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      • KCI우수등재

        증거법의 역사적 기초

        John H. Langbein 조기영(Cho GiYeong) 한국형사법학회 2016 刑事法硏究 Vol.28 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 글은 미국 예일 대학교 로스쿨 John H. Langbein 교수의 논문인『증거법의 역사적 기초-라이더 자료에 기초한 관점- 』을 번역한 것이다. Langbein 교수는 미국 의 저명한 법사학자로서 영미법과 대륙법의 역사, 비교법 등을 연구하는 학자이다. Langbein 교수는 민사 및 형사절차의 역사와 근대 미국법과 대륙법에 관한 많은 비교법적 논문을 저술한 바 있으며, 2000년 법사학 분야에서의 “선구적 업적”을 이유로 미국 법사학회로부터 서덜랜드(Sutherland) 상을 수상하였으며, 그의 저서 『당사 자주의 형사재판의 기원(2003)』은 2006년 법학분야 우수 저서로 Coif 저술상(격년) 에 선정되기도 하였다. 2009년 Langbein 교수는 법체계의 역사에 관한 교과서인『보통법의 역사: 앵글로아메리칸 법제도의 발전』을 공저로 출간하기도 하였다. Langbein 교수는 1987년 미국 예술 및 과학 학술원 회원으로 선정되었으며, 캠브리지 대학 Trinity Hall의 명예회원이며 영국학사원의 특별회원이기도 하다. 이 논문에서 Langbein 교수는 미국 증거법의 선구자인 Wigmore 교수가 참조할 수 없었던 자료인 영국 라이더 판사의 재판노트에 대한 분석을 중심으로 근대 영미 증거법의 역사적 기원을 탐구하고 있다. 그 결과 Langbein 교수는 18세기 말 영국에 서의 당사자주의 형사절차의 발흥에서 영미 증거법의 역사적 기원을 발견할 수 있다고 주장한다. 즉, 종래 변호사 부재의 영국 형사재판이 변호사에 의해 장악 내지 주도되게 됨에 따라, 과거 판사가 배심원을 통제하며 재판을 지배할 때 법원의 재량에 속했던 전문법칙과 같은 증거법칙이 18세기 말과 19세기를 거치면서 증거능력 배제 법칙으로 형성되었다는 것이다. This paper is a translation of the above mentioned article of Professor John H. Langbein of Yale University, School of Law. John H. Langbein is a Professor of Law and Legal History at Yale University. He is an eminent legal historian and teaches and writes in the fields of Anglo-American and European legal history, modern comparative law and so forth. Professor Langbein has written extensively about the history of civil and criminal procedure, and about the contrasts between modern American and Continental procedure. His book, The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial (2003), received the Coif Biennial Book Award (2006) as the outstanding American book on law. In 2000 the American Society for Legal History awarded him the Sutherland Prize for his "pioneering work" in legal history. In 2009 he published History of the Common Law: The Development of Anglo-American Legal Institutions (with R. Lerner & B. Smith), a textbook on the history of the legal system. Professor Langbein was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1987. He is an honorary fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and a corresponding fellow of the British Academy. In this Article Professor Langbein trace the historical foundations of the modern law of evidence in Anglo-American System by emphasizing a novel historical source, the judge's notes of Sir Dudley Ryder. According to Professor Langbein, the rise of adversary criminal procedure, that is, counsel's capture of the previously lawyer-free criminal trial could be a reasonably likely cause of the rise of the modern evidence law. Evidentiary concerns such as hearsay that had remained within judicial discretion when the judge still dominated the trial were reformulated at the end of the eighteenth century and across the nineteenth century into rules of admissibility and exclusion

