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Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.
Stenosis of central vein is a common complication arising after percutaneous subclavian vein catheter insertion performed for temporary vascular access in chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis. There are several treatment methods for the condition like percutaneous angioplasty(PTA), stent insertion, and surgery, but recent trend is toward PTA and stents. Among the patients diagnosed with chronic renal failure from March 1993 to May 2002 and undergoing hemodialysis through AV fistula, the 14 Patients in whom central vein stenosis arose were selected for the study. A total of 28 percutaneous interventions(5 PTA and 23 stent placement) were performed, and restenosis rate and the time taken till the restenosis in de novo lesions and instant lesions were compared. All 28 cases were operated successfully. The 14 cases that received both anigioplasty and stent placement initially. (de novo lesion : 14 cases), Among the 10 cases with de novo lesion that followed up more than 1 year, 3 cases are currently undergoing hemodialysis without restenosis, and the remaining 7 cases have recurred stenosis with the mean time to restenosis of 10.9 months. In the 7 cases in whom stenosis recurred, 11 interventions were done(instent lesion: 11 cases). 4 of these were using only ballon angioplasty with 100% restenosis rate and the mean time of 3 months until restenosis. The remaining 7 cases were using both balloon angioplasty and stent placement, also with 100% restenosis rate but with the mean time of 12 months until restenosis, which was later than the group receiving only balloon angioplasty. In treating the patients with central vein stenosis, stent placement seems to be more advantageous over PTA in terms of restenosis rate and the mean duration of patency. In the case of instent lesion, inserting the stent for the second time after stenosis recurred lengthened the duration of patency compared to performing balloon angioplasty alone.
免疫은 人體內에서 어떤 요인으로 인해서든지 異物이 침입하거나 變異細胞가 발생하면 Immune system이 관여하여 異物은 물론 새로이 발생된 變異細胞를 非自己로 인식하여 처리하는 能力을 발휘함으로써 個體의 恒常性을 維持하려는 현상을 말하고, 이러한 免疫作用에 관여하는 細胞는 特異性 免疫에 관여하는 免疫細胞外에도 Macrophage, NK cell, 수지상세포 및 랑게르한스 세포등을 들 수 있으며, 腫瘍은 組織이 自律的으로 過剩 成長한 것으로 이것은 개체에 대해서 意義가 없거나 이롭지 않을뿐더러 正常組織에 대해서 破壞的인 작용을 하는 것으로 東醫學에서는 正氣補養 및 補血을 爲主로하면서 破積·活血·解鬱·行氣등의 治法들을 兼用하고 있고, 西醫學에서는 手術療法, 放射線療法, 化學療法 및 免疫療法과 遺傳子療法등을 使用하나 癌腫에 따른 感受性과 治療 後의 經過 그리고 副作用이 각기 다르고, 또 이에 따른 많은 문제점들을 안고 있는 것이다. 癌細胞의 增殖을 抑制하는 方法에는 necrosis와 apoptosis가 있는데, apoptosis란 necrosis(세포괴사)와는 대조되는 용어로 초기에 핵의 응축, 세포질의 응축, 수포상의 세포돌기 형성등이 관찰되고, 生體內의 apoptosis는 腫瘍發生時 macrophage에서 분비되는 각종 cytokine에 의해 일어나거나 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte에 의해 일어나는 것으로 抗癌劑들의 부작용 및 tumor regression과 관계가 있는 것으로 알려져 있다. Nitric oxide(NO)는 cNOS와 iNOS 2 종류가 있으며 cNOS는 vascular endothelium 및 brain에서, iNOS는 활성화된 macrophage 및 여러 세포에서 발견되었다. Macrophage가 생산하는 NO는 生體內에서 癌細胞를 공격하여 傷害시키는 癌 免疫의 effector로서 그 역할을 하고 있고, 癌細胞의 增殖을 抑制한다. 丹蔘은 活血祛瘀시키면서 凉血安神시기 때문에 産後瘀滯腹痛·경폐징하·心腹刺痛과 熱毒으로 인한 癰腫·瘡瘍등에 利用되고, 最近에는 肝臟腫大와 動脈硬化症, 그리고 食道癌·胸腺癌 및 腹腔腫瘍에도 사용하고 있는 藥物로 本 硏究에서는 丹蔘에 대한 癌細胞 增殖 抑制作用과 免疫細胞 增强作用을 관찰한 결과 丹蔘은 In vitro上에서 A431 cell line과 KHOS-NP cell line의 增殖을 抑制하지는 않았지만 마우스 胸腺 및 脾臟細胞의 增殖을 活性化시켰다. 그러나 腹腔 macrophage에서 생성되는 NO는 丹蔘에 의해 in vitro상에서 억제되었고 in vivo상에서도 對照群과 큰 차이를 보이지 않았는데, 이는 丹蔘이 腹腔 macrophage의 活性化보다는 T-lymphocytes나 splenocytes의 增殖에 작용하는 것으로 思料된다. To investigate effect of water extract of Salviae Radix on human cancer cell-lines and immunocytes, this research estimated the proliferation of A431 cell lines, KHOS-NP cell lines, mouse thymocytes and mouse splenocytes, nitric oxide(NO) production from peritoneal macrophages, apoptosis and sub-population of mouse thymocytes. The result were obtained as follows ; 1. Salviae Radix wasn't effect the proliferation of A431 cell lines and KHOS-NP cell lines. 2. Salviae Radix was accelerate the proliferation of mouse thymocytes and splenocytes. 3. Salviae Radix was not accelerate the NO production from peritoneal macrophages in vitro. 4. Salviae Radix was inhibited the NO production from peritoneal macrophages in vivo. 5. Salviae Radix was accelerate the induction of apoptosis and sub-population of the mouse thymocytes.
