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        • KCI등재

          인공광 스마트온실에서 광질 및 광강도 제어가 케일 실생묘의 생장에 미치는 영향

          허정욱,이재수,이공인,김현환,Heo, Jeong-Wook,Lee, Jae-Su,Lee, Gong-In,Kim, Hyun-Hwan 한국환경농학회 2017 한국환경농학회지 Vol.36 No.3

          인공광 스마트온실(식물공장) 조건에서 작물의 생장은 주로 외부 환경조건의 변화와 상관없이 형광등이나 특정 파장역의 발광다이오드와 같은 인공광원에 의해 좌우된다. 본 실험에서는 형광등 및 발광다이오드를 활용한 광질 및 광강도 제어가 케일 실생묘의 생장 및 물질합성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 잎이 3~4매 전개한 케일 실생묘는 광강도를 50 및 $100{\mu}mol/m^2/s$로 제어한 형광등 (FLL 및 FLH구), 적색 LEDs (RL 및 RH 구), 청색+백색 LEDs (BWL 및 BWH구) 및 청색+적색 LEDs (BRL 및 BRH구) 등 단일 및 혼합광질로 제어하였으며 50일간 담액방식으로 수경재배하였다. 케일 지상부 생체중은 광강도 $100{\mu}mol/m^2/s$의 적색, 청색+ 백색 및 청색+적색의 혼합광 조사구에서 유의하게 증가하였으며, 신초신장은 광강도가 높은 처리구에서 억제되었고 잎내 폴리페놀 함량은 증가하였다. 당합성은 광강도 $50{\mu}mol/m^2/s$에 비해 $100{\mu}mol/m^2/s$ 조건의 적색광질에 의해 2배이상 증가하였다. 본 실험을 통하여 인공광 스마트온실 조건에서 특정 파장역의 광질 및 광강도를 제어하면서 작물을 수경재배하는 것은 노지나 온실에서 토경재배하는 관행적 재배방식에 비해 작업효율성을 높이면서 잎의 생장 및 물질합성을 촉진할 수 있다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 금후, 인공광 스마트온실에서 특정 파장역의 LEDs를 인공광원으로 할 때 작물생장을 최대로 유지할 수 있는 적정 광강도에 대한 연구를 수행할 계획이다. BACKGROUND: Plant growth under smart greenhouse (that is plant factory system) conditions of an artificial light type is significantly depending on the artificial light sources such as a fluorescent lamps or Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with specific spectral wavelengths regardless of the outside environmental changes. In this experiment, characteristics on the growth and compound synthesis of kale seedlings affected by light qualities and intensities provided by LEDs were mentioned. METHODS AND RESULTS: The kale seedlings which developed 3~4 true leaves were exposed by fluorescent lamps or LEDs lights of red (R), blue+white (BW), blue+red (BR) with 50 (L) or $100(H){\mu}mol/m^2/s^1$ photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) under hydroponic culture system of deep flow technique for 50 days. Shoot fresh weight increased under the RH, BWH, and BRH treatments with higher PPF. Shoot elongation of the seedlings decreased, and polyphenol synthesis promoted by the higher light intensity conditions. Sugar synthesis in the leaves was above 2 times greater under the RH treatment of monochromic red light quality with $100{\mu}mol/m^2/s^1\;PPF$ than $50{\mu}mol/m^2/s^1\;PPF$. CONCLUSION: The results show that the control of light quality and intensity in the smart greenhouse conditions with artificial lights significantly affects the growth and compound synthesis in the fresh kale leaves with higher culture efficiency compared to the conventional soil culture under greenhouse or field conditions. Researches on the optimum light intensities of the LEDs with special spectral wavelengths are necessary for maximum growth and metabolism in the seedlings.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
        • 포스터 발표 : 자연 생태 환경 분야(PN) ; 식물공장 시스템내 광환경 제어가 청경채 생장에 미치는 영향

          허정욱 ( Jeong Wook Heo ),김동억 ( Dong Eok Kim ),이공인 ( Gong In Lee ),윤정범 ( Jung Beom Yoon ),최규홍 ( Kyung Hong Choi ) 한국환경농학회 2013 한국환경농학회 학술대회집 Vol.2013 No.-

