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Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae) is an indigenous plant prevalently distributed throughout South Korea. Twenty lupane-type triterpenes (1-20) and eight other compounds (21-28) from leaves of A. koreanum were tested for LXR activity using luciferase reporter gene assay. Compounds 4, 6, and 17 showed LXR transcriptional activity, with EC50 of 20.38, 55.78, and 23.77 μM, respectively. Their activities were also evaluated by cell-based assay using fluorescence microscopy.
In this study, we demonstrate that equol has fungicidal activities against Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations of equol against C. albicans were 516 and 1,032 μM, respectively. Two separate viability assays found that equol changed the integrity of the C. albicans cell membrane, possibly by formation of membrane lesions. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated ultrastructural changes.
증가하는 글로벌 경쟁 속에서 호텔산업의 경영패러다임은 지속으로 변해왔다. 특히 최근에 세계적인 체인망을 가진 세계체인호텔들이 한국에 들어옴으로서 한국의 국내호텔들에게 경쟁의 요인이 되어왔다. 본 연구는 한국에 들어온 세계체인호텔들과 국내호텔들 사이의 서비스경영의 실재를 비교해 보았다. 본 연구의 결과 세계체인호텔들이 국내독립경영호텔들보다 서비스경영의 서비스훈련, 종사원의 직무만족, 서비스실패의 예방관리, 그리고 조직의 커뮤니케이션관점에서 보다 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 연구결과를 바탕으로 국내독립 경영호텔들의 서비스 경영과 미래 전략수립에 시사점을 제공하고자 하였다.
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a useful tool in researches and in clinical medicine of lung diseases because the BAL fluid contains biochemical and cytological indicators of the cellular response to infection, drugs, or toxicants. However, the variability among laboratories regarding the technique and the processing of the BAL material limits clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine the suction frequency and lavage fraction number necessary to reduce the variability in lavage using male Sprague-Dawley rats. We compared the total cell number and protein level of each lavage fraction and concluded that more cells and protein can be obtained by repetitive lavage with a suction frequency of 2 or 3 than by lavage with a single suction. On the basis of total cell recovery, approximately 70% of cells were obtained from fractions 1~3. The first lavage fraction should be used for evaluation of protein concentration because fractions 2~5 of lavage fluid were diluted in manifolds. These observations were confirmed in bleomycin-induced inflamed lungs of rats. We further compared the BAL data from the whole lobes with data from the right lobes and concluded that BAL data of the right lobes represented data of the whole lobes. However, this conclusion can only be applied to general lung diseases. At the end, this study provides an insight into the technical or analytical problems of lavage study in vivo.
This study examined the effects of learners' prior knowledge of a linguistic form on thenoticing function of output (Swain, 1995), which might mediate second language (L2)production and learning. Based on the degree of prior knowledge of the target form, theparticipants were divided into four levels. The noticing scores (measured by underliningin the subsequent input) showed that Level 2 participants—who had partial knowledgeof the target form—noticed more target forms than the other levels and the comparisongroup. The participants in the experimental group produced more target forms on thesecond output activity than on the first output activity. However, learners' increasednoticing did not lead to immediate increased improvement of production and learning.Some prior knowledge of the target form was able to mediate noticing of the form, butone-time noticing might not be enough for promoting improvement of production andlearning of the target form.