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        <가짜열녀이야기>의 형성 맥락과 전승 의미

        곽성민(Kwak Sung Min) 한국문학회 2016 韓國文學論叢 Vol.74 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구는 <가짜열녀이야기>를 다각도로 살펴, 이야기를 구전한 사람들의 생각을 알아 보는 것을 목적으로 한다. <가짜열녀이야기>는 조선후기 생성, 전승된 열녀이야기 중 하나로 당대의 사회적 병폐를 여과없이 드러냈다는 점에서 중요한 의미를 지닌다. 특히 이 이야기만의 독특한 서사구조를 통해 조선후기 사회의 한 단면을 구체적으로 보이고 있기 때문에, 그 서사구조와 전승양상으로 당시 민중들의 의식을 파악할 수 있다. 첫째, <가짜열녀이야기>는 대부분이 유사한 서사구조를 공유하며 구전되고 있기 때문에 처음 형성될 당시의 서사구조가 큰 변화 없이 굳어져 현재까지 전승되고 있다. 그래서 공통적인 서사구조를 바탕으로 다른 설화와의 연관관계를 살필 수 있다. 이로 볼 때, <가짜열녀이야기>는 아지설화와의 영향관계 아래 형성된 것으로 파악된다. 둘째, <가짜열녀이야기>의 전승의식을 정확하게 연구하기 위해서는 중심 인물인 현풍곽씨 가문의 어린아이와 박문수 사이에서 벌어지는 사건들을 중심으로 살펴보아야 한다. 특히 <가짜열녀이야기>는 대부분이 현풍곽씨와 결부되어 나타나기 때문에 그 이유를 정확하게 연구할 필요가 있다. 이것은 먼저 현풍 곽씨 가문에 대한 비판적 인식이다. 조선 후기 열녀를 대표하는 가문으로 전국적인 위상을 자랑하고 있던 현풍 곽씨 가문이었기 때문에 그에 대한 대항적 의식의 하나로 그들을 비판하고 있다. 겉으로 드러나는 의식은 현풍 곽씨에 대한 비판이지만 실상 현풍곽씨를 상징적으로 활용하여 당대의 폐단에 대한 비판적 의식을 가진 것이다. 셋째, 여성을 철저하게 타자화시키고 남성적 시각으로 서사 전반을 전개시키고 있는 이유에 대한 고찰이 필요하다. 조선 후기 열녀는 대부분이 죽음으로 완성된다. 초기의 열녀는 유교적 덕목의 실천만으로도 정려를 받았다면, 두 번의 전쟁이 있은 후 죽음이 곧 열녀라는 인식이 생기면서 열녀 정려에 허술함이 생겨버렸다. <가짜열녀이야기>에서도 간부가 손쉽게 정려를 받는 것은 죽었기 때문이다. 이러한 열녀 정려에 대한 허술함을 사람들은 비판하고 있다. The purpose of this study is to search in various ways the thoughts of the people who handed down orally <Sham heroine tales>. <Sham heroine tales> is one of the heroin tales which had been made and handed down orally in the late Jeoson dynasty. It has an important meaning that revealed social ills of the time. Especially it reveals specifically a section of the society in the late Joeson dynasty with a unique narrative structure, we can find out people s consciousness by the unique narrative structure and transmitter s aspect. First, Because most of <Sham heroine tales> had been handed down orally sharing similar narrative structure, the narrative structure of the beginning of at that time has been transmitted until now without a great change. So, we can identify a link between <Sham heroine tales> and other folk tales based on a common narrative structure. Judging from this, it is seized that <Sham heroine tales> was built under <Children s Wisdom story> s influence. Second, it needs to examin around the incidents between a child of Hyeonpung kwak s family and Park munsu who are the main characters to study accurately the transmitter s consciousness. Especially because <Sham heroine tales> is linked with Hyeonpung kwak‘s family, the reason is to be studied. In the first place, the main reason is critical perception about Hyeonpung kwak s family. Because Hyeonpung kwak s family that had a high position throughout the country represented virtuous women in the late Jeoson dynasty, it is revealed a criticism against Hyeonpung kwak s family. In fact, it revealed a criticism against negative effects at that time, albeit Hyeonpung kwak s family comes up to the surface by using Hyeonpung kwak s family symbolically. Third, It needs an exact understanding about the act burning Bound by Chastity Rule. Most of the virtuous women in the late Jeoson dynasty concluded by death. Though in the early, a virtuous woman got commendation as practicing confucian virtue, after two wars assignment of the qualification of a virtuous woman became loose appearing a perception that death equals a virtuous woman. In <Sham heroine tales> a wicked woman got easily commendation with death. So people criticize slackness of a virtuous woman commendation.

