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In the present study, we investigated the effects of genotypes on in vitro maturation and fertilization in porcine fresh/frozen-thawed oocytes. The porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups according to whether they were: (1) in vitro matured; (2) cryopreserved and in vitro matured; (3) in vitro fertilized and (4) cryopreserved, and in vitro fertilized. Maturation of porcine COCs was accomplished by incubation in NCSU23 medium. Immature oocytes were cryopreserved by Open Pulled Straws (OPS) method according to Vajta et al., (1998). Oocytes stained by Acetic-Orcein method were observed under the microscope. DNA extracted from the ovaries was analyzed by RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphisrrt) method. The rates of oocytes maturation and fertilization were significantly high in AA genotype. The results indicated that in vitro maturation and fertilization in porcine fresh/frozen-thawed oocytes may be affected by genotypes in pigs.
“오늘날 우리가 물려 받은 향가중에서 처용가만큼 조잡한 작품이 또 달리 있을 것 같지 않다. 「모죽지랑가」에서는 더욱 그러한 것이다. 「처용가」에서는 그런대로 일말의 humor나 eroticism이라도 발견할 수 있지마는, 「모죽지랑가」에서는 필부필부(匹夫匹婦)들이 늘어놓은 상청에서의 넋두리를 넘어서지 못한 조잡밖에 없기 때문이다”라고 하여 “일말의 humor나 eroticism의 인정으로서 ”처용가“의 문학성을 층정하는 요건중의 하나로 보아 아쉬운대로 무리하게 격상(?)시켜 보려고 한 듯하지만 삼국유사 ”처용랑, 망해사“ 조에 실려있는 이 처용가에 대한 연구 업적들과는 상당한 거리감을 느끼게 한다. 필자도 ”처용가의 형성연대에 대하여“(조선대학교 ”인문과연구“ 제3집 1681.2)에서 이삼국유사에 대한 문헌기록의 분석검토와 처용가 표기에 사용된 표기체계의 특징을 고찰한 바에 다라서, 아무래도 처용설화 및 처용가는 고려 광종후 충렬왕 이전에 형성되었으리라는 결론에 도달할 수밖에 없다고 하였었다. 또한 향가 표기 중 우리의 주목을 끌게 하는 것은 “東京暝期月良” 이라고 표기된 데에서 “동경”이라는 어사라고 할 것이다. 이 “동경”이 경주를 가리킨다는 것은 아직 움직일 수 없는 정설처럼 알려지고 있는데, 필자와 같이 고려초기 형성설을 가지고 본다면 더욱 더 문제거니와 삼국유사의 기록을 그대로 존신하여 신라 헌강왕대 작품이라 하더라도 “동경”이라고 표기된 이 어사는 이 처용가를 “조잡한 지방문학”이라고만 일축하기에는, 그 지방이 수도에 대립된 지방인진댄, 곤란한 문제라고 하지 않을 수가 없는 것이다. “동경”어사에 대한 새로운 해석 내지 처용가 전체 해석에 의한 “동경”의 해석이 합리적으로 처리되어야 할 것임은 물론이다. 충분한 고증에 의해서라는 뜻도 될 것이다. 여상한 필자의 주장은 집단적인 원시 제례 의식의 무도에서 발생한 시률에서 시가가 나오고, 그 제례에서 민요와 서정시가 파생되며, 민요는 목축자나 농민의 사이에 전하여지고, 서정시는 도시의 귀족 하이에서 육성된다는 계보나 원리에 위배되는 것이 아니라 함을 부언하여 두련다.
Jia-Jia Lin,Young-Hyun Han,Jung-Woo Kwon,Yong-Nan Xu,Yi-Bo Luo,Yu-Jin Jo,Chang-Eun Park,Jung-Kyu Baang,Suk Namgoong,Nam-Hyung Kim 한국동물번식학회 2014 Reproductive & Developmental Biology(Supplement) Vol.38 No.2s
A fast hologram calculation approach is proposed to reduce computational load by avoiding the recalculation of redundancy information. In the proposed method, the hologram is divided into several sub‐holograms that record and reconstruct different views of 3D objects. The sub‐hologram is generated from its adjacent calculated sub‐holograms by only adding the holograms of difference images between an adjacent pair of views. The repetitive information of two adjacent views is called angular redundancy. Therefore, avoiding the recalculation of this angular redundancy can considerably reduce the computational load. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method can reduce the computational time for the statue head, rabbits, and car to 4.73%, 6.67%, and 10.4%, respectively, for uniform intensity, and to 56.34%, 57.9%, and 66.24%, respectively, for 256 levels intensity, when compared to conventional methods.
