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다양한 차세대 PC 및 휴대폰과 같은 개인 휴대 기기의 발달로 인하여 PMG (Personal Mobile Gateway)를 기반으로 하는 PAN의 보급의 보편화와, 이를 기반으로 하는 다양한 서비스 출현이 예상된다. 이러한 휴대 게이트웨이를 중심으로 다양한 소형 단말로 구성된 PAN을 홈과 지속적으로 연결하여 가정내외(家庭內外) 네트워크가 통합된 가상 홈 네트워크를 구성함으로써, 언제 어디서나 편리하게 홈 서비스를 이용할 수 있는 환경 구성 필요하다. 가정내기기 간 연동은 다양한 표준화를 거쳐 서비스 단계에 접어들었지만, 휴대 게이트웨이 기반으로 하는 새로운 형태의 소규모 네트워크인 PAN과 연동을 위한 서비스 및 미들웨어에 대한 연구는 미약한 실정이다. PAN과 연동을 위하여 사용자의 위치나 네트워크 상황에 맞추어 중단 없는 최선의 서비스를 지원할 수 있는 서비스/연결 제어 방식, 단말기 제어 방식, 그리고 확장된 미들웨어에 대한 연구가 절실하다. 본 논문에서는 휴대 게이트웨이와 소형 단말로 구성된 PAN을 홈과 연결하여 가정내외 네트워크가 통합된 가상 홈 네트워크를 구성함으로써, 언제 어디서나 편리한 가상 홈 서비스를 이용하기 위해 필요한 기능들을 비교 분석하였고, 기존의 홈 게이트웨이나 홈 서버에서 추가 되어야 할 내용별로 제안 하였다. With the progress of portable appliances such as cell phone and handheld PC, the popularization of Personal Area Network (PAN) and the diversification of services that are based on Personal Mobile Gateway (PMG). To use home services at any time regardless of their position, it needs a virtual home network that a home network and outside networks are fully integrated. Although interoperability among home appliances reached their service stage, research for services and middleware for new small scale network such as PAN is at an early stage. Traditional home network service/connection methods, terminal control schemes, and middlewares must be extended to accommodate PMG-based PAN. In this paper, we propose an integrated virtual home network platform that guarantees seamless connections between home network and PAN. We also analyze indispensable functions and presents functions that should be added existent home gateway or home server by function.
An activity was under taken for the purpose of identifying the types of functions performed by Public Health Nurses in the City Health Clinics, in order to provide a basis for more systematic and regular studies in the future. Three of the nine Health Centers in the City of Seoul were selected, and one staff Nurse form each division(Maternal Health, Child Health, Family Planning, and Tuberculosis) was selected form each Health Center for observation during the present study. At the time of the study there was an outbreak of Cholera in the southern parts of the country, therefore the activities of the Nureses in two of the Health Centers were observed in a time of increased emergency activity. These two centers were the Joong Ku and the Yong san Health Centers. Activities were normal at the third center, Tong Tae Moon Health Center. 1) The nursing activities of each nurse were observed by herself in Joong Ku Health Center and by a student nurse in the others for two week Period. The observations were recorded on a simplified version of the WHO form 3032, which had been adapted to include home visiting. The observations of the staff nurse functions may be summarized as follows: 30∼45% Patient care activities.(Composed mainly of interviewing and consultation). 25∼30% Visiting Nurse Services(visits to home, orphanages, industrial and educational agencies, etc. Consisted mostly of home visits) 15∼25% Management activites 10∼20% Personnel activities (educational and administrative activities. Consisted mainly of student nurse education, record-keeping and other clerical activities). 10∼20% Miscellaneous(rest and personal time. Includes transportation in Health Center.) 2) Because of an outbreak of cholera in the summer of 1970, the activities of the nurses at the Joong Ku and Yong San Health Centers were concentrated on emergency prevention during the period of observation. Such activities made up 25 to 50% of the Total. For this reason, such routime activities as patient care, home visits, etc. were less in proportion to the total when compared with the Tong Tae Moon Center. The actual amount of time spent on these activities however, did not differ significantly in the three Health Centers. This can be accounted for by the fact that the nurses worked overtime to meet the demands of the emergency situation. There was a decrease in the time spent in home visiting among the Maternal and Child Health Nurses at the time of the emergency. 3) In reviewing the above findings concerning the type of service as outlined in the WHO form 3027, the fixed assignments,(that is, those concerning the clinic operation), occupied from 50 to 75% of the total activities of each staff nurse, in Tong Tae Moon Health Center, decreasing the amount of time available for home visiting. In the two Health Centers in which emergency activities were being carried on this proportion was decreased to less than 50%, although the actual amount of time spent in these activities was not decreased. In contrast, the home visiting activities in these two centers decreased not only in proportion but also in the amount of actual time devoted to them. 4) In the Tuberculosis prograns the home visiting function was not performed by the nurse directly, but dedlegated to a health aide. The nurses observed in the Family Planning Programs spent the largest proportion of their time in home visiting. 