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본 연구의 목적은 한국수화언어의 개관을 살펴보는 것이다. 첫 번째로, 한국에서의 수화언어가 해방전후에서 최근까지 어떻게 이해되고 있는지 시대 순으로 살펴본다. 두 번째로, 한국수화언어의 언어적인 특성을 연구한 주요논문 (S. Kim 1983; Suk 1989; Hwang 1994; lang 1995; Ch. Kim 1998; Jhang 1997, 1999a, 1999b; Hong 2001)을 중심으로 간략하게 살펴본다. 세 번째로, 수화언어의 습득과정과 관련된 주된 논쟁 (Hwang 1994; Ahn 1997; Na & Kang 2001: Jun 2001; Won 2002)을 살펴본다. 네 번째로, 구화중심(Chun 1998)의 의사소통 수단과 한국표준수화(Jung 2002) 또는 한국수화언어 (Choi & Ahn 2003; Jhang 2003)로서의 의사소통 수단과 한글작문과 독해능력간의 관련성에 대한 논쟁을 소개한다. 마지막으로, 미래의 한국수화언어의 언어학적인 연구는 제2언어로서의 한국어와 제1언어로서의 한국수화언어에 기초를 둔 이중언어-이중문화 접근 관점에서 한국수화언어를 연구하여야 하는 함을 제안한다. So far, I have offered an overview of KSL. The first section presented a history of sign language in Korea. Here, it was pointed out that KSL may belong to the JSL Family owing to the great influence of JSL during the 35 years of the colonization. In addition, it was examined that most educators and educational administrators have paid much attention to KSDSL because they believe, without any evidence, that it would improve Korean literacy. The second section was concerned with investigation of internal organization of signs and morpho-syntactic properties on the basis of distinctive research on linguistic properties of KSL. The third section was given a brief review of the research on the processing of the acquisition of KSL. Here, it was stressed that early exposure to both KSL and Korean provides the strongest support for the acquisition of literacy skills, It was pointed out that we should need a preliminary study regarding the processing of KSL acquisition for deaf children at the early stages. The fourth section presented the debate on the issue of the language of instruction in the classrooms with regard to Korean literacy and a mode of communication such as oralism, Sign Korean, or KSL. We first examined that the change from oralism to Signed Korean began in the late 1980s. The fourth section pointed out that very recent research showed that greater KSL proficiency contributes positively to the improvement in literacy skills of Korean deaf students. Finally, I have presented five kinds of direction for further research on KSL: (ⅰ) a bilingual and bicultural approach based on KSL as the primary language and Korean as a second language (ⅱ) an intensive KSL immersion program just like bilingual education for hearing minority-language students (ⅲ) the training up of teachers who are bilingual and bicultural (ⅳ) both KSL learning for hearing people and tests for interpreters (ⅴ) the production of deaf linguists for KSL analysis and research.
This paper is a corpus-based study of Maritime English. Maritime English is an area of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) requiring special attention. Although grammar is important, vocabulary is the key difference among varieties of English. The purpose of this paper is to explore some vocabulary features of Maritime English extracted from the Maritime English Corpus (MECO) of Hong and Jhang (2010), referenced against the LOB or the BNC. This corpus-based lexical analysis has been made by compiling both a word-list of high frequencies in the MECO and a keyword-list referenced against the LOB with a WordSmith Tools 5.0 program. We also use a Perl program to extract noun compounds, to set up vocabulary lists, and to suggest how many words should be learned by beginning students (80% cumulative frequency rate) and by advanced students (90% cumulative frequency rate). We explore the distribution of parts of speech as content versus function words and point out significant differences between Maritime English and General English.
This paper reports on a corpus-based study of maritime English. A corpus was compiled from the English homepages of port authorities around the world. A second corpus employed was the Maritime English Corpus (Hong and Jhang, 2010). The first part of this paper focuses on several keyword analyses, revealing lexical items of particular relevance to maritime English pedagogy. The second part focuses on a group of (near) synonyms: port, harbour, berth, dock, wharf, haven, quay pier, and jetty. Their semantic differences are discussed and their morphological tendency to take the -age, -er, -less, etc. suffixes is explored. This paper aims to inform maritime English pedagogical practice and research.
An arc-shaped line array slit has been used for the laser generation of focused Lamb waves. The spatially expanded Nd:YAG pulse laser was illuminated through the arc-shaped line array slit on the surface of a sample plate to generate the Lamb waves of the same pattern as the slit. Then the generated Lamb waves were focused at the focal point of which distance from the slit position is dependent on the curvature of slit arc. The proposed method showed better spatial resolution than the conventional linear array slit in the detection of laser machined linear defect and drill machined circular defect on aluminum plates of 2㎜ thickness. Using the focused waves, we could detect the linear defect and the circular defect with the improvement of spatial resolution. The method can also be combined with the scanning mechanism to get an image just like by the scanning acoustic microscope(SAM).
