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환경 오염과 지구 온난화의 위협이 구체적으로 모습을 드러내는 가운데 사회 전반적으로 녹색 경영의 중요성이 과거 어느 때보다 부각되고 있다. 이러한 현실 흐름을 반영하여 녹색 경영을 실행하는 기업들이 최근 들어 점점 증가하고 있다. 녹색 경영에 관한 기존 연구들에서는 녹색 경영의 의의와 중요성, 녹색 경영의 성과, 그리고 녹색 경영에 대한 영향 요인에 관하여 다루어 왔다. 본 논문에서는 녹색 경영 실행에 영향을 미치는 기업 내부의 촉진 동인에 관하여 살펴보았다. 66개 중소 기업에 대한 통계 분석 결과, 외부 연계, R&D 역량, 그리고 조직 문화 모두 기업의 녹색 경영 실행에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 무엇보다도, 독립 변수들 가운데 조직 문화의 영향이 가장 두드러지는 것으로 파악되었다. 녹색 경영 요소들 간의 관계를 주로 살펴본 기존 연구들과 달리, 녹색 경영 실행에 대한 기업 본원적 요소의 영향에 관하여 살펴보았다는 점에서 본 논문은 의의가 적지 않다. 향후 연구에서는 더욱 다양한 기업 본원적 요소의 영향에 관하여 살펴볼 필요가 있을 것이다. The dangers of environmental pollution and global warming are emerging in detail. As a result, the importance of green management in society as a whole is greater than ever before. Reflecting this trend of reality, more and more companies are implementing green management. Existing studies on green management have dealt with the meaning and significance of green management, the performance of green management, and the factors affecting green management of a firm. In this paper, we looked at the affecting drivers on green management. The statistical analysis of 66 small and medium enterprises showed that external links, R&D capabilities, and organizational culture had a positive impact on the green management practices of enterprises. Most of all, the influence of organizational culture was found to be most prominent among independent variables. Unlike previous studies, which mainly looked at the relationship between green management elements like the impact of green product development on green manufacturing tactic, this paper is of considerable significance in that it looked at the impact of the fundamental element of a firm on green management implementation. Future studies will need to look at the effects of more diverse firm elements.
A 5-phase phase-locked loop (PLL) for USB2.0 applications was implemented by using an all-synthesis technique. The length of the time-to-digital converter for the fine phase detector was halved by the operation of a coarse phase detector that uses 5- phase clocks. The maximum time difference between the rising edges of two adjacent-phase clocks was 6 ps at 480 MHz. The PLL chip in a 65-nm process occupies 0.038 mm², consumes 4.8 mW at 1.2 V. The measured rms and peak-to-peak output jitters are 8.6 ps and 45 ps, respectively.
We investigate the effect of strain on the device characteristics of gate-all-around (GAA) NMOS with various configurations, including crystal orientation, cross-sectional shape, and strain conditions, via device simulation. After verifying the strain dependence of mobility of various surface orientations with the literature, we apply the strain transport model to GAA MOSFETs which have different sidewall orientations depending on the channel direction. Drive current enhancement is the largest for the (001)/<110> case under large uniaxial tensile strain values exceeding 1%. In addition, we found that cross-sectional width of the nanosheet is a key parameter in maximizing the drive current for a given footprint. Optimization of device and strain configuration of single-stacked GAA devices is necessary to meet device performance specifications for sub-7nm technology.
By every measure, the Asia-Pacific region is extremely important not only for the world economy, but for Korea as well. Given this importance, the paper identifies two major policy issues to be addressed by countries in this region. In trade, the recent proliferation of regional trading arrangements poses a serious threat to the continuation of economic growth in the region. In finance, the lack of capacity of the financial system in East Asia in particular has given rise to an unhealthy portfolio of financial assets held by East Asian countries. The policy suggestions by the author include the strengthening of the WTO discipline on regional trading arrangements and closer financial cooperation among countries in the Asia-Pacific.
Objective : Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are often detected as incidental findings. However, the natural history remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the natural history and growth pattern of untreated PAs. Methods : Between 2003 and 2014, 59 PAs were managed with clinico-radiological follow up for longer than 12 months without any kind of therapeutic intervention. Tumor volumes were calculated at initial and last follow-up visit, and tumor growth during the observation period was determined. Data were analyzed according to clinical and imaging characteristics. Results : The mean initial and last tumor volume and diameter were 1.83±2.97 mL and 13.77±6.45 mm, 2.85±4.47 mL and 15.75±8.08 mm, respectively. The mean annual tumor growth rate was 0.33±0.68 mL/year during a mean observation period of 46.8±32.1 months. Sixteen (27%) PAs showed tumor growth. The initial tumor size (HR, 1.140; 95% confidence interval, 1.003–1.295; p=0.045) was the independent predictive factor that determined the tumor growth. Six patients (11%) of 56 conservatively managed non-symptomatic PAs underwent resection for aggravating visual symptoms with mean interval of 34.5 months from diagnosis. By Cox regression analysis, PAs of last longest diameter over 21.75 mm were a significant prognostic factor for eventual treatment. Conclusion : The initial tumor size of PAs was independently associated with the tumor growth. Six patients (11%) of conservatively managed PAs were likely to be treated eventually. PAs of last follow-up longest diameter over 21.75 mm were a significant prognostic factor for treatment. Further studies with a large series are required to determine treatment strategy.