      • Regular graph coverings whose covering transformation groups have the isomorphism extension property

        Lee,,Jaeun,Hong,,Sungpyo,Kwak,,Jin,Ho 경북대학교 위상수학 기하학연구센터 1995 硏究論文集 Vol.4 No.-

        Enumerative results are presently a major center of interest in topological graph theory, as in the work of Gross and Furst [1], Hofmeister [5], [6], Kwak and Lee [8], [9], [10], [11], [12] and Mull, Rieper and White [14], etc. Kwak and Lee [8] enumerated the isomorphism classes of graph bundles and those of all finitefold graph coverings, which was also obtained independently by Hofmeister [6]. But the enumeration of isomorphism classes of regular graph coverings has not been answered completely. As its partial answers, Hofmeister [5] enumerated the isomorphism classes of ??_(2)-coverings (double coverings) of a graph G, Sato [13] did the same work for ??_(p)-coverings (regular prime-fold coverings), Hong and Kwak [7] did it for ??_(2) ?? ??_(2) or ??_(4)-coverings, and Kwak and Lee [9] did it for ??_(p), ??_(p) ?? ??_(q)(p≠q primes) or ??_(p)^(2)-coverings of G. As an expansion of this effort, we obtain in this paper several new algebraic characterizations for isomorphic regular coverings and derive an enumerating formula for the isomorphism classes of A-coverings of a graph G, when the covering transformation group A has the isomorphism extension property, by definition, it means that every isomorphism between any two isomorphic subgroups B_(1) and B_(2) of A can be extended to an automorphism of A. Also, we obtain complete numerical enumerations of the isomorphism classes of ??_(n)-coverings, ??_(n)-coverings (??_(n) is the dihedral group of order 2n) or ??_(p) ?? ??_(p)-coverings of a graph G with respect to the trivial automorphism group of G. In addition, we applied our results to a bouquet of circles.

      • ENUMERATION OF REGULAR GRAPH COVERINGS HAVING FINITE ABELIAN COVERING TRANSFORMATION GROUPS

        KWAK,,JIN,HO,CHUN,,JANG-HO,LEE,,JAEUN 경북대학교 위상수학 기하학연구센터 1999 硏究論文集 Vol.7 No.-

        Several isomorphism classes of graph coverings of a graph G have been enumerated by many authors. An enumeration of the isomorphism classes of n-fold coverings of a graph G was done by Kwak and Lee [Canad. J. Math., XLII (1990), pp. 747-761] and independently by Hofmeister [Discrete Math., 98 (1991), pp. 437-444]. An enumeration of the isomorphism classes of connected n-fold coverings of a graph G was recently done by Kwak and Lee [J. Graph Theory, 23 (1996), pp. 105-109]. But the enumeration of the isomorphism classes of regular coverings of a graph G has been done for only a few cases. In fact, the isomorphism classes of A-coverings of G were enumerated when A is the cyclic group Z_(n), the dihedral group D_(n) (n: odd), and the direct sum of m copies of Z_(p). (See [Discrete Math., 143 (1995), pp. 87-97], [J. Graph Theory, 15 (1993), pp. 621-627], and [Discrete Math., 148 (1996), pp. 85-105]). In this paper, we discuss a method to enumerate the isomorphism classes of connected A-coverings of a graph G for any finite group A and derive some formulas for enumerating the isomorphism classes of regular n-fold coverings for any natural number n. In particular, we calculate the number of the isomorphism classes of A-coverings of G when A is a finite abelian group or the dihedral group ??_(n). Our method gives partial answers to the open problems 1 and 2 in [Discrete Math., 148 (1996), pp. 85-105] and also gives a formula to calculate the number of the subgroups of a given index of any finitely generated free abelian group.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        An investigation of PbGeTiAu hybrid ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs

        Kwak,,Kwak,,J.S.,Kim,,Kim,,H.N.,Baik,,Baik,,H.K.,Lee,,Lee,,J.L.,Suh,,Suh,,K.S.,Shin,,Shin,,D.W.,Park,,Park,,C.G. 한국재료학회 1995 Fabrication and Characterization of Advanced Mater Vol.2 No.e2

        Thermally stable, low-resistance PdGeTiAu ohmic contacts to high-low doped n-GaAs have been developed. The lowest contact resistance obtained is two times lower than that of previously reported PdGe ohmic contacts. The contacts are thermally stable even after isothermal annealing for 5h at 40$0^{\circ}C$ under atmosphere ambient. X-ray diffraction rseults, Auger depth profiles, and crosssectional transmission electron microscopy show that the good PdGeTiAu ohmic contacst are due to the formation of both AuGa and TiO compounds. The AuGa compound enhances the creation of more Ga vacancies, followed by incorporation of Ge into Ga vacancies and TiO compound suppresses As outdiffusion from GaAs substrate, rspectively.

      • [실험논문]Time Courses of the Positive and Negative Repetition Effects in a Postcuing, Forced-Choice Task

        곽호완(Ho-Wan Kwak), 김정오(Jung-Oh Kim) 서울대학교 심리과학연구소 1988 심리학의 연구문제 Vol.- No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The experiments explored the time course of both the negative repetition effect (the NRE) which refers to a poorer detection of repeated inputs than nonrepeated inputs in the displays and its opposite, the positive repetition effect (the PRE). Experiment 1 demonstrated that displays in which a weak target was presented with a strong noise produced a larger NRE than displays in which a strong target was presented with a weak noise, suggesting that processing identical feature inputs is inhibited in a postcuing, forced-choice task (Bjork & Murray. 1977). In Experiment 2, the stimulus-onset-asynchrony (SOA) between the target and the noise letter was varied. The dimension letters(e.d., "ㅗ vs. ㅜ”) just differing in configutations produced the largest PRE at a 0-msec SOA whereas the feature letters (e.g., “ㅗ vs. ㅠ”) differing in terms of the presence or absence of a feature yielded the largest NRE when the noise preceded by 50 msec the target. Also found were two different types of the NRE: the NRE of the physical codes and that of the name codes. The feature-specific inhibition (Bjork Murray, 1977), response bias (e.g., Eriksen, Morris, Yeh, O`hara & Durst, 1981), criterion adjustments (Estes, 1982), and pathways (Kim & Kwak, 1987) models were examined in two experiments. The major results of the present study were best accounted for the Kim and Kwak model that assumes parallel pathways that handle qualitatively different information.

      • KCI등재

        임진왜란기 곽재우장군의 섬김리더십에 관한 연구

        곽효문 ( Hyo Moon Kwak ) 한국행정사학회 2013 韓國行政史學誌 Vol.33 No.-

        조선조의 최대 외침인 임진왜란을 물리칠 수 있었던 배경에는 각 지방의 사민군(士民軍)으로 편성된 의병활동에 크게 의존하였다고 볼 수 있다. 미증유의 국난을 극복할 수 있었던 여러 요인을 논의할 때 혹은 그 배경은 의병의 봉기가 결정적이었다고 할 수 있다. 이와 같은 봉기의 승인(勝因)은 의병을 이끈 서번트 리더십을 통해서만이 가능한 일이었다고 할 수 있다. 당시에 확립된 의병의 전통은 항일독립군의 모태가 되었다. 이와 같이 오랜 의병의 역사로 인하여 특유의 의병정신이 조성되어 승패를 가리지 않고 결사감전(決死敢戰)하는 것이 의병의 본분이라 여기게 되었다. 당시의 대표적인 의병장인 곽재우의 의병 정신은 한민족의 특성이라고까지 말해도 지나치지 않다고 말할 수 있다. In the background that Korea could overcome Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, which was the most dangerous foreign invasion, there was an important role of righteous army consisting of classical scholars and general people of each area. When mentioning various factors to overcome unexampled national crisis, the uprising of righteous army was decisive. The cause of victory in the uprising of righteous army was only available through servant leadership of the leader. The tradition of righteous army that was established in the time became the matrix of anti-Japanese independence army. Because of the long history of righteous army, unique righteous army spirit was formed. Therefore, it was considered that the desperate fighting was the essence of righteous army regardless of victory. It was not excessive to say that the righteous army spirit of righteous army leader Kwak-Jaewoo was the example of servant leadership.