      • KCI등재

        보통법상 자기부죄거부 특권의 역사적 기원

        John,H.,Langbein,조기영 전북대학교 동북아법연구소 2016 동북아법연구 Vol.10 No.2

        이 글은 미국 예일 대학교 로스쿨 John H. Langbein 교수의 논문인『보통법상 자기부죄거부 특권의 기원』을 번역한 것이다. Langbein 교수는 미국의 저명한 법사학자로서 영미법과 대륙법의 역사, 비교법 등을 연구하는 학자이다. Langbein 교수는 민사 및 형사절차의 역사와 근대 미국법과 대륙법에 관한 많은 비교법적 논문을 저술한 바 있으며, 2000년 법사학 분야에서의 “선구적 업적”을 이유로 미국 법사학회로부터 서덜랜드(Sutherland) 상을 수상하였으며, 그의 저서 『당사자주의 형사재판의 기원(2003)』은 2006년 법학분야 우수 저서로 Coif 저술상(격년)에 선정되기도 하였다. 2009년 Langbein 교수는 법체계의 역사에 관한 교과서인『보통법의 역사 : 앵글로아메리칸 법제도의 발전』을 공저로 출간하기도 하였다. Langbein 교수는 1987년 미국 예술 및 과학 학술원 회원으로 선정되었으며, 캠브리지 대학 Trinity Hall의 명예회원이며 영국학사원의 특별회원이기도 하다. 이 논문에서 Langbein 교수는 보통법상 자기부죄거부의 특권의 진정한 기원은 영국혁명의 정치가 아닌 18세기 말 당사자주의 형사절차의 발흥에서 발견할 수 있다고 주장한다. 즉, 보통법상 자기부죄거부 특권은 형사변호인의 작품이다. 17세기 중반부터 18세기 후반까지, 보통법상 피고인을 위한 기본적인 보호 장치는 묵비할 수 있는 권리라기보다는 오히려 진술할 수 있는 기회였다. 이러한 성격으로 형사재판이 형성되도록 한 절차상의 특성 중에 가장 근본적인 것은 형사변호인을 금지한 규칙이었다. 형사변호인의 금지는 처음에는 반역사건에서 그 다음에는 중죄사건으로 1696년에서 1836년까지 단계적으로 완화되었다. Langbein 교수의 주장은 18세기 후반 특히 19세기 형사변호인의 영향 아래 자기부죄거부의 특권이 재판 구조의 재구성의 일부분으로서 보통법 절차(합리적인 의심이 없는 정도의 증명 기준과 근대 형사증거법의 증거배제 장치와 함께)에 들어오게 되었다는 것이다. 즉, 변호인에 의한 형사재판의 장악이 형사피고인으로 하여금 자기 자신에 대한 증인이 되는 것을 거부하는 것을 가능하도록 하였다는 것이다. This paper is a translation of the above mentioned article of Professor John H. Langbein of Yale University, School of Law. John H. Langbein is a Professor of Law and Legal History at Yale University. He is an eminent legal historian and teaches and writes in the fields of Anglo-American and European legal history, modern comparative law and so forth. Professor Langbein has written extensively about the history of civil and criminal procedure, and about the contrasts between modern American and Continental procedure. His book, The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial (2003), received the Coif Biennial Book Award (2006) as the outstanding American book on law. In 2000 the American Society for Legal History awarded him the Sutherland Prize for his "pioneering work" in legal history. In 2009 he published History of the Common Law : The Development of Anglo-American Legal Institutions (with R. Lerner & B. Smith), a textbook on the history of the legal system. Professor Langbein was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1987. He is an honorary fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and a corresponding fellow of the British Academy. In this Article Professor Langbein explains that the true origins of the common law privilege are to be found not in the high politics of the English revolutions, but in the rise of adversary criminal procedure at the end of the eighteenth century. The privilege against self-incrimination at common law was the work of defense counsel. According to Professor Langbein, from the middle of the sixteenth century until late in the eighteenth century, the fundamental safeguard for the defendant in common law criminal procedure was not the right to remain silent, but rather the opportunity to speak. The essential purpose of the criminal trial was to afford the accused an opportunity to reply in person to the charges against him. Among the attributes of the procedure that imported this character to the criminal trial, the most fundamental was the rule that forbade defense counsel. The prohibition upon defense counsel was relaxed in stages from 1696 until 1836, initially for treason, then for felony. In the later eighteenth century and especially in the nineteenth century, the privilege against self-incrimination entered common law procedure (together with the beyond-reasonable-doubt standard of proof and the exclusionary apparatus of the modern law of criminal evidence) as part of this profound reordering of the trial. It was the capture of the criminal trial by lawyers for prosecution and defense that made it possible for the criminal defendant to decline to be a witness against himself.

