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본고에서 고찰한 플로트만-할렌 문화센터는 광산업을 위해서 천공기를 생산했던 하인리히 플로트만 공장 건축물을 1980년대 중반에 문화센터로 전환시킨 사례이다. 이는 헤르네시가 폐쇄된 공장을 해체시키려다가 도시의 사회적·역사적·문화적 전통을 고스란히 지니고 있는 건축물을 재활용하자는 시민들의 강력한 요구를 따른 것이었다. 이 전환으로 인해 천공기를 생산하면서 헤르네 시의 경제와 복지를 책임졌던 하인리히 플로트만 공장은 이제 문화예술을 생산하는 플로트만-할렌 문화센터로 전환되어 노동만을 알던 헤르네 시 주민들의 정신적인 풍요와 헤르네 시의 경제에 기여하고 있다. 동시에 플로트만-할렌 문화센터 지대 내외에는 녹지가 조성되어 석탄채취로 인해 숨쉬기조차 힘들었던 지대를 청정지대로 완전히 탈바꿈시켰고, 이후 이곳은 주민들의 휴식공간이 되고 있다. 요컨대 하인리히 플로트만 건축물을 중심으로 한 이러한 변화는 유한한 자연자원을 고갈시키고 오염을 야기하는 산업문화에서 지속가능한 발전을 위한 문화로의 전환을 의미한다. 지속가능한 발전이란 생태적으로 유지가 가능한 범위 내에서 사회적·경제적으로 발전해가는 것을 뜻하기 때문이다. Seit 1983 stand die ehemalige Bohrhämmerfabrik Heinrich Flottmann, die über Generationen hinweg zahlreichen Einwohnern Arbeit bot und zum Wohlstand der Stadt Herne beitrug, leer und sollte abgerissen werden. Dagegen demonstrierten Bürger und Jugendliche, die die traditionsreichen Jugendstilbauten für attraktiv hielten. 1984 stellte das Landesdenkmalamt den Gebäudekomplex unter Denkmalschutz. Im Oktober 1986 wurden die Jugendstilbauten als Kulturzentrum wiederhergestellt. Seither präsentieren dort regionale, nationale und internationale Künstler und Künstlergruppen monatlich ihr Können im Bereich Schauspiel, Tanz, bildende Kunst, Puppen- und Figurentheater, Kabarett, Comedy, Jazz, Weltmusik etc. Jetzt hat das Kulturzentrum Flottmann-Hallen auf der “Route der Industriekultur” seinen festen Platz als industriekulturelles Erbe der Region. Zurzeit liegt der Schwerpunkt der Flottmann-Hallen auf der Kultur für und mit Jugendlichen, da sie die Flottmann-Hallen in der Zukunft leiten werden. Zusammengefaßt bedeutet die Umwandlung von der Bohrhämmerfabrik zum Kulturzentrum Flottmann-Hallen eine Umwandlung von Industriekultur zu nachhaltiger Kultur.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effect of counterargument integration teaching and learning in argumentative writing education. Even though previous studies have addressed the issue that students can not effectively deal with the counterargument in argumentative writing, there has been lack of discussion about how to promote the use of counterargument that contributes to promoting acceptability of the author's position in argumentative writing. In this regard, this study focuses on counterargument integration and examines the educational effect of counterargument integration teaching and learning for argumentative writing. In chapter Ⅱ, this study tried to construct the theoretical basis for the counterargument integration teaching and learning for argumentative writing. Based on literature review, this study examined the concept of counterargument integration and various factors of it. Counterargument integration is defined as “the use of counterargument and response on that counterargument which contributes to promoting the acceptability of the author's position in the argumentative writing that copes with the pros and cons of the argument”. In addition, various factors of counterargument integration are discussed based on the level of recognizing actual counterargument, constructing expected counterargument, and using counterargument on the text. In chapter Ⅲ, this study focused on designing the counterargument integration teaching and learning for argumentative writing. Based on literature review, curriculum and textbook analysis, and educational implications based on the students' argumentative writing patterns, the counterargument integration teaching and learning activities were designed. Firstly, as for the educational activities for recognizing actual counterargument, exploring argumentative texts for understanding the controversial essence of argumentation and filling in a self-checklist for recognizing argumentative writing metacognitively were suggested. Secondly, as for the educational activities for constructing expected counterargument, conducting a small group discussion to understand pros and cons of arguments and making a list of pros and cons of arguments were suggested. Thirdly, as for the educational activities for using counterargument on the text, using a direct teaching model for learning counterargument responding strategies and using scaffolds for constructing arguments which respond to the counterargument were suggested. In Chapter Ⅳ, this study tried to demonstrate the effect of the counterargument integration teaching and learning for argumentative writing which is designed in chapter Ⅲ. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study was designed, which consists of an experimental group, a comparative group, and a control group (25 students for each group). As a result of one-way ANOVA on thestudents' prior argumentative writing level, it was confirmed that each group had the same level. As for the experimental group, the counterargument integration education was conducted. As for the comparative group, the argumentative writing education using the pre-existing ‘Speaking and Writing' textbooks. As for the control group, there was no educational instruction given. In order to demonstrate the effect of education, mixed research method was used to confirm argumentative writing level after the education. As a result of quantitative analysis, there was a difference between the groups on the level of argumentative writing. Based on this, it was confirmed that the counterargument integration teaching and learning for argumentative writing education was effective. Qualitative analysis was conducted by selecting the average level of students' argumentative writing in each group in order to point out thequalitative aspects of argumentative writing before and after the education. The qualitative aspects of the argumentative writing at the average and superior level of argumentative writing in the experimental group were also examined. The result of this study suggests that further research on the counterargument integration teaching and learning in argumentative writing education is needed.
Purpose of review: Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by plastics under 5 mm in size, which are classified as microplastics (MPs), is becoming increasingly serious, and research on the ecotoxicity of MPs is needed. In this study, we aimed to present solutions to the problem of MPs through a review of the current state of research on the definition of MPs, usage, leakage, toxicity, and domestic and overseas circulation of plastics. Recent findings: Long-term exposure to MPs results in ecotoxicity. MPs not only deliver chemical substances within organisms, but also act as mediators for chemicals or other contaminants in aquatic environments. Co-exposure to MPs and chemical contaminants has been reported to increase toxicity in several organisms.
For the past six decades, the ROK-US alliance has been transformed into a strategic alliance at the international level for the expansion of cooperation for counter-terrorism and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO), including on the Korean peninsula and for regional security based on the US forces stationed in Korea. The two countries continue to proceed with discussions about the alliance system, such as the transition of wartime Operational Control (OPCON), as a part of the plan for the readjustment and quality improvement for the future ROK-US alliance. The United States Forces Korea (USFK) plays the most important role in the OPCON transition procedures and the ROK-US military relationship. On the national level, the relocation of the Yongsan Garrison and the US 2nd Infantry Division to K-6 (Camp Humphreys) in Pyeongteak is to be completed by the end of 2018 for the effective use of national land, the improvement of the USFK's military environment, preparation for the North Korean nuclear threat, and new security threats. In this context, the main purpose of this article is to investigate the relocation of the USFK to Pyeongtaek as the basis for change in the command system of the ROK-US alliance and unified defense system, its strategic importance and its effects on regional development.
Community analysis of oribatid mites was conducted in unburned and burned area of Samcheok-si, Gangwon province with differential burn severity that occurred in April 2000. Except control site, four sites (T1, T2, T3 and C2) were selected according to burn severity and subsequent recovery following a year after fire form T1 (heavily burned) to Control (unburned). This study analyzes the abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness, similarity, dominant species, and MGP types of oribatid mites. Oribatid mites were sampled 8times from each site from 2005 to 2007. Total of 40 families, 58 genus, 123 species and 4,638 individuals were founded. Species richness and abundance of oribatid mites decreased as burn severity increased. Diversity index of control site was higher than all other sites and decreased as the burn severity increased. Similarity between control and C2 sites was highest among the sites and cluster analysis showed control and C2 as closely related followed by T3, T2 and T1 respectively. MGP-I analysis revealed oribatid mites of all sites as GP type. MGP-II analysis showed control as G type and all other sites as GP type.