5) When the level of skill required is considered, non-professional activities make up 15 to 30% of the total time spent by the nurses at the Tong Tae Moon Health Center. In the other two Health Centers the actual time spent on such activities was not decreased during the emergency period, but the proportion of the total work time spent on these activities decreased. It seems reasonable to assume that the use of non-prefessional personnel for these functions would enable the nursing staff to devote more time to professional activites, espcially home visiting.
The influence of room temperature flat rolling on microstructure, mechanical properties, and shape change in twinninginducedplasticity (TWIP) steel wire has been investigated to understand the deformation behaviors of flat rolled wire inTWIP steel and to apply TWIP steels to flat rolled wire products. Numerical simulation, hardness test, and EBSD techniqueswere used to analyze the distribution of strain, mechanical properties, and microstructure of flat rolled TWIP steel wire. Theshape of flat rolled TWIP steel wire was also evaluated and compared with plain carbon steels having low strain hardeningrate. A very different behavior of hardness, strain, twinning, and KAM value was observed with area of flat rolled wire dueto the different stress state and strain with area of wire. The center area had the maximum twin density, KAM value, effectivestrain, and hardness; whereas free surface area had the minimum values. The hardness inhomogeneity factor (HIF) along thehorizontal direction was much higher in comparison with that of the vertical direction. The maximum HIF value occurredat the specific reduction in height, i.e., 27%. This means HIF value gradually increased and then decreased with reduction inheight, which is inconsistent with the results of plain carbon steel and Cu wire. The lateral spread and width of contact areaof flat rolled TWIP steel wire were lower than those of plain carbon steels, indicating that material properties such as strainhardening exponent are crucial parameters that influence the shape of flat rolled wire products.
Limiting amino acids (AAs) for milk production in dairy cows fed on a concentrate diet of corn grain and soybean meal was evaluated in this study. Four lactating and multiparous Holstein cows (in third or fourth parities, with an average body weight of 633 ± 49.2 kg), 8 to 9 weeks into their lactation period, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experiment comprised four dietary treatments: (1) no intravenous infusion (control); (2) control plus intravenous infusion of an AA mixture of 6 g/d methionine, 19.1 g/d lysine, 13.8 g/d isoleucine, and 15.4 g/d valine (4AA); (3) control plus intravenous infusion of the AA mixture without methionine (no-Met); and (4) control plus intravenous infusion of the AA mixture without lysine (no-Lys). All animals were fed on a controlled diet (1 kg/d alfalfa hay, 10 kg/d silage, 14 kg/d concentrate mixture, ad libitum timothy hay). The AA composition of the diet and blood were determined using an automatic AA analyzer. Milk composition (protein, fat, lactose, urea nitrogen, and somatic cell counts) was determined using a MilkoScan. The results showed that feed intake for milk production did not differ from that of intravenous infusion using a limiting AA mixture. The 4AA treatment numerically had the highest milk yield (32.4 kg/d), although there was no difference when compared with the control (31.2 kg/d), no-Met (31.3 kg/d), and no-Lys (31.7 kg/d) treatments. The concentration of AAs in blood plasma of cows in all treatments, mainly isoleucine and valine, increased significantly compared with that of control. The no-Met treatment increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of lysine in the blood relative to the control and no-Lys treatments, whereas the no-Lys treatment increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of methionine relative to the control and no-Met treatments. In conclusion, milk production increased when feeding 10 g/d methionine to the cows, together with their concentrate diet of corn grain and soybean meal.
