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연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
The use of high speed motor spindle is increasing for high speed machine tools recently. The important problem in the high speed spindles is to reduce and minimize the thermal effect by the motor and ball bearings. Thermal characteristics according to the bearing preload, hollow shaft and oil jacket cooling are studied for the spindle with the oil mist lubrication and high frequency motor. In this study, temperature distribution and thermal deformation are analyzed by using the numerical method This results show that temperature distribution and thermal deformation of the high speed spindle system can be estimated reasonably by using the three dimensional model through the finite element method and support thermal optimization and more effective cooling method.
목적: 구미지역 내 대학병원이자 특수건강진단·보건관리대행기관의 산업의학전문의, 보건관리대행 간호사, 사업장 간호사를 중심으로 직업성질환감시체계를 구축하여 주요 직업성질환들의 발생현황과 규모를 파악하고자 하였다. 또한 연차적으로 산업, 직업, 업무내용 등에 따른 분포나 원인을 기존 자료원(특수건강진단의 직업병 유소견자와 산재요양승인 되는 직업병자)과 비교하여 분석·기술하고 예방 및 관리를 포함한 보건의료기술개발까지을 포함하는 종합적인 감시체계를 구축하고 운용하고자 하였다. 방법: 구미지역의 산업적 특성에 맞는 직업성질환감시체계를 구축하고 지역 감시체계의 모델을 제시하였다. 6대 감시대상 직업성질환(독성 간염, 직업성천식, 직업성 근골격계질환, 직업성 피부질환, 직업성 암, 수지진동증후군)의 실행적 환례정의, 보고양식 및 보고체계 개발, 분석양식 및 결과 배포 형식을 개발하였으며, 그 유병규모를 파악하고, 감시질환의 분포 및 특성, 관련인자 등을 분석·기술하고자 하였다. 이때, 1년간의 환례분석시 직업병 유소견자 및 직업병 요양자에 대한 자료와 함께 비교 분석하였으며, 노동통계자료를 이용하여 년간 발생률을 추정하였다. 결과: 2001. 1. 1일부터 2002.4.30일까지 총 287건이 보고되었으며, 직업성 근골격계질환 132건(46.0%), 직업성 피부질환 100건(34.8%), 독성간염 34건 (11.8%), 직업성천식 16건 (5.6%), 수지진동증후군 5건 (1.7%) 이었으며 직업성 암은 한건도 보고되지 않았다. 보고경로별로는 보건관리대행에서 33건 (11.5%), 해당 유해인자별로 실시되는 특수검진 외의 각종 건강진단업무 수행 중 발견된 환례에 대한 보고가 206건(71.7%)이었다. 직종별 분류의 결과는 섬유업종사자, 단순노무종사자, 음식업종사자 등이 다수를 차지하였다. 근골격계질환의 경우, 수근관증후군이 42건(33%), 외상과염/내상과염이 39건(30%)로 가장 많았다. 직업성 피부질환은 97건이 접촉성 피부염으로 유기용제류가 59건(59%)으로 가장 많고, 니켈 및 에폭시수지에 의한 알레르기성 접촉성 피부염이 각각 6건과 5건이었다. 독성 간염은 모두 DMF 나 DMAc에 의한 것으로, 근무시작 후부터 간기능이상이 발견되기까지의 근무기간은 대부분이 3개월 이하이며, 1개월 이하인 경우도 10건이나 되었다. 동 기간 중 감시환례에 대해 산재요양 자료와 중복여부를 확인한 결과, 중복되는 것은 하나도 없었다. 특수건강진단에서 직업병유소견자로 판정된 경우는 독성간염에서 3건이 있었으며, 나머지 질환은 중복되는 것은 없었다. 2001도 구미지역의 근로자수와 보고환례건수를 이용하여 연간 발생률을 추정하였다. 근로자 10만 명당 연간 발생률은 상지 근골격계질환은 63.6명, 피부질환 48.2명, 독성 간염 17.9명, 천식 7.7명, 수진진동증후군 2.4명이었다. 참여예상인원은 총 46명이었으며, 실제 참여자수는 21명, 평균참여율은 46%, 실제 참여 1이당 평균 보고건수는 산업의학전문의가 28건으로 가장 많았고, 대행간호사는 45,건, 사업장 간호사는 3.3건이었다. 결론: 지역 감시체계는 기존 통계자료들에서 발견되지 않았던 직업성질환의 발견에 유용한 통계원이며, 특히 지역의 특성과 여건을 고려하여 체계화된 시스템을 구축하여 운용한다면 더 성과가 클 것이다. Objectives: Area-based occupational disease surveillance in Kumi (KODS) was used to collect data on occupational diseases. The data was used to estimate the magnitude of the diseases, to analyze for their characteristics and to find links for their intervention and prevention. Methods: Since January 2001, occupational physicians and nurses in Occupational Health Service (OHS) have reported six major occupational diseases; occuaptional musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (MSDUE), occupational dermatoses, toxic