          Closed-type plant factory system using artificial light sources instead of sunlight is an ultimated method for plant production without any pesticides comparing to conventional greenhouse structure. Control of the light environment such as a light quality or intensity in the plant factory system using artificial lights is an essential technique for improving the growth and development of plant species. It has been reported that the light environment significantly influences on growth in many kinds of leafy plants cultured under the plant factory system. In this experiment, effects of light quality and intensity under hydroponic culture system were mentioned on growth of green and red Pak Choi (Braccica rapa var. chinensis) seedlings. The Pak Choi seedlings which developed 2∼3 unfolded leaves were cultured in Yamazaki nutrient solution controlled at 1.4 ds m-1 EC and 5.6 pH, respectively on the plant factory of horizontal type. The seedlings were exposed by monochromic or mixture light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of blue+white (BW treatment), red (R treatment), or blue+red+white (BRW treatment) with 50, 100, or 250 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity for 5 weeks. Increment of fresh and dry weights in the green and red Pak Choi was significantly affected by blue+red+white or red light qualities. However pigmentation was inhibited by the monochromic red light in both of the green and red Pak Choi seedlings. In BRW treatment, fresh weights per seedling of green and red Pak Choi grown under 250 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity were 5.5 and 8.4 times promoted, respectively compared with fluorescent light considered as a control. Pigmentation in the Pak Choi seedlings increased under BRW treatment with higher light intensity than in lower treatment. From the results, it is suggested that the mixture radiation with higher light intensity gave the maximum growth of Pak choi seedlings with higher quality comparing with monochromic light. Optimum light intensity for leafy plant growth inside the plant factory system using artificial light sources should be decided for commercial production with a lower electric cost.

        • 05 포스터 발표 : 자연생태 환경 분야(PN) ; 식물공장 시스템내 광환경 제어가 적축면 상추 생장에 미치는 영향

          허정욱 ( Jeong Wook Heo ),김동억 ( Dong Euk Kim ),이광재 ( Kwang Jae Lee ),강동현 ( Dong Hyeon Kang ),이시영 ( Si Young Lee ),신현만 ( Hyun Man Shin ),허윤선 ( Yoon Sun Huh ),이기열 ( Ki Yeol Lee ),김태중 ( Tae Jung Kim ),김숙종 ( 한국환경농학회 2014 한국환경농학회 학술대회집 Vol.2014 No.-

          Plant factory, which considered as a novel plant production system preparing for the climate changes such as a global warming or raining, is an attractive year-round production technique of leafy plants regardless of place or season. The environmental factors of air temperature, relative humidity, nutrient, CO2 concentration, light intensity or quality inside the factory system influencing on growth have been reported. In this study, effects of light-environmental control of quality or intensity were investigated on growth of red curly lettuce ( Brassica rapa) seedlings with different four growth ages (0, 10, 20, and 30 days-old after transplanting) inside the factory system. ‘Tukksum’ red-curly lettuce which developed two true leaves was used as a plant material, and the seedlings were cultured under nutrient solution of 1.5 ds m-1 EC and 5.8 pH for 10 days after light exposure of 50, 100 or 230 μmol m-2 s-1. Light-emitting diodes of Red, blue plus red, and blue plus white were used, and fluorescent light was considered as a control. In 0 day-old seedlings after transplanting, dry weight and number of leaves under blue plus red light of 50 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity for 10 days increased 28 and 19% comparing with the control, respectively. Increasing of fresh and dry weights in 30 days-old seedlings was significantly stimulated by blue plus red and red light. However, leaf pigmentation was inhibited by the red light regardless of the different growth ages and promoted by the mixture lights. Under 230 μmol m-2 s-1 light intensity, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights were greater by mixture-light exposure on 20 days-old seedlings. On 30 days-old seedlings, increment of dry and fresh weights was also affected by the mixture light. Leaf pigmentation was significantly inhibited by the red light regardless of the different light intensities in all the growth ages. Higher growth and pigmentation could be achieved at 20 and 30 days-old seedlings cultured under the mixture lights of blue, red, or white. It is concluded that light intensity should be controlled according to growth ages for growth and pigmentation, but rather stable control during culture period, and monochromic red is not suitable for leaf pigmentation of red curly lettuce in plant factory system.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
        • KCI등재

          온실재배 케일의 생장에 미치는 보광 효과

          허정욱 ( Jeong Wook Heo ),김현환 ( Hyeon Hwan Kim ),이광재 ( Kwang Jae Lee ),윤정범 ( Jung Boem Yoon ),이정관 ( Joung Kwan Lee ),허윤선 ( Yoon Sun Huh ),이기열 ( Ki Yeol Lee ) 한국환경농학회 2015 한국환경농학회지 Vol.34 No.1

