찾아보았다. Lee Kyung-Sung and the theatergroup `Creative VaQi) have made their theaters focusing on space discourses. But for about last two years, most of their works have been performed not only in everyday spaces but also in various instituional theaterspaces. This is why the research about their theater aesthetics should be conducted from different perspectives. This study examines several recent works that Lee Kyung Sung and his VaQi have performed in institutional theatrical spaces. Actor`s bodies that occupy the space have been their theatrical interest that they have focused on from the beginning. What they emphasize is not how they make actors represent their drama roles. They see actors not as tools of theater but as productive subjects. Actors in their theaters stand on stage as themselves with their own identities. In other words, they reveal themselves on stages as persons who have their own thoughts about the world. This is due to their unique working style that are completed through thorough collaborative work, from data research to interviews, presentations and discussions. Of course, actors are the center of all these processes. They constantly interact with objects and build their own viewpoint on them. The body itself is a performing body that creates events and forms the framework of perception and experience. This way of working is closely linked to the phenomenological point of view. Based on this phenomenological point of view, this paper examines how actor`s body is posing new questions about space and time. It tries also to look at how actor`s body occurs as a place of sensation for the other.
이 글에서는 『풍금이 있던 자리』 의 ‘그 여자’가 1990년대 신경숙 소설 세계를 견인하는 예술성을 표상한다는 전제 하에, 『외딴 방』,『멀리,끝없는 길 위에』 에 나타나는 ‘그 여자’의 변형 양상을 검토하여, 1990년대 신경숙 소설의 기원에 접근하고자 하였다. 그 결과 신경숙의 유년, 십대, 30대에 걸쳐 형성된 작가의식의 핵심에는 강한 ‘자아보존본능’이 자리함을 확인하였다. 신경숙의 내성적 주인공들이 지니는 ‘다른 삶을 사는, 특별한 존재가 되고 싶다’는 간절한 욕망은 주목할 만하다. 아버지의 ‘그 여자’는 ‘나’의 ‘남다르고 싶다는 꿈’을 최초로 알아봐 준 ‘새어머니’이다. ‘나’는 목숨을 걸고, 사라진 ‘그 여자’의 영토인 외딴방 으로 나온다. ‘그 여자’는 신경숙 소설의 기원이라 할 수 있다. 외딴 방 의 ‘희재언니’는 ‘그 여자’의 이면이다. ‘희재언니’는 ‘나’에게 ‘구더기가 들끓는 뭉개진 얼굴’을 보여주고, ‘나’를 생의 낭떠러지로 밀어낸 ‘악마’이다. 신경숙은 ‘희재언니’의 주검을 통과하고서야, 돌이킬 수 없는 운명의 길, ‘글쓰기 귀신’의 길로 들어선다. 『멀리, 끝없는 길 위에』 에서 작가는 자신의 분신이라 할 ‘이숙’의 나르시시즘에 내재하는 지배욕망을 조명한다. ‘그 여자’ 에게서 촉발된 신경숙의 글쓰기는 ‘이숙’에 이르러 그 이면에 자리한 불길함을 응시한다. 죽은 자의 무덤을 만드는, 살아남은 자들의 형상은 처참하다. 이는 신경숙의 소설세계를 떠받치는 또 하나의 견고한 세계가 ‘영원히 나를 버리지 않을 내 피붙이들의 숨소리’에 뿌리내리고 있음과 연관된다. 신경숙 문학의 애도와 위로는 살아남은 자를 향한 것이다. In the 1990s, Shin Kyung-sook won wide recognition for three works in particular: A Lone Room, Away, on the Endless Road, and The Place Where the Harmonium Was. Reading these stories in accordance with the age of the speaker, I found a self-preservation instinct is apparent at the heart of Shin’s experiences, which takes root in her childhood and lasts throughout her teen years and beyond. In the stories, the introverted protagonists all yearn to become a better me and escape from reality. In The Place Where the Harmonium Was, it is “that woman”, with whom her father falls in love, who first gives her recognition. With “that woman” so deeply imprinted upon her, the speaker moves out to A Lone Room to find “that woman” in her. Reading the stories, I could see Shin began writing purely for her selfishness, to satisfy a longing for a world that she did not know. In Shin’s works, “that woman” is everywhere; Heejae, from A Lone Room, is another version of “that woman”, where Shin, the speaker of personal experiences, faces Heejae’s dead body with maggots. After finally facing the death, Shin finally found her way as a true novelist, as she realized her dream of becoming like “that woman” through her writing. In Away, on the Endless Road, Shin depicts a ruling desire in Lee Sook’s self-preservation instinct. In describing a regressive character like Lee Sook, who is obsessed with making personal connections with others, Shin expresses a complicated sense of sympathy and betrayal. While lamenting the death of Heejae and Lee Sook, Shin persistently asks them why they made such a decision. In doing so, Shin alludes to her focus on an ominous sense for Lee Sook’s self-preservation instinct. Those who are left behind and must let go of the deceased feel devastated. This mirrors Shin’s world, which is deeply rooted in her living family who will never abandon her. The consolation present in Shin’s works exists to assist those who must move on.
It is very important for us to remember and consider the former leaders of the Korean Church carefully in order to understand and learn leadership lessons from them from a Korean Christian leadership perspective. I select Pastor Kyung-Chik Han who received Templeton Award in 1992 for the first time as a Korean. Actually, he could be a representative of Korean pastors, who was the most respectable pastor among Korean pastors in the world. Also, his spiritual influence as a pastor and church leader has been widely reaching at every Korean church in Korea and the world. This paper will examine and analyze the life and ministry of Kyung-Chik Han in terms of leadership values and philosophy, personal characters, leadership styles, significant and ultimate contributions and leadership lessons. First of all, I personally recognize that he must be an excellent model of pastor in the history of the Korean Church. Second, I learn a healthy oneness spirit in his pastoral ministry and church relationship as a worldwide leader. Third, I find an excellent model of pastoral values and philosophy for the Korean Church through his pastoral ministry. Fourth, I can reconfirm his vision for the whole nation evangelization and world mission as a prominent leader of the Korean Church through his life and ministry. Fifth, I can understand and see an importance of meekness and patience in terms of ministry and human relationship in order to fulfill a leader's ultimate destiny. Sixth, I recognize an importance of giving life through his and his wife's lives. Seventh, I find a model of serving life as Jesus came to serve the people in the world. Eighth, I find an importance of mentor through God's divine contact in terms of leadership development in order to effectively achieve a leader's destiny fulfillment. Ninth, I find that he must be an effective model of preacher for evangelism and pastoral ministry. Finally, I recognize that he should be a real model of saint, so that he could receive a Templeton Award for the first time as a Korean.
Traditional folk-song of Yungnam province is classified in six ranges and has seven transition area. This paper is prepared to study transmission and qualities of these transition area's folk-song. As a result, I could got as following; For example, the transition area of between the west of Kyung-Book province and of Kyung-Nam province has special qualities in the field of between Buddhism and Confucianism, Man and woman, mountain and plain. The representative folk-song are <Eusayong> and <a pallbearers' dirge> and <Bacmeneunsori>. This is for the mutual assistance or keep away from competition of each others. And This is similar phenomenon in other transition area. The transition area of between the west and south of Kyung-Nam province has mixing culture on the mountain and plain. And the <Yong-he-ya>-barley threshing song- is from the dynasty of Gaya. The transition area of between the north center and east of Kyung-Book province is special on the point of rice-planting song which is related with the worship of the god of the earth and with the closed style in sing a song.(Pusan University of Foreign Studies)