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Purpose: The preferred material for bone augmentation beyond the envelope of skeletal bone is the bone block graft, due to its dimensional stability. We evaluated the necessity of rigid fixation for the bone block graft, and compared the bone regeneration and volume maintenance associated with grafting using a synthetic hydroxyapatite block (HAB) and an autogenous bone block (ABB) without rigid fixation on rabbit calvaria over two different periods. Methods: Cylinder-shaped synthetic HAB and ABB were positioned without fixation on the rabbit calvarium (n=16). The animals were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks postoperatively, and the grafted materials were analyzed at each healing period using microcomputed tomography and histologic evaluation. Results: Integration of the graft and the recipient bed was observed in all specimens, although minor dislocation of the graft materials from the original position was evident in some specimens (six ABB and ten HAB samples). A tendency toward progressive bone resorption was observed in the grafted ABB but not in the grafted HAB, which maintained an intact appearance. In the HAB group, the area of new bone increased between 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The nonfixed HAB was successfully integrated into the recipient bed after both healing periods in the rabbit calvaria. In spite of limited bone formation activity in comparison to ABB, HAB may be a favorable substitute osteoconductive bone material.
A palladium-catalyzed C-H arylation reaction of nitroimidazoles and nitropyrazoles was developed using aryl bromides as arene donors. The electron-withdrawing effect of the nitro group allows for direct C-H arylation reactions of the nitro diazoles with high regioselectivity under mild conditions. The new C-H arylation approach is thus complementary to nucleophilic substitution reactions, enabling the preparation of complex nitroazole compounds.
The plastid ribosomal protein s16 (rps16) gene was cloned from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ssp. tuberosum cv De'sire'e) by PCR amplification to obtain a new homologous recombination site of plastid transformation. The potato rps16 genomic clone was 1627 bp in size and the coding region was interrupted by an 859 bp intron. Exon I was 40 bp, encoding 13 amino acids and exonⅡ was 227 bp, encoding a 76 amino acid polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence of the rps16 gene from the "De'sire'e" potato shared perfect identity with the sequence from the "Superior" potato in the coding region. Three nucleotide substitutions, two nucleotide insertions, and one nucleotide deletion were found between the intron sequence of both "De'sire'e" and "Superior" cultivars. The amino acid sequence of the potato rps16 gene showed a high level of identity with rice, maize, tobacco, and mustard (84-94%) and a relatively low level compared with Bacillus stearothermophilus and E. coli (27-28%). Expression of the rps16 gene was strong in chloroplasts and transcripts were detectable in amylopasts, suggesting that the rps16 gene is active in nonphotosynthetic plastids as well as in photosynthetic plastids. These results indicate that the potato rps16 gene can be used as a new homologous recombination site of plastid transformation for potato cultivars.
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, accounting for 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. MPNST is characteristically aggressive and has a poor prognosis. Fifty percent of patients with MPNST have neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF-associated MPNST occurs more often at younger ages than sporadic MPNST, but the survival difference is controversial. Superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma is extremely rare and only a limited number of cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report an unusual case of superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma in a patient without NF1.