hepatitis, occupational asthma (OA), hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), and occupational cancer. For the respective diseases, a reporting sheet and operational diagnostic criteria were developed by the KODS. An analysis of the KODS data, collected over a certain period, was compared with data from the Korea Labor Workers Corporation (KLWC) and the Specific Health Examination (SHE), and the incidence rates of the diseases estimated. Results: Between Jan 2001 and Apr 2002, 287 cases of the six major occupational disease were reported. Of these, there were 132 (46.0%), 100 (34.8%), 34 (11.8%), 16 (5.6%), and 5 (1.7%), cases of MSDUE, occupational dermatoses, toxic hepatitis, OA, and HAVS, repectively. But, there were no cases of occupational cancer. 33 (11.5%) of the incidence were reported via the OHS, 206 (71.7%) from health checkups, and the other 48(16.8%) from other routes. The synthetic fibers and electronic components manufacturing industries accounted for the greatest number of reported cases. With resport to occupation, the greatest numbers of incidence were reported from the elementary occupations, textile workers, assemblers, and cooks and food services worker, in that order. Of the MSDUE cases, carpal tunnel syndrome and epicondylitis were the two most common diseases. Most of the occupational dermatoses were due to contact dermatitis, with organic solvents (59%), nickel (6%), and epoxy resin (5%) accounting for the majority of these cases. All cases of toxic hepatitis were induced by dimethylformamide or dimethylacetamide, which were reported by a unique monitoring system. During same period, there were no cases claimed by workers to the KLWC, and only three cases from SHE, were identified. Using data from workers' number and surveillance, the annual incidence of MSDUE, dermatoses, hepatitis, OA, and HAVS, per 100,000 workers were 63.6, 48.2, 17.9, 7.7, and 2.4, respectively. Conclusions: These results show that an area-based surveillance system can be very effective for the collection of data on work-related diseases, at least in Kumi.
To improve CO_2 permselectivity, a modified silica membrane was prepared by chemical vapor deposition with tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-ethanol-water, and TEOS-ethanol-water-HCI solution at 300-600℃. The silica was effectively deposited in the mesopores of a γ-alumina film coated on a porous α-alumina tube by evacuating the reactants through the porous wall. In this membrane, CO_2 interacts, to some extent, with the pore wall, and CO_2/N_2 selectivity then exceeds the value of the Knudsen diffusion mechanism, while the membrane derived from TEOS alone has no CO_2 selectivity. The silica membrane prepared from TEOS-ethanol-water-HC1 solution showed that CO_2 permeance was 2.5×10 exp (-7)㏖/s^-1. m^-2. Pa^-1 at 30℃ and CO_2/N_2 selectivity was approximately 3. The CO_2 permeance and selectivity was improved by enlarging the surface diffusion with modification of chemical affinity of the silica pores.