      • SSCISCOPUSKCI등재
      • John Calvin"s views of "the Turks" and of Finding Truth in Non-Biblical Sacred Texts

        Rev.,John,Span 합동신학대학원대학교 출판부 2015 Hapshin Theological Review Vol.4 No.-

        Is there truth in non-Biblical sacred texts? After some brief definitions and a brief survey of Christian attitudes throughout history to Islam and the Qur"an, this paper will examine Calvin"s writings for his theology of religions, and largely limit our examination to his view of "the Turks" [=Ottoman Muslims]. We will find that even though John Calvin has been accused of having an "unthematic" theology of religions, the primary sources demonstrate a consistent approach to the "religious other" that is revealed in his sermons, commentaries, letters, polemical writings and his Institutes. It will be seen that Christ as "the Truth" is a completely different genus and species than the "truthlets" which some modern writers are so fond of. Calvin thus can help the contemporary reader to analyse the sacred texts of any religion.

      • KCI등재

        The Role of Ribose on Oxidative Stress During Hypoxic Exercise: A Pilot Study

        John,G.,Seifert,Andrew,W.,Subudhi,Min-Xin,Fu,Karen,L.,Riska,Jeff,C.,John,Linda,M.,Shecterle,John,A.,St.,Cyr 한국식품영양과학회 2009 Journal of medicinal food Vol.12 No.3

        Oxygen free radicals are produced during stress, are unstable, and potentially interact with other cellular components or molecules. This reactivity can influence cellular function, including a prolongation in tissue recovery following exercise. We tested the effect of ribose (d-ribose), a pentose carbohydrate, in a double-blinded, crossover study on markers of free radical production during hypoxic exercise. Seven healthy volunteers cycled at their lactate threshold for 25 minutes while inhaling 16% O2 with a subsequent 60-minute resting period at room air. Subjects ingested either placebo or 7g of ribose in 250mL of water before and after the exercise session. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma reduced glutathione levels increased significantly during placebo ingestion (0.2±0.03nM/mg and 0.26±0.29μM, respectively) but were lower with ribose supplementation (0.04±0.03nM/mg and 0.38±0.29μM, respectively; P<.05). Uric acid levels were similar between groups (ribose vs. placebo, 4.55±0.06mg/dL vs. 4.67±0.06mg/dL). Ribose demonstrated a beneficial trend in lower MDA and reduced glutathione levels during hypoxic stress.

      • KCI등재
      • Do This and Live: the Reformation of Biblical Exegesis

        John,V.,Fesko 합동신학대학원대학교 출판부 2017 Hapshin Theological Review Vol.6 No.-

        The Protestant Reformation impacted the doctrine, life, and worship of the church primarily through the exegesis of Scripture. Medieval theologians exegeted Scripture but did so using the quadriga, or the fourfold sense of Scripture. When Reformed theologians rejected the quadriga, they employed the literal sense of Scripture and came to different exegetical and theological conclusions. This essays surveys the reformation of exegesis through a comparative analysis of the exegesis of Leviticus 18:5 during the Medieval, Reformation, and post-Reformation through the work of Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, and Andrew Willet.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Growth, Dry Matter Partitioning and Photosynthesis in North American Ginseng Seedlings

        John,T.,A.,Proctor,John,W.,Palmer,John,M.,Follett 고려인삼학회 2010 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.34 No.3

        North American ginseng seedlings (Panax quinquefolius L.) were grown in pots in heated greenhouses, in a cool greenhouse, or in the field, in 11 experiments at various times over 16 years. Crop establishment, dry matter partitioning, photosynthesis, radiation use efficiency and carbon budget were measured and/or calculated in some years. Once the seedling canopy, of about 20 ㎠ per seedling, and a leaf area index of 0.37, was established, about 40 days after germination, full canopy display lasted about 87 days. Only 16.6% of the incoming solar radiation was intercepted by the crop, the remainder falling on the mulched soil surface. Total and root dry matter accumulations in the cool greenhouse and in the field were about double that in the heated greenhouses. Partitioning of dry matter to roots (economic yield or harvest index) in the cool greenhouse and in the field was 73% whereas it was 62.5% in the heated greenhouses. The relationship between root dry matter and radiation interception during the full canopy period was linear with growth efficiencies of 2.92 ㎎ MJ?¹ at 4.8% of incoming radiation and 0.30 ㎎ MJ?¹ at 68% of incoming radiation. A photosynthetic rate of 0.39 g m?² h?¹ was attained at light saturation of about 150 μ㏖ m?² s?¹ (7.5% of full sunlight); dark respiration was 0.03 g m?² h?¹, about 8.5% of maximum assimilation rate. Estimates of dry matter accumulation by growth analysis and by CO₂ uptake were similar, 6.21 vs. 7.62 ㎎ CO₂, despite several assumptions in CO₂ uptake calculations.

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