          자연일장이 짧은 조건에서 온실과 같은 시설에서는 인위적으로 일장을 연장하여 작물 생육을 촉진하기 위해서 고압 나트륨등, 백열등과 메탈할라이드등과 같은 다양한 인공광원을 이용하여 보광한다. 기존의 인공광원은 전력소모량이 높기 때문에 발광다이오드와 같이, 램프 수명이 길고 전력소모량이적은 광원을 이용한 보광재배가 시도되고 있다. 녹즙용 엽채류의 하나인 케일을 재배하는 온실내에 삼파장등, 나트륨등 및 적색의 발광다이오드를 인공광원으로 하여 1일 3~6시간보광하여 재배한 결과, 케일 잎의 생체중 및 건물중은 보광강도 1.2 μmol/m2/s 적색 LEDs 보광구, 12 μmol/m2/s 삼파장등 보광구와 나트륨 보광구에서 보광하지 않은 자연광구에 비해 유의하게 증가하였다. 적색 LEDs 보광구에서는 보광강도가 증가할수록 케일 잎내 당합성량이 유의하게 증가하였으며, 평당 수확량 또한 최대값을 나타내었다. 본 실험을 통하여 온실조건에서 일출 및 일몰시 삼파장등, 나트륨등 및 적색 LEDs 인공광을 이용한 보광광원 및 광질을 제어하는 보광재배로, 케일 잎의 생체중, 건물중, 엽내 당합성 및 수확량을 증가시킬 수 있었다. 특히, 보광강도 1.2 μmol/m2/s의적색 LEDs는 삼파장등이나 나트륨등에 비해 전기에너지 소모량을 절감하면서 케일 잎의 생장 및 수확량을 유의하게 증가시킨 것으로 보아 보광광원으로서의 이용성이 기대된다. BACKGROUND: For commercial production of greenhouse crops under shorter day length condition, supplementary radiation has been usually achieved by the artificial light source with higher electric consumption such as high-pressure sodium, metal halide, or incandescent lamps. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with several characteristics, however, have been considered as a novel light source for plant production. Effects of supplementary lighting provided by the artificial light sources on growth of Kale seedlings during shorter day length were discussed in this experiment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Kale seedlings were grown under greenhouse under the three wave lamps (3 W), sodium lamps (Na), and red LEDs (peak at 630 nm) during six months, and leaf growth was observed at intervals of about 30 days after light exposure for 6 hours per day at sunrise and sunset. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of supplementary red LEDs on the plant canopy was maintained at 0.1 (RL), 0.6 (RM), and 1.2 (RH) μmol/m2/s PPF. PPF in 3 W and Na treatments was measured at 12 μ mol/m2/s. Natural light (NL) was considered as a control. Leaf fresh weight of the seedlings was more than 100% increased under the 3 W, Na and RH treatment compared to natural light considering as a conventional condition. Sugar synthesis in Kale leaves was significantly promoted by the RM or RH treatment. Leaf yield per 3.3 m2 exposed by red LEDs of 1.2 μmol/m2/s PPF was 9% and 16% greater than in 3W or Na with a higher PPF, respectively. CONCLUSION: Growth of the leafy Kale seedlings were significantly affected by the supplementary radiation provided by three wave lamp, sodium lamp, and red LEDs with different light intensities during the shorter day length under greenhouse conditions. From this study, it was suggested that the leaf growth and secondary metabolism of Kale seedlings can be controlled by supplementary radiation using red LEDs of 1.2 μmol/m2/s PPF as well as three wave or sodium lamps in the experiment.

        • KCI등재

          연구보문 : 식물환경 ; LED Chamber System을 이용한 광질 및 광조사 방법 제어가 국화 배양소식물체의 생장에 미치는 영향

          허정욱 ( Jeong Wook Heo ),이용범 ( Yong Beom Lee ),장유섭 ( Yu Seob Chang ),이정택 ( Jeong Taek Lee ),이덕배 ( Deog Bae Lee ) 한국환경농학회 2010 한국환경농학회지 Vol.29 No.4