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The pelvic ganglia provide autonomic innervations to the various urogenital organs, such as the urinary bladder, prostate, and penis. It is well established that both sympathetic and parasympathetic synaptic transmissions in autonomic ganglia are mediated mainly by acetylcholine (ACh). Until now, however, the properties of ACh-induced currents and its receptors in pelvic ganglia have not clearly been elucidated. In the present study, biophysical characteristics and molecular nature of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were studied in sympathetic and parasympathetic major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons. MPG neurons isolated from male rat were enzymatically dissociated, and ionic currents were recorded by using the whole cell variant patch clamp technique. Total RNA from MPG neuron was prepared, and RT-PCR analysis was performed with specific primers for subunits of nAChRs. ACh dose-dependently elicited fast inward currents in both sympathetic and parasympathetic MPG neurons (EC<SUB>50</SUB>; 41.4μM and 64.0μM, respectively). ACh-induced currents showed a strong inward rectification with a reversal potential near 0 mV in current-voltage relationship. Pharmacologically, mecamylamine as a selective antagonist for α3β4 nAChR potently inhibited the ACh-induced currents in sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons (IC<SUB>50</SUB>; 0.53μM and 0.22μM, respectively). Conversely, α- bungarotoxin, α-methyllycaconitine, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, which are known as potent and sensitive blockers for α7 or α4β2 nAChRs, below micromolar concentrations showed negligible effect. RT-PCR analysis revealed that α3 and β4 subunits were predominantly expressed in MPG neurons. We suggest that MPG neurons have nAChRs containing α3 and β4 subunits, and that their activation induces fast inward currents, possibly mediating the excitatory synaptic transmission in pelvic autonomic ganglia.
The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes V) contains cell bodies of primary afferent sensory neurons that relay proprioceptive information from the periodontium and masticatory muscles and function as typical sensory neurons or potentially as integrative interneurons. In the present study, we studied these two potential functions using combined experimental approaches of retrograde labeling and whole cell patch clamp recording. Mes V neurons that presumably originate from periodontal nerve fibers in subsets of Mes V nucleus were identified by retrograde labeling with a fluorescent dye, DiI, which was applied onto inferior alveolar nerve. These cells were elliptical perikarya shaped cells about 40μmin diameter. In these neurons, we measured high voltage-activated calcium channel (HVACC) currents GABAв agonist, baclofen, inhibited calcium currents, and the HVACC currents inhibition by baclofen was voltage-dependent, exhibited prepulse facilitation, indicating that it was mediated by Gi/Go protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Mes V neurons not only have cell bodies originating from periodontium, but also receive synaptic inputs including GABAergic neurons suggesting that Mes V neurons function as both primary sensory neurons and integrative interneurons.
( Joong-hwa Kim ), ( Kyung-hyun Lee ), ( Se-jin Sung ), ( Kyung-min Kang ), ( Yun-kyong Lim ), ( Joong-ki Kook ), ( Won-pyo Lee ), ( Byung-ock Kim ), ( Sang-joun Yu ) 조선대학교 치의학연구원(구 조선대학교 구강생물학연구소) 2020 口腔生物學硏究 Vol.44 No.1
This study aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate extract (PE) on the progression of periodontal disease in an experimental rat model of periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced in rats by placing a 5-0 black silk ligature and injecting a lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis into the gingiva. Distilled water (DW) or PE solution was orally administered daily, and the animals were sacrificed after 3 weeks. Tissue specimens of the periodontitis model were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were significantly reduced in ligation (Lig)+PE 22 μg/mL and Lig+PE 44 μg/mL groups, but there was no statistically significant difference in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 levels. Furthermore, micro-CT imaging demonstrated that alveolar bone resorption was inhibited in Lig+PE 22 μg/mL and Lig+PE 44 μg/mL groups compared with that in the Lig+DW group. These results demonstrate that PE has an inhibitory effect on the progression of alveolar bone loss caused by periodontal inflammation by reducing the expression levels of COX-1 and COX-2 in the process of periodontal disease.