We investigate two statistical approaches for extracting important words by comparing reference analysis in corpus linguistics with non-reference analysis using social network analysis tools. The result of PageRank for the non-reference analysis is compared with that of keyness for the reference analysis to see if there are any differences between the two approaches. By using the two methods, we extracted important words and investigated whether there is any statistical significant difference by using an R program. We found that there is little correlation coefficient between the reference and non-reference methods.
비교구문의 적절한 구조에 대한 논의의 주된 관심은 비교첨사의 통사적인 특성연구에 있다. 특히 영어의 비교구문의 비교 문법형태소인 첨사 than은 전치사와 등위접속사의 특성을 동시에 갖고 있어 영어비교구문은 등위구조와 종속구조의 이중적인 구조를 지닌다는 주장이 제기되어 오고 있다. 이러한 영어비교구문에 대한 연구는 1970년대초 부터 활발히 연구가 되어 오고 있는 반면 한국어의 비교구문에 대한 연구는 이에 비해 놀랄정도로 빈약한 편이다. 본 논문에서는 Moltmann(1992)의 연구를 바탕으로 한국어의 비교구문도 등위구조와 종속구조를 동시에 지니고 있는 이중구조를 갖고 있음을 주장한다. 영어의 than에 해당하는 비교첨사 '보다'도 등위접속사와 후치사의 특성을 동시에 지니고 있는 증거를 제시한다. 2장에서는 NP절 비교구문에 적용되는 공백화변형(gapping)과 long-distance reflexive '자기'와 전역규칙(across-the-board principle)현상을, 그리고 NP구 비교구문에 적용되는 격일치(case matching)와 같은 네가지 증거를 제시하면서 한국어 비교구문이 등위구조의 특성을 지니고 있음을 보여준다. 3장에서는 NP구 비교구문에 적용되는 주제화(topicalization)/뒤섞기(scrambling)의 증거로 비교구문이 종속구조를 지니고 있음을 보여준다. 그리고 이러한 종속구조의 잠정적인 증거로서 long-distance reflexive '자기'와 관련된 비교구문의 문장에서의 NP절 비교문의 위치와 NP구 비교구문에서의 격비일치(case mismatching)을 제시한다.
Gender prediction accuracy increases as convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture evolves. This paper compares voting and ensemble schemes to utilize the already trained five CNN models to further improve gender prediction accuracy. The majority voting usually requires odd-numbered models while the proposed softmax-based voting can utilize any number of models to improve accuracy. The ensemble of CNN models combined with one more fully-connected layer requires further tuning or training of the models combined. With experiments, it is observed that the voting or ensemble of CNN models leads to further improvement of gender prediction accuracy and that especially softmax-based voters always show better gender prediction accuracy than majority voters. Also, compared with softmax-based voters, ensemble models show a slightly better or similar accuracy with added training of the combined CNN models. Softmax-based voting can be a fast and efficient way to get better accuracy without further training since the selection of the top accuracy models among available CNN pre-trained models usually leads to similar accuracy to that of the corresponding ensemble models.
In this report, we present a pediatric case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia resulting from the use of magnesium oxide as a laxative in a child undergoing continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. The patient showed abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) findings, such as tall T waves, a widened QRS complex, and irregular conduction, which were initially misdiagnosed as hyperkalemia; later, the correct diagnosis of hypermagnesemia was obtained. Emergent hemodialysis successfully returned the serum magnesium concentration to normal without complications. When abnormal ECG changes are detected in patients with renal failure, hypermagnesemia should be considered.
This paper reports on a corpus-based study of English for Academic Purposes (EAP). It investigates linguistic characteristics of English abstracts written by Korean scholars in the fields of English Literature and of English Linguistics in order to find lexico-grammatical patterns used by native and non-native English scholars specializing in English Literature and English Linguistics. The paper hopes to offer suggestions on suitable academic English pedagogical techniques, especially for English writing. In our study we compiled two English abstracts corpora from journals of English language and literature and journals of English linguistics from English-speaking countries and from Korea for the years 2000 to 2011: Anglophonic Corpus and Korean Corpus. Each corpus further yielded two subcorpora: native and non-native English literature corpora and native and non-native English linguistics corpora. Unlike previous studies focusing more or less on abstracts of native scholars, in this study abstracts of non-native scholars are compared to those of native scholars in the areas of English literature and English linguistics. This study contrastively analyzes abstracts in academic research articles in terms of two aspects: (i) native/non-native speakers' distinctive use of language and (ii) linguistic features of abstracts as a genre. In particular, four types of methodologies (statistics, wordlists, keywordlists, and key clusters) often adopted in corpus-based analyses are used to explore characteristics of abstracts written by Koreans and by native speakers.