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'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
연구목적 : 본 시험의 목적은 임상시험 시작전에 연구자들을 대상으로 PANSS Workshop을 통하여 PANSS, ESRS에 대한 국내에서의 표준화 작업을 구축하고 새로운 정신병 치료제인 리스페리돈의 효과와 안정성을 재확인하여 리스페리돈 사용에 대한 적정화를 이루는데 있다. 연구방법 : 1996년 4월부터 1996년 9월까지 국내 39개 대학병원 정신과에 입원중인 혹은 증상이 악화되어 입원하는 정신분열병 환자 377명을 대상으로 다시설 개방 연구를 시행하였다. 1주일간의 약물 배설기간을 가진후, 리스페리돈을 8주간 투여하였고, 기준점, 1주, 2주, 4주, 그리고 8주후에 평가되었다. 용량은 제1일에는 리스페리돈 1mg씩 1일 2회, 제2일에는 2mg씩 1일 2회, 제3∼7일에는 3mg씩 1일 2회 투여하였다. 이후 환자의 임상상태에 따라 임의로 증량할 수 있으며, 최대 일일 16mg을 초과하지 않도록 하였다. 추체외로 증상을 조절하기 위한 투약을 허용하였다. 임상증상 및 부작용의 평가는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression) 그리고 ESRS(Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale)을 사용하였다. 연구결과 : 377명중 343명(91%)이 8주간의 연구를 완결하였다. 치료 종결시점인 8주후 PANSS 총점수가 20% 이상 호전된 경우를 약물 반응군으로 정의할때, 약물반응군은 81.3%였다. 리스페리돈에 반응하는 예측인자로는 발병연령, 이전의 입원 횟수, 유병기간이 관련 있었다. 리스페리돈은 1주후부터 PANSS양성, 음성, 및 일반정신병리 점수상에 유의한 호전을 보여 효과가 빨랐다. CGI의 경우도 기준점에 비해 1주후부터 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. ESRS의 경우, 파킨슨 평가점수는 기준점과 비교해 투여 1주, 2주, 4주후 유의하게 증가되었다가 8주후 기준점과 차이가 없었다. Dystonia 평가점수는 1주후만 유의한 증가를 보였으며, dyskinesia 평가점수는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 혈압, 맥박수의 생명징후 및 일반 혈액학 검사, 생화학적 검사, 심전도 검사에서 유의한 변화는 없었다. 결 론 : 이상의 다시설 개방 임상 연구를 통해 리스페리돈은 정신분열병 환자에서 양성증상뿐만 아니라 음성증상 및 전반적인 증상에도 효과적인 것으로 사료된다. 보다 명확한 평가를 위해서는 다른 항정신병약물과의 이중맹검 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각되며, 또한 장기적 치료에 대한 평가도 함께 이루어져야 하겠다. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of Korean schizophrenic patients. Method : This multicenter open study included 377 schizophrenic patients drawn from 39 university hospitals. After a wash-out period of 1 week, the schizophrenic patients were treated with risperidone for 8 weeks and evaluated at 5 points ; at baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The dose was increased from 2mg/day(1mg twice daily) to 6mg/day(3mg twice daily) during the first week and adjusted to a maximum of 16mg/day over the next 7 weeks according to the patient's clinical response. Medication to control extrapyramidal symptoms was permitted. The psychiatric and neurological status of the patients was assessed by PANSS, CGI, and ESRS scales. Results : 343(91%) of 377 patients completed the 8-week trial period. Clinical improvement, as defined by a 20% or more reduction in total PANSS score at end point, was shown by 81.3% of patients. The predictors of response to risperidone were associated older age, shorter duration of illness, fewer previous hospitalization. Risperidone had rapid onset of action ; a significant decrease of the total PANSS and three PANSS factor(positive, negative, general), and CGI was already noticed at the end of first week. For the ESRS, parkinsonism rating scores were significantly increased until week 4 comparing with baseline. Dystonia rating scores were significantly increased until week 1, and dyskinesia rating scores were not significantly changed during the study. Laboratory parameters including vital sign, EKG, hematological, and biochemical values showed no significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : This study suggests that risperidone is generally safe and effective against both the positive and negative symptoms in our group of patients.