The purpose of this study is that we inquire the various aspects of dialogue sequence that the teacher's question is initial utterance in primary school. The Initial utterance is used in listening·teaching. The results is as follows. The typology of dialogue sequence that the teacher's question is initial utterance is elliptic, basic, and expanded dialogue sequence. The elliptic dialogue sequence has questions. But answer or evaluation has not existence apparently. The basic dialogue sequence has teacher's question-student's answer-teacher's evaluation. The expanded dialogue sequence has repeated basic dialogue sequence and the contents and forms are details in question and answer. The key of the elliptic dialogue sequence is composed of the construction of question. Because the answer does not existence apparently. So we uses the question techniques as follows: understanding about question's role and statement, the elaboration of questions, the construction of questions, the reflection of situation, the elaboration of question order. And at the same time, the method of elliptic dialogue sequence are used basic, and expanded dialogue sequence. The key of basic dialogue sequence is affirmative evaluation. Because by affirmative evaluation teacher progress dialogue smoothly. The key of expanded dialogue sequence is the elaboration of question contents and quality. The methods of question elaboration is achieved as follows: formally the use of question that the structure is made of inserted statements, contently the use of question that is dependent upon reason and argument, logically the use of question that is reflected the process of logical thinking. 이 연구의 목적은 초등학교 저학년 말하기·듣기 수업에서 교사의 질문을 개시발화로 하여 이뤄지는 대화연속체의 양상이 어떻게 구현되는지를 분석하고, 이를 수업에 활용하는 방안을 마련하는 것이다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 질문을 개시발화로 하여 이뤄지는 대화연속체는 '생략형 대화연속체, 기본형 대화연속체, 확장형 대화연속체'로 유형화할 수 있다. 생략형은 질문은 있지만 대답이나 평가가 표면적으로 드러나지 않는 대화연속체를 말하고, 기본형은 '교사의 질문-학생의 대답-교사의 평가'로 이뤄진 대화연속체를 말하며, 확장형은 질문자가 기본형 대화연속체를 두 번 이상 반복하면서 질문과 대답 내용을 상세화하는 대화연속체를 말한다. 생략형 대화연속체는 질문을 했을 때 대답을 못하는 경우가 일반적이기 때문에 이 과정에서 질문자가 어떻게 질문을 하느냐가 핵심이다. 이 때 질문은 '질문의 역할과 진술에 대한 이해, 질문 내용의 명료화, 질문의 재구성, 상황의 반영, 질문 순서의 명료화' 등에 초점을 맞춰 이뤄져야 한다. 또한 생략형에서 논의된 질문의 활용 방안은 기본형과 확장형에도 동일하게 적용된다. 기본형 대화연속체도 앞의 생략형 대화연속체에서 언급한 질문의 활용 방안이 바탕이 되지만, 질문자인 교사가 학생의 대답을 평가하여 마무리를 짓고 다른 대화로 나가야 하기 때문에 이 과정에서 교사의 긍정적 평가가 매우 중요한 역할을 한다. 교사가 긍정적으로 대화를 마무리해야 그 이후의 대화가 원활하게 진행될 수 있기 때문이다. 확장형 대화연속체도 기본형 대화연속체에서 언급한 질문의 활용 방안이 바탕이 되지만 이 대화 유형에서 더 중요한 것은 질문 내용과 대답의 상세화이다. 질문의 상세화는 '형식의 측면에서 각종 진술이 삽입된 진술삽입구조의 활용, 내용의 측면에서 사실 확인을 바탕으로 한 '이유와 근거'를 말할 수 있게 하는 질문의 활용, 논리의 측면에서 논리적 사고 과정(특히 귀납적 추론과정)이 반영되는 질문의 활용'을 통해서 이뤄질 수 있다.
