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Objective: Occupational medicine specialists in the Busan, Ulsan and Kyung-Nam areas established an area-based occupational disease surveillance system and used this system to collected case information for the purpose of preventing occupational diseases Methods: l l hospital participated in this system. The authors selected five main diseases, which were hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMSD), occupational asthma, occupational skin disease and occupational and occupational lung cancer and established their case definitions. All cases were reported on the web, and real time analysis was conducted. Results: Between April 2001 and April 2003, 192 cases of HAVS, 118 cases of WRMSD, 33 cases of occupational asthma, 17 cases of occupational skin disease and 17 cases of occupational lung cancer (for a total of 377 cases of these five main diseases) were reported. most of the HAVS cases came from shipbuilding, and 172 of them (92.7%) were associated with grinding. Of the four main types of WRMSD, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was the most prevalent with 46 cases and shipbuilding was also the main industry involved (83.9%). The ergonomic risk factors involved mainly associated with the hand. In 19 (57.6%) and 4 (12.1%) cases of occupational asthma, the agents involved. The causative agents of occupational lung cancer included Cr, welding fume, PAH, Ni, etc. 10(58.8%) of the cases were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma and 5(29.4%) as adenoma. Conclusion: This result showed that an area-based occupational disease surveillance system might provide an effective method of evaluating the prevalence of such diseases, however the Busan, Ulsan and Kyung-Nam provinces are too large to be treated as individual areas. Therefore, the authors suggest that each province should establish its own surveillance system.
( Jeong Sook Kim ),( In Ok Lee ),( Kyung Jin Eoh ),( Young Shin Chung ),( Inha Lee ),( Jung-yun Lee ),( Eun Ji Nam ),( Sunghoon Kim ),( Young Tae Kim ),( Sang Wun Kim ) 대한산부인과학회 2017 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.60 No.2
Objective This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim`s technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Methods Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim`s technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm2-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. Results In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; P<0.001). The number of postoperative general diet build-up days was also significantly shorter for the SPLS group (median, 1 [1 to 4] vs. 3 [2 to 16] days; P<0.001). Immediate post-operative pain score was lower in the SPLS group (median, 2.0 [0 to 8] vs. 4.0 [0 to 8]; P=0.045). Patient-controlled anesthesia was used less in the SPLS group (61.9% vs. 100%). Conclusion SPLS was successful in removing most large ovarian tumors without rupture and showed quicker recovery and less immediate post-operative pain in comparison to laparotomy. SPLS using SW Kim`s technique could be a feasible solution to removing huge ovarian tumors.
수면, 기억 그리고 학습의 연관성은 실제 매우 복잡하다. 많은 연구에도 불구하고 명확한 연구결과는 아직 없다. 우리는 이 연구에서 평소와는 달리 시험 전날 수면 변화 양상이 집중력에 어느 정도 영향력을 미치는지 알아보고자 하였고, 이를 이용해 효율적인 수면 관리를 할 수 있는 기초자료로 삼고자 하였다. 동국대 의대 본과 1학년생 중 지원자 30명과 본과 2학년생 10명을 대상으로 평상시 상태와 시험 직후 수면이 부족한 상태에서 각각 K-PES TEST를 실시하여 총 8항목에 걸쳐 암기력, 판단력, 단순반응의 변화정도를 검사하였다. 또 설문조사를 병행하여 결과에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 다른 인자들도 파악하였다. 수면량에 대한 부호 숫자 짝짓기(순간 판단력)을 검사한 결과, 인간의 최대 생리학적 기능은 꼭 수면부족에 의해 좌우되는 것은 아니다. 그러나, 수면감소는 피로를 증가시키고, 동기부여를 감소시키나 단, 새로운 사실을 학습하는 데에는 큰 영향을 끼치지 않는다. 즉, 수면부족으로 장시간 깨어있는 것은 정확성과 반응성을 떨어뜨린다. 흡연에 대한 부호 숫자 짝짓기(순간 판단력)을 검사한 결과, 니코틴의 수면에 대한 상호관계는 알려지지 않았고, 인간의 감정이나 의식, 인식에 영향을 주는 것으로 알고있지만, 장기적은 측면에서 흡연이나 알코올은 인식능력과 무관한 것 같다. 카페인에 대한 숫자 외우기(암기력)검사 결과, 카페인은 spacial selective attention에는 특별한 영향을 주지 않지만 지각과정이나 주의 집중에 큰 효과를 주며, 인간의 의식 수행에 긍정적인 효과를 준다. 즉 카페인은 활력, 혼란, 피로상태를 변화시키고 visual analog scales에서 휴식상태에 가까운 양상을 나타낸다. 또 48시간 동안 수면을 취하지 않은 사람에게 카페인은 집중력과 장시간의 좋은 기분을 유지하게 하였다. 그러나 규칙적, 비규칙적으로 먹는 사람간에는 인지수행력의 차이를 보이지 않으며 상용자에서는 상당한 내성이 보인다. 수면패턴에 대한 숫자 더하기(순간 판단력)검사 결과, 집중력은 수면패턴에 의해서도 영향을 받고, 수면패턴이 바뀌게 되면 순간판단력을 저하시킨다. This study was performed to evaluate relationship of sleep and attention, and to control sleep effectively. We conducted a K-PES test of 40 medical students. K-PES contains eight elements, for example, simple response, selective response, color pairing, OddEven discrimination, number addition, number-symbol matching, memory, right-tapping, left tapping. Through these, we tested changes of memory, judgement, simple response. And we conducted a questionnaire survey to exclude bias. Results are as follows. As a results of number-symbol matching test, we know that sleeplessness is not complete responsible for physiologic function for humans. But, decreased sleep increases fatigue and decreases motivation, but no influence on learning new materials. So, long term sleeplessness decreases precision and responsibility. As a results of number-symbol matching test on smoking, a relationship of nicotine and sleep is not certain. A point of view in long term period, smoking and drinking is not related cognition, even if we know that those influence mood, consciousness and cognition. As a results of memory work test on caffeine, caffeine does not influence spacial selective attention, but mainly does perception, attention and consiousness process. Namely caffeine changes energetic activities, chaos, fatigue states and shows resting state in visual analog scales In sleeplessness for 48 hours, caffeine produced attention and good mood for a long time. But, in case of cognitive process no significance shows in regular or irregular diet. Regular diet shows high resistance. As a results of number addition test on sleep patterns, seep patterns influence attention, changes of sleep patterns decrease a moment judgement.