          본 연구에서는 농촌진흥청에서 개발한 LED Chamber System을 이용하여 명기시간 동안 광질과 광조사 방법 제어가 단절단엽의 국화 배양소식물체(Dendranthema grandiflorum L., cv. `Cheonsu`)의 생장에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. 실험은 청색, 적색 및 녹색의 단일광질 또는 청색+적색, 청색+녹색 및 적색+녹색의 혼합광질 조건하에서 이들 광질을 명기 16시간 동안 연속적으로 또는 초당 50회 간격과 분당 20초 간격으로 간헐적으로 제어하면서 42일간 수행하였다. 총 일장을 4시간 단축한 분당 20초 간격의 간헐조사는 관행의 형광등 연속조사에 비해 국화의 절간길이 신장에 의한 신초신장을 촉진하였으나, 배양소식물체의 양적생장은 연속광 처리에 의해 유의하게 증가하였다. 한편, 명기동안 녹색광을 초당 50회 간격으로 간헐제어한 경우 연속조사에 비해 건물중이나 엽면적 증대와 같은 양적생장은 억제되었으나 형태적인 면에서의 절간신장은 촉진되었다. 따라서, LED Chamber System을 이용한 광질이나 광조사 방법의 제어는 관행의 형광등 이용 연속조사에 비해 명기시간 단축에 의한 전력소모량 감소 및 기내 배양소식물체의 생장이나 형태제어에 효과 적인 배양기술로 이용 가능할 것으로 판단된다. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of light qualities and lighting types provided by LED Chamber System which designed by Rural Development Administration on growth and development of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum L., cv. `Cheonsu`) plantlet cultured in vitro. The explants of single-node cuttings were exposed to monochromic or mixture radiation of blue, red, or green under continuous and intermittent lighting for 42 days. The intermittent lighting of 20 sec. on and off per minute significantly stimulated shoot elongation with lower number of internodes compared with continuous lighting treatments. However, continuous blue, red, or green light gave greater dry weight comparing the intermittent lighting, and the lowest weight was recorded at the continuous fluorescent lamp. Otherwise, the plantlet growth in dry weight or leaf area was inhibited by the green light controlled at 50 times intermittence but internode elongation was significantly increased. These results showed that the plantlets were successfully grown under the LED Chamber System controlled with different light qualities and lighting types. Quantitative growth of the plantlets was improved under the shorter photoperiod with a intermittent lighting cycle compared with continuous lighting using fluorescent lamps. It is concluded that the growth and development of in vitro plantlets such as single-node cuttings can be achieved by the controlling of light quality or lighting type during the photoperiod per day with a lower electric cost compared with conventional continuous lighting system.

        • KCI등재

          광질이 아게라텀, 아프리칸매리골드 및 살비아 실생묘의 생장, 순광합성속도 및 에틸렌 생산에 미치는 영향

          허정욱(Jeong Wook Heo),이용범(Yong Beom Lee),이덕배(Deog Bae Lee),전창후(Changhoo Chun) 한국원예학회 2009 원예과학기술지 Vol.27 No.2

          본 실험에서는 광강도가 90±10 μ㏖ m⁻² s⁻¹인 형광등, 청색, 적색 단일 광질 및 청색과 적색의 혼합 광질이 14일간 아게라텀(Ageratum houstonianum Mill.) ‘Blue Field’, 아프리칸매리골드(Tagetes erecta L.) ‘Orange Boy’ 및 살비아(Salvia splendens F. Sello ex Ruem & Schult.) ‘Red Vista’ 실생묘의 생장, 순광합성 속도(NPR) 및 에틸렌 생합성에 미치는 영향을 검토하였다. 아게라텀 실생묘의 엽면적 및 NPR은 청색이나 적색의 단일광에 비해 청색과 적색의 혼합광 조사에 의해 증가하는 반면, 에틸렌 생산은 광질의 차이에 따른 영향을 받지 않았다. 아게라텀과 살비아 실생묘의 초장은 청색이나 적색의 단일광 조사구에서 최대였다. 아프리칸매리골드와 살비아의 광합성은 적색의 단일광, 청색과 적색의 혼합광 조사에 의해 촉진되었다. 적색 단일 광질 또는 적색과 청색의 혼합 광질은 아프리칸매리골드와 살비아의 에틸렌 생산에 있어서 매우 효과적인 광질이었으나 청색의 단일 광질은 에틸렌 생산을 현저히 억제시켰다. 본 실험을 통하여 재배 기간 동안 아게라텀, 아프리칸매리골드 및 살비아 실생묘의 생장, 광합성 및 에틸렌 생산은 광질에 의해 좌우되는 것을 알 수 있었다. The effect of white fluorescent, blue, red, and blue plus red mixture light at a 90 ± 10 μ㏖ m⁻² s⁻¹ light intensity on growth, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), and ethylene production in Ageratum houstonianum ‘Blue Field’, Tagetes erecta ‘Orange Boy’, and Salvia splendens ‘Red Vista’ plug seedlings was investigated for 14 days. Higher leaf area and NPR of ageratum seedlings were achieved by mixture radiation of blue and red as compared to monochromic blue or red, whereas ethylene production was not affected by different light qualities. Ageratum and salvia seedlings under blue or red light showed the greatest plant height. Photosynthesis of marigold and salvia seedlings was stimulated by all light qualities except for monochromic blue light. Red or mixture light quality was the most effective in the promotion of ethylene production of marigold and salvia, and inhibitory response was shown under blue light. It was found that growth, photosynthesis, and ethylene production in ageratum, marigold, and salvia plug seedlings depended upon different light qualities for the experimental period.

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