2-[(4-Cyanophenyl)amino]-3-chloro-1, 4-naphthalenedione (NQ-Y15) was asssayed for its genotoxic potential by using Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay and in vitro chromosome aberration test on Chinese hamster lung cells. In the Ames test, NQ-Y 15 induced his+ revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA1537, reaching levels twice the negative control values. But, NQ-Y15 induced only his^(+) revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA1537 more than twice the control values under the condition with metabolic activation system. In the cytogenetic test on chinese hamster lung cells, NQ-Y15 showed significant chromosomal aberrations, but the incidence was significantly reduced in the presence of metabolic activation.
It is a fact beyond all question that human beings cannot go through their own death in person. The conception of death results only from indirect experiences gained by observing others' mortality in a community or society. So, in a strict sense, there is not a thorough understanding or prophecy of one's final departure from this world, but just a variety of assumptions of absence by analogy. Nevertheless, the theme of death is a universal one which almost becomes raison ?? of modem poetry. Though his emotional attitude in poetic works is similar to the pathos of late Romanticists, William Butler Yeats defied part of traditional convention of elegiac poetry when he first composed poems in this genre. Yeats characteristically lamented a small group of people, while most poets elegized one individual death with deep sorrow and eulogy. Futhermore, his elegies are remarkably frank in the attitude towards the dead. This outspoken and unreserved way of presentation is achieved through the flexibility of group form of Yeatsian elegies. And the poet is bold and direct, not equivocal or roundabout, in his selection of poetic dictions in these verses as well. The group elegies describe one main feature or action of the late lamented and exclude his ordinary and collateral elements, so that the description will serve as a synecdoche for the particular poetic persona. Therefore, the lemented person's characteristic action captured in a certain place and time, and described in a few compressed lines can represent his whole personality. In other words, a person's entire life and character are translated into a few condensed lines of the elegies. Yeats shows relentless determination in choosing the scene. As the poetic expression will remain a permanent documentaion of the dead person's actual life, he portrays the absent's merits and faults without embellishment. Nevertheless, the mourning and evaluation of the dead are, regardless of positive or negative perspective, symbolized expressions of inward sense of respect towards human dignity. Yeats reveals through these group elegies not only his own appraisal of human beings and discerment of history and culture, but his national identity and view of the world unconsciously Poetic personas in the poems discussed in this article are all heroic figures who made their era luminous. Poet himself is enhanced to the heroic status as he versifies those national celebrities in the elegies and so makes them live forever in the artistic expression. The messages he intended to deliver to the readers through these works are the limitation of human fate and poet's own death perceived in advance. Yeat's group elegies are reflections on the existential significance of life in this world caused by other souls' final voyage.
In Yeats's poetry, many birds of various kinds appear and usually play significant roles of creating imagery characteristic of earch work. Some birds have mythological and religious background, or form a connection with visionary imagination. The three poems, "Leda and the Swan", "The Mother of God", and "The Second Coming", show such relations of bird and historical cycle, though the birds and the cycles of the poems are rooted in different sources and thus interpreted from different angles, as swan with the Greek or classical civilization, dove with t]he Christianity and falcon or desert bird with the coming antithetical era. The one true historical measurement for Yeats was the Great Year(Magnus Annus), a continuity of historical cycles. Each of these historical cycle is made up of two sub-cycles or major cultural periods of approximately 2,000 years each and sometimes symbolized by the double gyres. As a cycle approaches its end, there is an annunciation, in other words, a divine revelation or the manifestation of a new godhead under the imagery of a bird. In Yeat's system, the first annunciation was made to Leda through the swan which was Zeus. 'The feathered glory' and' the brute blood of the air' are two expressions revealing the bird's savage as well as divine attribute. By the medium of the swan, whose 'sudden blow' and 'white rush' impregnated her, Leda gave birth to two eggs and from one of them, Helen and Clytemnestra, love and murder, arose and become the starting point of the decline of Trojan world and the formation of Greek civilization. The bird imagery in this poem is not only strong, brutal and sexual but also pure and supernatural. Then, there is the Christian annunciation. Virgin Mary's preternatural conception through the Holy Dove, the transformation of the Holy Spirit, means the end of the Hellenic world and the beginning of a new dispensation. The image of dove, with such poetic dictions as 'fallen star', 'Heavens' and' love', makes us feel the sacred and transcendental sphere above the earth. By imagining the presence of the Holy Spirit through the dove's beating wing. we can read the purity of the immaculate conception of Virg in Mary. 'The Second Loming" contains the disintegration of the present age and envisions the birth of the next deity who will inaugurate the antithetical disflerlsation. The falcon represents the violent, uncontrollable chaos, signs of down fall, destruction and disruption, through the spiral flight from the falconer. The desert birds guide the sphinx-like shape who rises from the 'stony sleep' lasting two thous and years. The reeling shadows of those indignant 'bird-daemons', hungry for the decaying meat of the dead civilization, deepen the imagery of the apocalyptic revelation, sinister but inevitable. Yeats created a vast imaginary domain, which other poets cannot imitate, applying his characteristic view of history based on A Vision to his poems. And the bird imagery makes his creativity more specific and gives his poem the poem the particular poetic beauty. It is thought that the quest for the imagery should be enlarged and continued.