Objective: This study aims to analyze that specific prognostic factors such as Ki-67 value, histologic grade, pathology type, and cancer stage can affect controlled ovarian stimulation outcomes(COS) for fertility preservation in women with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 92 patients with breast cancer aged 21-44 who underwent COS from August 2012 to April 2020, excluding patients with previous gonadotoxic therapy history. All COS cycles were conducted letrozole-combined random start GnRH antagonist protocol. COS outcomes were compared according to prognostic factors;Ki-67 (< 30% vs. ≥ 30%), histologic grade (low vs. high), and pathologic type (intraductal carcinoma(IDC) vs. triple-negative breast cancer(TNBC)), and cancer stage (early (I, II) vs. advanced (III, IV)). Multivariate analysis was also conducted to find any parameter that can impact over 10 mature oocytes acquisition. Results: Among the 92 patients, 42 were Ki-67≥30% compared to 49 of Ki-67<30%. The number of oocytes, and initial mature oocytes were comparable between Ki-67<30% and ≥30 group. The maturation rate was significantly higher in Ki-67≥30% group than Ki-67<30% group (57.4±36.8% vs. 44.8±28.3%, p=0.041). The same results were drawn when divided according to IDC or TNBC. The maturation rate was significantly higher in TNBC than the IDC group (73.0±17.6% vs. 47.0±28.1% p=0.001). However, the histologic grade or stage did not show any difference in COS outcomes between high and low grade or early and advanced stages. With multivariate analysis, age and AMH are parameters associated with the acquisition of over 10 mature oocytes (OR 0.863, 95% CI [0.755-0.987], OR 1.408, 95% CI [1.145-1.732], respectively). Conclusion: Either Ki-67 or pathologic type can be a potential reliable marker for predicting COS outcome, especially maturation rate. Further study with larger sample size with specific conditions is necessary to clarify the correlation between breast cancer prognostic factors and COS outcomes.
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목적 본 연구의 목적은 국내 정신의료기관(정신병원, 종합병원 정신과)에서 간편하게 사용할 수 있는 신뢰도와 타당도가 검증된 입원환자의 서비스 만족척도를 개발하기 위한 것이다. 방법 여러 단계를 거쳐 국내 실정에 맞는 문항을 개발하였고,정신병원, 종합병원, 대학병원 정신과 병동에서 퇴원하는 348명의 환자들을 대상으로 신뢰도와 타당도를 조사하였다. 요인분석 결과 5개의 요인이 추출되었으며 전체 변량의 63.04%를 설명하였다. 내적 일관성에 대한 신뢰도 계수 (Crohnbach's α)는 0.95로 상당히 높은 수준이었고, 수정된 개별문항-총점 상관계수는 0.50부터 0.72까지의 범위에 속하였다. 요인분석을 통해 추출된 서비스 만족척도의 각 하위척도 점수와 서비스 만족척도에 첨부된 각 영역에 대해 전반적인 만족도를 묻는 세 개의 문항 점수 간의 상관성 역시 유의하게 높았다. 결과 진단명에 따른 서비스 만족척도의 전체 점수에서는 불안/신체형/강박장애 환자군과 기분장애 환자군이 각각 정신분열병 및 기타 정신병 환자군과 알코올중독 장애 환자군에 비하여 유의하게 높은 점수를 보였으며, 입원형태에 있어서는 자발적 입원군이 강제 입원군에 비하여 전체 만족점수가 유의하게 높았다. 그러나 성별, 월수입, 학력, 직업, 종교, 결혼상태 등의 변수에서는 서비스 만족척도의 전체 점수에서 유의한 차이가 발견되지 않았으며, 마찬가지로 연령, 입원일수, 입원횟수, 첫 발병나이, 유병기간 등의 임상적 변수에서도 서비스 만족척도의 전체 점수와 유의한 관계를 보이지 않았다. 서비스 만족척도의 전체점수에서 대학병원 환자군이 정신병원 환자군과 종합병원 환자군에 비하여 각각 유의하게 높았다. 결론 결론적으로 국내 정신의료기관에 입원한 환자들의 서비스 만족을 평가하기 위한 목적으로 개발된 본 척도는 높은 수준의 신뢰도와 타당도를 보였으며, 또 국내 정신의료 환경에 맞는 요인구조를 보였다. 