A new species, Pythium subutonaiense, isolated from aquatic environments (lake) in China is being described based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. The isolates grew at temperatures between 5 ℃ and 38 ℃, and the optimum temperature was 30 ℃, with a radial growth rate of 17.6mm at 25 ℃ per day. It is homothallic and characterized by globose to sub-globose shaped and mostly terminal or sometimes catenulate hyphal swellings, filamentous non-inflated sporangia, and smooth oogonia with hypogynous and monoclinous antheridia that contained one plerotic oospore. In phylogenetic analysis, inferred based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, the new species formed a distinct lineage in Pythium clade B. Differences between the new species and phylogenetically related and morphologically similar species are discussed.
Fibroblast growth factors(FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) modulate a wide range of biological functions, especially tumor genesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association of FGFR expression with the susceptibility of digestive system and reproductive system cancers in Chinese population. In total, 343 patients with digestive or reproductive system cancers were enrolled in this study. The expression levels of four highly-conserved FGFRs including FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4 were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression levels of FGFRs were compared between carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues. FGFR1 expression significantly differed between carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues in colon and gastric cancers. FGFR2 expression significantly differed between carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues in esophageal cancer. FGFR3 expression was significantly different between carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissues in liver and gastric cancers. FGFR2 showed the highest expression probability in all the selected cancers and FGFR4 showed the lowest expression probability. FGFR1 and FGFR3 showed comparable moderate expression probabilities. Our findings have demonstrated significant differences regarding FGFR expression levels between carcinoma and para-carcinoma cells in digestive or reproductive system cancer patients. The data also implicated that FGFR2 and FGFR4 could serve as two prominent factors closely related to the susceptibility of digestive and reproductive system cancers.
Evodiamine is an active alkaloid member found in Traditional Chinese Herb (TCH) Evodia rutaecarpa. It has been reported to exhibit remarkable biological and medicinal activities including anticancer and anti-inflammatory. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of evodiamine against human liver cancer and evaluate its effects on cell migration, cell invasion, cellular apoptosis and PI3K/AKT pathway. The results showed that evodiamine exhibits potent antiproliferative effects against two human liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and PLHC-1) with an IC50 of 20 μM. Nonetheless, the cytotoxic effects of evodiamine were comparatively low against the normal cells as evident from the IC50 of 100 μM. The growth inhibitory effects of evodiamine were found to be due to the induction of apoptosis as revealed by the DAPI, AO/EB and annexin V/PI staining assays. The induction of apoptosis was also associated with upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression in a concentration dependent manner. The wound healing and transwell assay revealed that evodiamine caused a significant decline in the migration and invasion of the HepG2 and PLHC-1 cells. Investigation of the effects of evodiamine on the PI3K/AKT signalling revealed that evodiamine inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT proteins. Taken together, the results showed that evodiamine inhibits the growth of human liver cancer via induction of apoptosis and deactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway. The results point towards the therapeutic potential of evodiamine in the treatment of liver cancer.
Background: Patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma are considered to have a very poor prognosis, and new regimens are needed to improve this setting. Pomalidomide is a new immunomodulatory drug with high in vitro potency. Immunomodulatory drugs are hypothesized to act through multiple mechanisms. Here we performed a systemic analysis to evaluate pomalidomide-based chemotherapy (pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone) as salvage treatment for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma. Methods: Clinical studies evaluating the efffectiveness of pomalidomide based regimens on response and safety for patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were identified using a predefined search strategy. Pooled response rate (RR) of treatment were calculated. Results: For pomalidomide based regimens, 4 clinical studies which including 291 patients with refractory and relapsed multiple myeloma were considered eligible for inclusion. Systemic analysis suggested that, in all patients, pooled RR was 41.2% (120/291). Major adverse effects were hematologic toxicity, including grade 1 or 2 anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia with pomalidomide based treatment. No treatment related death occurred. Conclusion: This pooled analysis suggests that pomalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone is active with good tolerability in treating patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.