      • Distribution of branched D_(p)-coverings of surfaces

        Kwak,,Jin,Ho,Lee,,Jaeun 경북대학교 위상수학 기하학연구센터 1999 硏究論文集 Vol.7 No.-

        A well-known theorem of Alexander [1] says that every orientable surface is a branched covering of the sphere ??^(2), and every nonorientable surface is a branched covering of the projective plane. In the study of surface branched coverings [2, 3, 14], we can ask naturally as a generalization of Alexander's theorem: In how many different ways can a given surface be a branched covering of another given surface? As a partial answer of this question, Kwak et al., [10] recently enumerated the equivalence classes of regular branched prime-fold coverings p: ??→?? for any given surfaces ?? and ??. In this paper, we aim to enumerate the equivalence classes of the regular branched surface coverings p: ??→?? whose covering transformation group is the dihedral group ??_(p) of order 2p, p prime. In some sense, this gives a classification of the pseudo-free ??_(p)-actions on a surface when a data for a quotient surface is given.

      • KCI등재

        Consumer Response to Advertisements for Seasonal Products : The Moderating Role of Product Knowledge in the Fit between Temporal Distance and Ad Messages

        Kwak,,Jun-Sik,Eum,,Seung-sub,Kim,,Yeung-Jo 한국전략마케팅학회 2008 마케팅논집 Vol.16 No.4

        본 연구는 시간적 거리와 광고메시지의 적합성에 있어 제품지식의 조절효과에 대대 살펴보았다. 특히 본 연구는 곽준식, 김영조(2006)의 연구논문을 다른 상황과 다른 자극물을 사용하여 재검증하였다. 그 결과, 제품지식이 낮은 참가자에 비해 제품지식이 높은 참가자들이 시간적 거리와 광고메시지가 일치되었을 때 광고메시지를 더 믿을 수 있다고 응답하였다. 또한 제품지식이 높은 참가자들에게서 제품에 대한 구매의도가 더 높게 나타났다. The current research was to examine whether or not consumers' product knowledge moderated a fit between temporal distance and ad messages. In particular, this research replicated the study from Kwak and Kim (2006) to further demonstrate the moderating role of product knowledge in a different context with a different product. The findings revealed that participants with higher product knowledge (versus lower product knowledge) rated ad messages as more believable, and they demonstrated higher purchase intentions when the fit between temporal distance and product information is congruent (versus incongruent).

      • KCI등재

        Physical Properties of Indium Reduced Materials for Transparent Conductive Electrodes

        Kwak,,Seung-Hoon,Kwak,,Min-Gi,Hong,,Sung-Jei,Ju,,Byeong-Kwon,Han,,Jeong,In Korea Photovoltaic Society 2014 Current Photovoltaic Research Vol.2 No.1

        In this paper, indium reduced materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) were fabricated and their physical properties were evaluated. Two of materials, indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO) and aluminum (Al) were selected as TCE materials. In case of IZTO nanoparticles, composition ratios of In, Zn and Sn is 8:1:1 were synthesized. Size of the synthesized IZTO nanoparticles were less than 10 nm, and specific surface areas were about $90m^2/g$ indicating particle sizes are very fine. Also, the IZTO nanoparticles were well crystallized with (222) preferred orientation despite it was synthesized at the lowered temperature of $300^{\circ}C$. Composition ratios of In, Zn and Sn were very uniform in accordance with those as designed. Meanwhile, Al was deposited onto glass by sputtering in a vacuum chamber for mesh architecture. The Al was well deposited onto the glass, and no pore was observed from the Al surface. The sheet resistance of Al on glass was about $0.3{\Omega}/{\square}$ with small deviation of $0.025{\Omega}/{\square}$, and adhesion was good on the glass substrate since no pelt-off part of Al was observed by tape test. If the Al mesh is combined with ink coated layer which is consistent of IZTO nanoparticles, it is expected that the good and reliable metal mesh architecture for TCE will be formed.

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