A characteristic penetrating through William Butler Yeats's several later poems is the appearance of poetic personae which reveal an insight into the cyclicity of human civilizations with a grand view. These characters are voices chanting transcendentally the flux and reflux of history and vicissitude of all civilizations, ancient and modern. The personae have meditative and prophetic traits. The poet Yeats had a theory on historical movements which originated from his early mysticism and his later prose A Vision, and he explained in it the whole history with two gyres revolving perpetually. With this theory, the personae in the several later poems act as Yeats's anti-self or mask. The anti-self is an alternative or antithetical self that makes it possible for him to escape from personality into the impersonal realm where it can play various parts totally the opposite of poet's normal self. And the anti-self is what the poet is not, and it has a who eness and unity of being lacking in the real-life poet. Yeats created transcendental, mystic and Asiatic anti-selves to view a grand design of civilizations based on his historical cycles and overcome imminent sinister events, which is possibly the end of one cycle and the beginning of another. The anti-selves are respectively a supernatural being, a hermit-saint or mysterious Old Rocky Face exclaiming the destruction of all things. They sometimes warn us not to hesitate to accept the fate and sometimes prophesy the eternal movement of historical cycles. The poet's wise eyes are everywhere in the poems such as 'Meru', 'Lapis Lazuli', 'The Gyres' and 'The Statues'.
W. B Yeats established his status as one of the greatest elegists in the English speaking world with group elegies, and among his superb elegies are those he wrote for his own death. The term self-elegy contains contradictions and para-doxes as the elegiac act in thus genre deals lamentation for the very person who is the poetic object as well as the poet Also it gives an impression that the poet himself Is divided into the mourner and the mourned in a specifically versified situation. In Yeats's poetic realm, however, these paradoxical expressions are sublimated through the brilliant versification of the subtle personal subjects He treats his own death and posthumous aspect in several essential peoms, such as "Under Ben Bulben", "The Tower", "The Circus Animals' Desertion" and "Man and the Echo" by means of completing his own tombstone inscription earlier, speaking from or beyond the grave with a subterranean voice, reviewing the way of living in the light of death, writing a will to 'make my soul,' evaluating the fruitful outcome of existence against the closing moment, and searching for the sources of confession and repentance in the past. Thus, it is significant to grasp poet Yeats's varied perspectives and contemplations on the last stage of life symbolized as inescapable death and decrepitude of body, and to look into his unique attitude towards the whole life journey he took in these poems. He accomplished his own mourning over himself in verse by expressing preparatory gestures towards the final destination with exceptional peculiarity. In a sense, he lived the entire life again through the act of creation without temporary limitations and experienced the last in advance before the real time would come. So it can be assumed that he exerted himself to reveal the meaning of living in this world by using the prism of death. In this respect, Yeats is a poet of vision with foresight and prophetic power