따라서 정신의료 서비스에 대한 정신과 환자의 만족도에 대한 연구가 거의 없는 실정에서 본 척도의 개발은 향후 국내 정신의료의 질과 치료결과를 높이는 도구로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. Objectives : To develop and test the validity and reliability of a brief self-completed questionnaire (Service Satisfaction Scale : SSS) for routinely assessing the quality of service in psychiatric ward inpatients. Methods : A 30-item multidimensional questionnaire was developed by several steps of face validity and content validity. The questionnaire was administered to inpatients (n=348) discharged from psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals, and University hospitals. Construct validity was supported by performing principal component analysis. Reliability was estimated by calculating internal consistency of Cronbach's alpha. Results : Factor analysis yielded five factors comprising staff attitude, treatment quality, ward environment, access/cost, and ward rule, which account for 63.04% of the common variance. The internal consistency of the scale was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.95). The concurrent validity was supported by the significant correlation of each of five factors with item that measured overall satisfaction of SSS. Patients with neurosis (anxiety disorder, somatoform disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder) and mood disorders were significantly satisfied than those with psychosis and alcoholic disorders. Patients who admitted voluntarily were more significantly satisfied than those who admitted involuntarily. Sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, monthly income, education level, employment status and religion were not significantly different at the total scores of SSS. Similarly, clinical characteristics such as age of onset, duration of illness, lengths of hospital stay and number of previous hospitalization did not associate significantly with the total scores of SSS. Patients discharged from university hospitals were significantly more satisfied than those of the general and psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion : SSS performed well in the validity and reliability, indicating that it can be a useful tool for measuring Satisfaction of psychiatric inpatients in Korea.
Objectives: The peritoneal equilibration test(PET) is routinely performed in adults treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis to assess the peritoneal transport rate and to optimize treatment prescription. This study focuses on the evaluation of characteristics of peritoneal solute transport rates and physical and serological factors affecting peritoneal transport rate performed in our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) patients due to guide adequate peritoneal dialysis form. Methods: We analyzed 95 PET results which had been tested on the 28th day of CAVD and physical and serological values, such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, height, weight, body surface area, arterial blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, phosphate which had been obtained on the day of PET. Results: 1) According to transport rate, high transport rate group was 9 cases(9.5%), high average transport group 26 cases(27.4%), low average transport rate group 32 cases(33.6%), and low transport rate group 28 cases (29.5%) respectively. 2) The average of 4hour D/Pc_r was 0.60, 4hour D/Do glucose was 0.46, and drain volume was 2480ml. Thus the average of peritoneal solute transport rate of total patients was low average transport rate. 3) Factors affecting peritoneal solute transport rate were age, body surface area, plasma albumin, serum creatinine and triglyceride level. Conclusion: These findings suggest that high dose peritoneal dialysis form should be used in our CAPD patients because most of them have low average peritoneal transport rate, and age, body surface area, plasma albumin, serum creatinine, and triglyceride level should be considered when select the adequate peritoneal dialysis form.
