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In this work ZrB2-ZrC compounds were prepared by sol-gel process. These materials were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, laser granulometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and nitrogen adsorption tests. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out using the FactSage® thermochemical software and databases. XRD revealed that ZrB2 and ZrC are the major phases present in the materials obtained in this study. It was observed that the relative amount of ZrB2 and ZrC in these samples can be tailored by controlling the concentration of H3BO3 in the starting solution. On one hand, laser granulometry and SEM tests revealed that the ZrB2- ZrC compounds prepared in this work show a coarse particle size distribution. On the other hand, they exhibited remarkable specific surface areas (about 150 m2 /g).
Essential oils (EOs) of eight plants collected in Choco, Colombia, including Piper divaricatum, P. pseudolanceifolium,P. confertinodum, P. diazanum, Ocimum campechianum, Siparuna conica, Mikania micrantha and Hedychiumcoronarium, were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and tested as repellents against Triboliumcastaneum, using the area preference method, after 2 and 4 h exposure. The main components found in EOswere methyl eugenol, trans-β-cariophyllene, methyl eugenol, α-pinene, δ-cadinene, γ-elemene, α-pinene and1,8-cineol, for O. campechianum, P. pseudolanceifolium, P. divaricatum, P. confertinodum, P. diazanum, S. conica,M. micrantha, and H. coronarium, respectively. Best repellent activities were observed for oils fromO. campechianum and P. pseudolanceifolium with mean repellent concentration (RC50) values of 0.00006 and0.0001 μL/cm2 after 2 h, and 0.00003 and 0.0001 μL/cm2 after 4 h, respectively; whereas the least potent wasthat from M. micrantha, with RC50 values of 0.074 and 0.040 μL/cm2 at 2 and 4 h exposure times, respectively. Based on average percentage repellence, oils from P. pseudolanceifolium and O. campechianum were classifiedas Class IV repellents and were better than the commercial repellent IR3535, classified as Class II. These data evidencethe Choco region as an important source of natural repellents with promising commercial opportunities.
Mahigit dalawang milyong tao ang nawalan ng tahanan at lumikas dahil sa kaguluhan sa Mindanao noong 2000 hanggang 2009. Sa panandaliang paghupa ng kaguluhan, sila ay bumalik sa kanilang komunidad upang simulan ang proseso ng muling pagtatag ng kanilang buhay. Ihinahayag ng artikulong ito kung ano ang naiambag ng mga babae sa proseso ng pagtatag matapos ang kaguluhan. Ito ay isang pag-aaral kung paano nakatulong ang mga babae sa pamamagitan ng paglahok sa mga gawaing pangkabuhayan. Tinitignan nito ang kinahinatnan ng limang proyektong pangkabuhayan na naisakatuparan sa indanao sa mga taong 2000 hanggang 2010. Sinukat ang saklaw ng ambag ng mga kababaihan sa proseso ng pagtatag sa pamamagitan ng pagtukoy ng mga benepisyong naibigay nila sa kanilang pamilya at komunidad, na siyang naging bunga ng kanilang paglahok sa mga gawaing pangkabuhayan. Pinatotohanan ng artikulong ito na ang paglahok ng mga babae sa iba't ibang gawaing pangkabuhayan ay nakatulong sa proseso ng pagtatag sa aspetong ekonomiko, sosyal at politikal ng mga komunidad na apektado ng kaguluhan. Ikinikumpara din ng artikulong ito ang paglahok ng mga babae sa mga gawaing pangkabuhayan sa ibang mga paraan ng pagtatag na naisakatuparan ng mga gobiyerno at mga ahensya. Isinusulong nito ang paglaan ng mga gawaing pangkabuhayan na hinihimok ang paglahok ng mga babae bilang isang mahusay ng paraan para maisakatuparan ang proseso ng pagtatag matapos ang kaguluhan. The conflict inMindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.
Karina,Pasten-Hidalgo,Leticia,Riveron-Negrete,Gloria,Sicilia-Argumedo,Gustavo,Canul-Medina,Tonatiuh,Salazar-Anzures,Miguel,Tapia-Rodrıguez,Enrique,O.,Hernandez-Gonzalez,Ana,Lilia,Roa-Espitia,Carlos,Ce 한국식품영양과학회 2020 Journal of medicinal food Vol.23 No.5
Supplements containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin are commercially available over the counter. Classical toxicity studies have considered biotin administration as harmless; however, recent investigations have shown that biotin supplementation modifies tissue morphology without changes in toxicity markers, raising concerns about the consequences of morphological changes on tissues' functions and the safety of pharmacological concentrations of the vitamin. Testes are very sensitive to toxicants, and testicular histology is a reliable method to study its function. In this work, we investigated the effects of dietary biotin supplementation on testis morphology and spermatogenesis function using an experimental model, in which we have not observed unfavorable effects on other tissue functions or toxicity markers. Male BALB/cAnNHsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Compared to the control group, the biotin-supplemented mice presented remarkable testis morphology changes, including increased spermatogonia layers; the cellular mechanism involved is related to increased proliferation. Sperm count and serum testosterone levels were not affected, but spermatozoa motility and morphology were significantly impaired in the biotin-supplemented mice. These results caution against the use of supplements with high concentrations of biotin and indicate that biotin's pharmacological effects on morphology need to be considered in toxicological studies.
Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), manual acupuncture (MA), and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) are used to treat a variety of pain conditions. These non-pharmacological treatments are often thought to work through similar mechanisms, and thus should have similar effects for different types of pain. However, it is unclear if each of these treatments work equally well on each type of pain condition. The purpose of this study was to compared the effects of TENS, MA, and SCS on neuropathic, inflammatory, and non-inflammatory pain models. Methods: TENS 60 Hz, 200 μs, 90% motor threshold (MT), SCS was applied at 60 Hz, an intensity of 90% MT, and a 0.25 ms pulse width. MA was performed by inserting a stainless-steel needle to a depth of about 4-5 mm at the Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints on a spared nerve injury (SNI), knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan), and non-inflammatory muscle pain (intramuscular pH 4.0 injections) in rats. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the paw, muscle, and/or joint were assessed before and after induction of the pain model, and daily before and after treatment. Results: The reduced withdrawal thresholds were significantly reversed by application of either TENS or SCS (P < 0.05). MA, on the other hand, increased the withdrawal threshold in animals with SNI and joint inflammation, but not chronic muscle pain. Conclusions: TENS and SCS produce similar effects in neuropathic, inflammatory and non-inflammatory muscle pain models while MA is only effective in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models.
The paper explores how experts in Japan assess and understand the process and consequences of the unification of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). Based on the theoretical framework of interrelations between social identity and power, this paper asks how Japanese experts frame the process of Korean unification and evaluate its impact on Japan. The data was collected in Tokyo, Japan, through 37 semi-structured and focus group interviews, then examining these interviews using phenomenological and critical discourse analysis. Analysis of data reveals the existence of four competing narratives rooted in the complex relations between meaning of identity, concepts of power, and Japanese policies toward the unification process. The paper expands the description of two narratives currently present in the existing literature, (1) threat and (2) peace, and introduces two new narratives, (3) democratic processes and (4) restorative justice. The final discussion explores how three groups of factors, (1) regional dynamics, (2) domestic policy, and (3) possible models of unification, influence the prevalence of a particular narrative as well as resulting policies of Japan toward Korean unification.
The Goldilocks technique for breast reconstruction utilizes redundant mastectomy flap tissue to construct a breast mound. This technique is suitable for women who decline, or are poor candidates for, traditional postmastectomy reconstruction. Moreover, this technique can be applied in secondary operations after the failure of initial reconstruction efforts. A 74-yearold patient underwent the Goldilocks procedure after reconstruction failure with an implant and acellular dermal matrix. At her 6-month follow-up, the cosmetic outcome of the procedure was satisfactory, and no complications were noted. Therefore, the Goldilocks procedure is a safe alternative to reconstruct breast mounds following reconstruction failure, especially in obese patients.
This paper analyzes the coercive and legitimate forms of power in Ukraine. It describes the crisis of legitimacy in Ukraine as a contradiction between a blatantly cruel system of capitalism dominated by a few oligarchs, and the lingering remnants of a Soviet mentality. Two strategies are used by the Government to stoke the crisis. First, increased identification with ethnic or regional groups are instrumentally used by the Government to take attention from economic and class issues. Second, the incorporation of a Soviet meaning of power into the new national identity and presentation of it as core norms, believes, and values of the people of Ukraine competes with alternative Ukrainian identity concepts. The paper analyzes five main features of the Soviet meanings of power – political, social, and economic paternalism, perception of power as source of profit and violence, and the dual reality of power with the gap between official narratives of power and a real life. The process of incorporation of the Soviet concept of power into national identity is facilitated by the process of national identity formation that helped to preserve the Soviet perception of power, because of the absence of a new ideology, a lack of critical assessment of the Soviet past, an absence of the vision of outcome, an embryonic culture of democracy, and contributions of all the presidents to the preservation of the Soviet meaning of power. People justify the system as legitimate and fair for many reasons: out of historic habit and deemed moral obligations, self-interests and/or a fear of sanctions, identification with the ruler, zones of indifference, an absence of will and self-confidence, desire to support a strong leader based on ambiguity intolerance, hierarchy – enhancing ideologies, and a general tolerance of injustice. The obedience of subjects is connected with the strength of will of the subjects and the social structures of the society. In Ukraine, the society is not united, not organized, has no identity of “us”, no civic accountability, nor even any real interest in such matters. Civil society levels are very low, as reflected by limited opportunities for civic responsibility and participation and few demands from the society.
Faithful and accurate replication of the DNA molecule is essential for eukaryote organisms. Nonetheless, in the last few years it has become evident that inheritance of the chromatin states associated with different regions of the genome is as important as the faithful inheritance of the DNA sequence itself. Such chromatin states are deter-mined by a multitude of factors that act to modify not only the DNA molecule, but also the histone proteins associ-ated with it. For instance, histones can be posttranslation-ally modified, and it is well established that these post-translational marks are involved in several essential nu-clear processes such as transcription and DNA repair. However, recent evidence indicates that posttranslational modifications of histones might be relevant during DNA replication. Hence, the aim of this review is to describe the most recent publications related to the role of histone posttranslational modifications during DNA replication.
Chemometric models using mid-infrared (MID-FTIR) spectroscopy were developed for detection and quantification of oxytetracycline and sulfathiazole contamination in honey samples. Low standard error of calibration (SEC) and prediction (SEP) values were achieved using a partial least squares algorithm (SEC= 1.02 and SEP=1.39 for oxytetracycline and SEC=1.24 and SEP=1.79 for sulfathiazole). Chemometric model-predicted concentrations of antibiotics were compared with ELISA results with coefficient of determination R2=0.8577 for oxytetracycline and R2=0.8216 for sulfathiazole. Classification of antibiotic contaminated honey samples and uncontaminated samples was carried out using Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy analysis with a 100% correct classification rate with interclass distances in the range of 6.93-13.3. MID-FTIR chemometric models developed for detection and quantification of oxitetracycline and sulfathiazole in honey samples have been demonstrated.