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Professor Erwin Epstein, chairman of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies, in his East West Education article (Spring, 1982) entitled "Toward the Internationalization of Comparative Education": A report on the World Council of Comprative Education Societies" provides a basically correct account of the historical development of the Council. However, when he ventures forth into the Council's objectives he confuses means with ends and introduces interpretations which are open to challenge. Epstein states that "the Council's development has been shaped by two contending aims: the first, growing initially out of correspondence among Brian Holmes, Gerald Read and Leo Fernig, has been to provide a small and select resource group to advise the International Bureau of Education on comparative education research projects and possibly undertake research, through nominated scholars in behalf of international agencies. The second, whose principal exponent is Joseph Katz, has found expression in the World Congresses.
Three telling cases by each of the authors are presented to demonstrate how an ethnographic perspective makes visible young children`s; (1) multiple identities and the many roles they enact in their lives and (2) co-construction of their knowledge from the resources available to them. Telling Case One: "The Storytelling Project" examines African American children`s written and oral narratives in preschool and kindergarten classrooms located in a low socio-economic urban community in the southeast region of the United States. Telling Case Two: “Narrative practices of Deaf & Hearing Students” explores how intertextuality influences the narrative practices of young deaf children in two kindergarten classrooms. And, Telling Case Three: "Large Group Meeting time" examines children`s and teacher`s interactions and various meaning making within and across their everyday large group meetings and classroom experiences. Findings from these three telling cases have implications for how curriculum affords or constrains children`s identities and the resources they use to construct their learning.
The question of $quot;other religions$quot;--as the late Sri Lankan Buddhist philosopher K N. Jayatilleke called them --is everywhere. For any religious thinker whether the founder of a movement who seeks to distinguish his creed from others, or a religious social architect who needs to create harmony among religions the question is inescapable. In this new millennium, heralded with the rhetoric of a global village, the search for. harmony and cooperation among religions appears to have taken on even greater urgency, as evidenced by recent attempts at a global theology by Huston Smith and at a global ethic by Hans Kng. It is against this background that we may consider the thought of Master Chongsan (1900-1962), the disciple of Master Sot'aesan (1891-1943), founder of the Won school of Buddhism Religious pluralism had been a salient feature of East Asian religious thinking ever since the introduction of Buddhism into China almost two millennia ago, and a variety of strategies for reconciling the thought of Confucius and Lao Tzu with that of the Buddha emerged. All proclaimed the harmony among the three major traditions of China. So pervasive was this Chinese tendency to seek harmony among religions that even the tiny Jewish community at Kai-feng joined in the ecumenical spirit. A banner in their synagogue proclaimed: $quot;Although our religion agrees in many respects with the religion of the literati, from which it differs in a slight degree, yet the main design of it is nothing more than reverence for Heaven, and veneration for ancestors, fidelity to the prince, and obedience to parents, just what is included in the five human relations, the five constant virtues, with the three principal connections of life.$quot; In most cases, Jews have upheld Judaism's distinctiveness from other religions, but under sway of the Chinese quest for harmony, Chinese Jews asserted the essential identity of Judaism with Chinese traditions. Writing at the middle of the twentieth century, Chongsan also sought harmony among religions. In his world, religious tensions were compounded by ideological ones as embodied by the bifurcation of his beloved home, Korea. He apparently found in these tensions a rich and creative source for his religious philosophy, especially his teaching of the Ethics of Triple Identity. Chongsan's solution to the problem of religious pluralism is essentially metaphysical, whereas other Buddhist thinkers at other times have approached similar issues from analytical, psychological, moral and/or political perspectives. After describing Chongsan's position, this paper will explore other Buddhist solutions to the same problem: those of the Buddha and of the great Indian emperor Ashoka Maurya. We will then speculate as to the impact of history on these formulations.
The purpose of this article is to report on analysis of three arts-based institutes in North America based on interviews, observations and physical artifacts, which used the arts like improvisational theatre, music and visual arts as a key part of their leadership curriculum. Four arts-based pedagogical processes were identified as having the potential to support creative thinking in educational leaders. Key features of those processes and directions for future research are also discussed.