Background: Few studies have reported about facial herpes zoster and its complications in the Korean dermatologic literature. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate epidemiology, clinical features, and complications of facial herpes zoster. Methods: We analyzed 977 patients who visited Sanggye Paik Hospital between January 2002 and December 2017. We categorized them into 8 groups based on dermatomes. We investigated the correlations between clinical features, prognosis, and complications. Results: The most common site of involvement of facial herpes zoster was the ophthalmic branch (59.2%). Herpes zoster involving the ophthalmic and maxillary branches showed a significantly higher incidence rate of herpes zoster ophthalmicus than that involving only the ophthalmic branch (odds ratio 7.373). Age and periorbital swelling were significantly correlated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (p<0.001). Facial palsy was significantly correlated with otalgia and cutaneous ear involvement (p <0.001). Patients who received antiviral treatment within 3 days showed lower rates of postherpetic neuralgia (35.8%) than patients who received treatment after 4 days (45.4%) (p=0.002). Conclusion: Facial herpes zoster is associated with several complications. Age, periorbital swelling, otalgia, and cutaneous ear involvement are useful predictors of complications and prognosis. Early institution of antiviral treatment is required for better outcomes.
Hee-Joong Hwang(황희중), Dong-Jin Shin(신동진), Jung-Wan Lee(이정완), Dong-Ho Kim(김동호), Jong-Ho Lee(이종호), Byung-Goo Kim(김병구), Tae-Joong Kim(김태중), Yong-Ki Lee(이용기), Eung-Kyo Suh(서응교), Min-Soo Kang(강민수), Won-Jae Seo(서원재), ) 한국유통과학회 2018 유통과학연구 Vol.16 No.5
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Purpose – Journals of Korea Distribution Science Association (KODISA) made great efforts in responding to the constant shifts in academic paradigms and in producing synergetic effects among KODISA journals to achieve the goal of maintaining their status in the world's reputable scholarly journals. The aim of this study is to analyze the current practice and performance of KODISA journals and develop strategies that will continuously meet and respond to the changes and success in the future. Research design, data, and methodology – This is a case study, an analytical approach, which focuses on analyzing current and previous strategies, practices, and performances of the four major journals of KODISA and the association. The organizational structure, including election and terms of KODISA officers, new membership, and members of editorial board, is discussed and analyzed. The citation, submission, publication, and rejection rates of all four journals are examined, and the progress, including the status of indexing of each journal, is discussed. Results – The analysis indicates that KODISA has significantly invested its resources into improving its journals and attracting new members. The analysis also shows the strategy of the organizational structure, which includes election and terms of officers and editorial board members that implemented over the years, was successful. Both Journal of Distribution Science (JDS) and Journal of Finance, Economics, and Business (JAFEB) are indexed in SCOPUS, with East Asian Journal of Business Management (EAJBM) in the final stage of the SCOPUS indexing evaluation, and International Journal of Industrial Distribution and Business (IJIDB) will complete and submit their indexing evaluation materials to SCOPUS this summer. Conclusions – The success and progress of KODISA and its journals clearly support the need for continuous development, analysis, revision, and implementation of strategies. Based on the analysis, conducting the annual performance reviews of the association and its journals and planning and strategizing based on the reviews since 2011 have greatly contributed to the overall success. In terms of meeting the short term strategy, KODISA has to continue developing relationships with relevant and appropriate scholarly/academic associations to expand the scope of its business, establishing independence of each journal and its respective procedures and practices and improving the quality of the journals and their publications through KODISA's international conferences.