This research is follow-up study of Kim Ji-Hyun?Kim Ho-Kee?Jung Chang-Mu(2010) and Kim Ji-Hyun?Kim Ho-Kee(2010). The fields of technology for applying to U-City are extensive and each type of technology within the sector is diverse. Such being the case, the purpose of this research is to suggest a process(or method) for analyzing economic efficiency of U-City technologies. The process is composed of few works that technology classification, deduction of assessment items, making questionnaire, survey and analysis. By using conjoint analysis, we can calculate few results like values of each technology, marginal rate of substitution between assessment items. Those values are very useful to analysis economic efficiency of U-City technologies. This research has its meaning as attempt to suggest methodology for creating a standard of judgement that can be used to choose more efficient technologies.
Background : Pneumocytitis cainii pneumonia (PCP) can occur in immunocompromised hosts especially such as AIDS or cancer patients. Although recent research had focused on PCP in AIDS patients, few studies have described the clinical presentations of PCP in recipients of stem cell transplantation (SCT). We evaluated the clinical manifestations of PCP in SCT patients admitted at St. Mary's hospital, Seoul, Korea. Methods : The medical records of 17 PCP patients undergoing SCT between Feb. 1998 and Feb. 2000 were reviewed. The diagnosis of PCP was confirmed through the demonstration of Pneumocytitis cainii via either cytology of brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) or histological technique of lung biopsy. CMV disease and CMV infection were confirmed by BAL culture and antigenemia respectively . Results : Seventeen patients were all recipients of allogeneic SCT and 7 of 17 patients were performed non-sibling SCT. Patients presented with symptoms including brief period (4 ∼23 days) of fever (76%), dyspnea (70%), cough (64%), and signs such as rare(58.8%), Sixteen patients (94%) had been receiving immunosuppressive agent such as cyclosporine A (64%) or Fk506 (35%) without PCP prophylaxis. Eleven patients (64%) were treated with corticosteroid with mean dose of 16 mg/day prednisolone and mean duration of 4.6 months after post-SCT period. Twelve patients were co-infected with CMV. Another co-infected miCroorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes simplex virus, parainfluenza virus, Average duration of treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was 21 ±9 days. Four patients died, and three of them were related with PCP. Conclusion : PCP developed frequently in patients who were taking immunosuppressive drug due to graft versus host disease or were not taking TMP/SMX prophylaxis. High risk patients showing fever, cough, or dyspnea should be considered to take early bronchoscopic intervention for detection of PCP. When treat for PCP, it also be considered to the possibility of coinfection such as CMV. (Korean J Infect Dis 33:273∼279, 2001)
Background: Most cases of Graves' disease have been treated by antithyroid drugs in Korea. The major drawbacks of antithyroid drugs are the relative high rate of relapse and the inconvinience of long term therapy. Measurement of TBII and TRH stimulation test have been considered as the most reliable tests predicting relapse, but the predictive power is not high enough to use in clinical situation. This study was performed to find good prognostic indicators in Graves' disease patients after the discontinuation of antithyroid drug therapy. Subjects and methods : We restrospectively evaluated 96 patients with Graves' disease who showed normal TRH test at the end of antithyroid drug therapy and were followed for more than one year. Serum T3, T4, T3/T4 ratio, TBII, Anti-TPO Ab and TGAb levels were measured at the time of diagnosis and at the end of therapy. Two to three months after withdrawal of antithyroid medication, serum TSH and free T3 responses to TRH were examined. These parameters were compared between the relapse group and the remission group. Results : Among the 96 patients, 22 patients(22.9%) relapsed(Group Ⅱ) and 74 patients(77.1%) remained in remmision(Group Ⅰ). No significant difference was observed between the relapse and the remission group in clinical parameters, serum T3, T4, TSH, T3/T4 ratio, TBⅡ and Anti-TPO Ab determined before and after treatment. Serum TSH and free T3 levels measured after TRH stimulation were also similar in both groups. Serum TGAb levels determined at the end of treatment were significantly higher in the remission group(p<0.05). Relapse following the discontinuation of therapy occured within 24 months in 72.7% of the relapsed cases. After 24 months, relapse rate was reduced significantly. Conclusion : These results suggest that high serum TGAb levels could be a favorable prognostic indicator for the long term remission of Graves' disease treated with antithyroid drugs, and may suggest that Hashimoto's thyroiditis is combined with Graves' disease in those patients.