본 증례는 수평 변위 매복과 치근 만곡을 가진 상악 중절치를 폐쇄 노출법을 이용한 교정적 견인을 시행하여 영구 전치의 기능과 심미성을 회복하였다. 상악 영구 전치가 수평으로 매복된 경우,가급적 조기에 발견하는 것이 중요하며, 촉진,시진,방사선 사진 등을 이용한 적절한 치료 계획의 수립이 필요하다. 상악 영구 전치의 매복이 조기에 적절히 치료되지 못하면 정중선의 변위,인접치의 이동에 의한 맹출 공간의 감소,치조골 높이의 차이 뿐만 아니라,이로 인한 심미적인 문제를 야기하여 소아 심리 발달에 해로운 영향을 줄 수 있기 때문이다. 매복치의 치료는 매복치의 형태,위치,상태에 따라 다양하나,주기적 관찰 방법,상부 연조직과 경조직을 단순히 제거하여 맹출을 유도하는 방법,외과적 노출 후 매복치를 교정적으로 견인하는 방법,치아 이식술,발치 등을 시행할 수 있다. 이중 이번 증례에서 시행한 매복치의 교정적 견인은 매복치의 치축이 정상 맹출로와 일치되지 않으며,주기적인 관찰 후 더 이상의 맹출이 기대되지 않을 때 시행하는 가장 일반적으로 적용되는 방법으로 매복의 심도,치아의 발육단계,만곡의 부위와 정도,수술방법과 견인방향 등을 고려하여 치료의 예후를 향상 시킬 수 있다. Maxillary central incisor impactions occur infrequently. Their origins include various local causes, such as odontoma, supernumerary teeth, space loss, and disturbances in the eruption path, also trauma and apical follicular cysts. Impacted teeth can cause serious dental and aesthetic difficulties as well as psychological problems especially in anterior regions. Although the impaction of maxillary incisor occurs less frequently than that of the maxillary canine. it is of concern to parents during the early mixed dentition stage because of the uneruption of the tooth. Forced eruption of impacted teeth should be considered in young patients because this technique can lead to suitable results from a periodontal, occlusal, and esthetic perspective at an earlier stage better than with other treatment options. This report presents the surgical and orthodontic treatment of cases with horizontally impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisors. For each patient. we used the closed eruption method. placed an attachment on the impacted tooth on surgery, and fully closed the flap. Traction was applied immediately. The impacted tooth erupts through the healed tissue in a manner resembling normal eruption.
Objective: Middle-aged and geriatric diseases are becoming prevalent in developing countries and some industrialized nations. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of middle-aged and geriatric diseases in Hwasun County, a rural area of Korea, and to examine the correlation between them and various clinical parameters. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study by random cluster sampling of registered residents over 39years of age was performed. Out of the 3,138 subjects scheduled for the survey, 2,021 residents (male 812, female 1,209) underwent the actual examinations(response rate:64.4%). We examined their weight, height, blood pressure, diet pattern, past and family history, alcohol-drinking and smoking history, and various laboratory parameters. Results: The mean body mass index (BMD was 22.8±3.8. In BMI criteria, the crude prevalence of obesity was found to be 24.6% (grade I obesity: 22.9%, grade II obesity; 1.7%). We found the increasing hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia as BNI increased. Overall crude prevalence was 21.4% for hypertension defined as BP (blood pressure) ≥140/90mmHg or subject on medication, and 16.1% for BP ≥160/100mmHg or subject on medication. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, alcoholic liver disease, ischemic heart disease diagnosed by electrocardiography were 6.2%, 6.0%, 4.4%, and 2.3%, respectively. These prevalence were found to be relatively lower than those of reported elsewhere in the world. Conclusion: These data indicate that middle-aged and geriatric diseases in the rural area of korea are becoming prevalent, although they are less prevalent than in the urban area or advanced countries. We hope that the present study contributes to understand the prevalence of middle-aged and geriatric diseases in the rural area of K and to prevent and control them adequately.
The β₃-adrenergic receptor is expressed in visceral adipose tissue in humans and is thought to contribute to the regulation of the resting metabolic rate and lipolysis. We studied the influence of a mutation in the β₃ -adrenergic receptor gene(Trp64Arg) on body fat distribution, central obesity, lipid metabolism in 65 healthy young male adults. One out of 65 subjects were homozygous (Arg/Arg) for the trp64Arg mutation, 17 subjects were heterozygous (Trp/Arg), and 47 lacked the mutation(Trp/Trp). The body weight, height, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio were similar between the subjects with- and without the mutation. Total body fat, abdominal fat amount, body fat distribution, serum total- and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin concentrations were also not different according to the presence or absence of the mutation. These results suggested that Trp64Arg mutation in β₃-adrenergic receptor gene is not a major contributing factor for central obesity or change in lipid metabolism in Korean young adults.
Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify the factors associated with life satisfaction of hospitalized Vietnam veterans. Material and Methods: The data were collected from 200 hospitalized Vietnam veterans of 5 veterans hospitals in Korea from September 13 to 23, 2004. Information of general characteristics, health behavior, disease history, family function, depression and life satisfaction were collected by structured questionnaire. Results: The mean of life satisfaction was 21.48(±6.03), and the mean of depression was 53.10(±9.64). The prevalence of depression was mild depression 24.0%, moderate depression 43.5% and severe depression 25.0%. Depression was associated with life satisfaction and depression was higher, life satisfaction was lower. Family function and age were positively associated with life satisfaction, Conclusion: Life satisfaction was affected by depression and family function in hospitalized Vietnam veterans. Therefore, it was thought that psychosocial approaches such as improve depression and family function in care of hospitalized Vietnam veterans is required.
Kim, Ja Eun,Kim, Sung Kwon,Shin, Jaekyung,Se, Young-Bem,Choi, Seung Hong,Park, Sung-Hye,Choi, Seung Ah,Lee, Ji Yeoun,Phi, Ji Hoon,Wang, Kyu-Chang,Park, Chul-Kee,Kim, Seung-Ki D.A. Spandidos 2017 Oncology letters Vol.13 No.3
<P>Cancer stem cells (CSCs), defined by CD133 expression, harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). This study aimed to investigate whether a subpopulation of CSCs could affect the radiographic characteristics of glioblastoma. Tissue samples from 10 patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma were selected according to the radiographic characteristics of their tumors. The patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating contrast enhancement, necrosis and infiltrative patterns: the enhancement/necrosis group (E/N, n=5) and the non-enhancement/infiltration group (NE/I, n=5). Flow cytometry was used to assess the CSCs while immunohistochemistry was used to study microvessel density and the proliferation index. The EPC (CD34<SUP>+</SUP>/CD133<SUP>+</SUP>) fraction in CSCs (CD133<SUP>+</SUP>) was larger in the NE/I group. However, there was little difference in the angiogenic activity assessed using microvessel density between the two groups. The proliferation index (assessed using the antibody Ki-67) was higher in the E/N group and was negatively correlated with the EPC fraction. The non-EPC (CD34<SUP>−</SUP>/CD133<SUP>+</SUP>) fraction is a major factor responsible for radiographic characteristics of contrast enhancement, thus establishing an association between a subpopulation fraction of CSCs and radiographic characteristics in glioblastoma. Therefore, the simple non-invasive assessment of studying contrast enhancement lesions in glioblastomas may be used to estimate CSC subpopulations.</P>
Kim, Minjeong,Jeong, Ji Seong,Kim, Hyunji,Hwang, Seungwoo,Park, Il-Hyun,Lee, Byung-Chul,Yoon, Sung Il,Jee, Sun Ha,Nam, Ki Taek,Lim, Kyung-Min The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2018 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.26 No.5
Phthalates widely used in the manufacture of plastics have deeply penetrated into our everyday lives. Recently, a concern over the toxicity of phthalates on thyroid, has been raised but in most of cases, the doses employed were unrealistically high. To investigate the effects of phthalates on thyroid, we investigated the effects of the repeated oral exposure to low to high doses (0.3, 3, 30 and 150 mg/kg) di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from weaning to maturity for 90 days in juvenile rats on the thyroid. The histological examination revealed that DEHP significantly induced hyperplasia in the thyroid from the doses of 30 mg/kg, which was confirmed with Ki67 staining. In line with this finding, increased mRNA expression of thyrotropin releasing hormone (Trh) was observed in the thyroid of female at 0.3 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg as determined by RNAseq analysis. Moreover, significantly increased expression of parathyroid hormone (Pth) in the female at 0.3 mg/kg, and thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid hormone responsive (Thrsp) in the male at 0.3 mg/kg were noted in the blood, of which changes were substantially attenuated at 150 m/kg, alluding the meaningful effects of low dose DEHP on the thyroid hormone regulation. Urinary excretion of mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP), a major metabolite of DEHP was determined to be 4.10 and 12.26 ppb in male, 6.65 and 324 ppb in female at 0.3 and 30 mg/kg DEHP, respectively, which fell within reported human urine levels. Collectively, these results suggest a potential adverse effects of low dose phthalates on the thyroid.