Purpose: Purposes of this study were to understand the current trends on complementary therapy in relieving chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and to suggest the future research direction. Method: Subjects were selected on CINAHL, MEDLINE, Korean Academy Data Base from 1980 to 2001 which used nausea, vomiting, chemotherapy and complementary therapy as key words in experimental studies. Eight korean articles and twenty-one international articles were analyzed in terms of general characteristics, research methods, and types of complementary therapy. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical methods. Result: Since 2000, researchers have more actively used complementary therapy. In subject characteristics, mean age was 35.5 years old, 45% of the researchers were performed with high level of incidence of chemotherapy induced vomiting, 14% of them set limit of consecutive cycle during research, and 65% of them did not comment the selecting criteria of sample. About 60% of them were designed post-test only control group: 35% used INV by Rhodes, 31% used Likert scale, and 24% used VAS for dependent variable. Muscle relaxation therapy was mostly applied for relief of nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: Further studies will be needed to control extrinsic variables affecting nausea and vomiting in research design and to accumulate evidence with studies applying various complementary therapies.
The advent of neuroimaging technique has enabled the accurate diagnosis of structural abnormalities associated with intractable epilepsy. Among these, neuronal migration disorders(NMDs) or cortical dysplasias(CDs) involving cerebral cortex are increasingly recognized as a major cause of intractable epilepsy. CDs are expressed as variety of forms depending upon the time of injury to the developing nervous system. CDs are highly and intrinsically epileptogenic. It is crucial to completely resect the epileptogenic zone in focal CDs for better seizure outcome. Hemispherectomy or multilobar resection is preferred for hemimegalencephaly. Callosotomy can be chosen in the diffuse CDs who have intractable drop attacks. However, resective surgery can benefit the selected patients with diffuse CDs if localizing information persists.
As sensitive images what users recently feel on the design of web sites affect user's satisfaction and the frequency of revisit, it's necessary to grasp the sensitivity preference based on the characteristics of web sites, and specially it is demanded to analyze the sensibility of user's characteristics as customized web sites has been emphasized. There are relatively abundant guide lines on designing taking a side view of aesthetics though most of guide lines are based on designer's intuition and common sense. This study focuses on design methodology what can bring about the sensibility from users which coincides with the purpose of the web sites, breaking from the design which was focused on efficient usability . First of all, web sites which have well awareness are selected and categorized into 4-5 categories and the color schemes are assorted from the categories. The color schemes are constructed in the image scale space of I.R.I Color Laboratory and the sensitive adjectives are extracted. Through the research, it is recognizable that user's sensitivity was almost the same as the extracted sensitive adjectives which can show a well-planned color scheme can make a planner's intended sensitivity to accord with a user's sensitivity. Effective color scheme can build up and enhance the sensitive communication between planners and users. This study will be a significant chance to suggest that efficient color schemes can be constructed based on the sensitive adjectives and the color schemes and designers can objectify characteristics of their subjective sensitivity and make an opportunity to build up the sensitive communication and to enhance the sensitive communication on web sites.
Traditionally, Koreans have used potassium alum by mouth rinse when they suffered from stomatitis. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of potassium alum with aspartame, sorbitol and xylitol on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The relative growth ratio of S. mutans JC-2 cultured at different concentrations of potassium alum and different concentrations of aspartame, sorbitol and xylitol was examined. The combined effect of different concentrations of potassium alum with 0.5% and 10.0% of aspartame, sorbitol and xylitol was examined. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of potassium alum was 5.0mg/ml against S. mutans JC-2. The relative growth ratio of potassium alum on S. mum JC-2 was affected at the concentration of 2.0mg/ml. The growth of S. mutans JC-2 decreased at the concentration of 10.0% of aspartame and sorbitol. Also, a combination of potassium alum and sugar substitutes was more effective against S. mum than the use of one sugar substitute alone. The inhibitory effect of potassium alum and sugar substitutes on S. mutans may be an important mechanism of caries prevention by potassium alum.