In this paper, I try to estimate the key political economic variables, including the rate of surplus value, fat the 1970-1980 period in Korea. These variables are estimated in value terms by using the transformation model reconstructed in this paper. The results are as follows: First, while the rate of surplus value rises slowly, the value composition of capital increases very rapidly, leading to the rate of profit tendentially to fall. Second, assuming that the unproductive labor does not create value, all these variables jump up. Third, though the rates of surplus value for this period in Korea are lower than those of the United States (estimated by E. Wolff), the social rates of exploitation are higher in Korea. Finally, the discrepancy between the rate of surplus value and the social rate of exploitation becomes narrower over time. I think that above empirical results indicate the development, maturity, and crisis of capitalism in Korea.
This thesis is designed and implemented for an authoring tool of CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) of the human body structure, by means of the Hypermedia system. Also, the stack structure of the human body structure is designed and implemented in an object-oriented concepts and in a combination stack structure that mingles a tree stack structure with a network stack structure. If an authoring tool of this CAI is enlarged, it has a wide variety of applications. It can be utilized, for example, in educations, in desk announcements, in information services, in marketings, in quick-lunch room businesses, and in entertainment businesses. Additionally, if an authoring tool of this CAI is put into practice, it will curtail expenditure on both personnel and equipment, and will save time. In addition, it will result in an increase in users' attention, understanding, memory, and concentration.
목적 : Thromboxan A2의 혀관수축반응을 저해하는 prostacylin synthase exon 8 C117A의 변이가 관동맥 연축과 관련성이 있는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 방법 : 1998년 1월 1일부터 2000년 12월 31일까지 충남대학교병원 순환기내과에서 관동맥조형술과정맥내 에르고노빈 유발검사를 시행하여 관동맥 연축이 확진된 이형협심증 환자군(45예)과 정상 대조군(59예)을 대상으로 중합효소 연쇄반응법 및 restriction fragment length polymorphism을 이용하여 분석하였다. 결과 : Prostacyclin synthase exon 8 C117A 유전자형의 빈도는 대조군에서 A/A : A/C : C/C =3.4% : 30.5% : 66.1%, 이형협심증 환자군에서 A/A : A/C : C/C = 8.9% : 42.4% : 48.9%로 두 군간에 유의한 차이가 없었다. 대조군에 비해 변이형 협심증 환자군에서 남자의 비율과 흡연률이 높았지만, prostacyclin synthase exon 8 C117A 유전자형에 따른 군에서 당뇨병, 고혈압, 흡연, 고지혈증, 비만 등의 유의한 차이는 없었다. 결론 : 한국인에서 prostacyclin synthase exon 8 C117A 유전자 다형성과 관동맥 연축이 있는 이형협심증과의 유의한 연관성은 발견할 수 없었다. Backround : Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of variant angina(VA). Prostacyclin is one of the endothelium derived relaxing factors. The association between the novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the prostacyclin synthase gene and VA is not known. Therefore, we investigated the association between VA and the polymorphysm in the prostacyclin synthase gene. Methods : We compared 45 variant angina patients who had positive intravenous ergonovine test by coronary angiography with 59 control subjects who had negative intravenouis ergonovine test and normal coronary angiogram. Using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism, C117A, in exon 8. This nucleotide change did not cause an amino acid change in codon 373. Results : There was no significant difference in characteristics between the control group and the VA group, and there was no significant difference in the genotype distributions between the control group and the VA group. Conclusion : The C117A polymorphism in exon 8 of the prostacyclin synthase gene is not associated with variant angina.
Emphasis has recently been laid on the importance of street space that constitutes urban space in stimulating and strengthening the functions of the downtown area In most urban areas, however, street space has deteriorated so much that it reveals barrenness This situation is owing not to the lack of proper understanding about the importance of street space planning, but to the paucity of accumulated study on the correlation between the spatial consciousness of man as the subject of a street space evaluation on the one hand and the constituent elements as the object of spatial formation on the other District unit planning is a social system that is concerned with developing street space It maps out ideal urban space for better urban environment It also aims to better utilize urban space in accordance with the size and complexity of a city The purpose of this thesis is to examine the correlation between urban planning control elements regulating constituent elements of street space and the structure of man's psychological evaluation of the streetscape It explores the influence of physical regulatory elements on the streetscape, thus providing basic data and guidelines for planning a better streetscape It makes a psychological analysis of different applications of controlling elements by employing a semantic differential method and a CG simulation The procedure of my research is first to choose adjectival pairs that describe street space through bibliographical study and preliminary survey, and then to select physical regulatory elements concerning district Unit planning My study also shows the influence of the design control elements of distinct unit planning on the streetscape, by experimenting with those elements by means of CG simulation It examines variables on the axis of psychological factors according to the variation of regulatory elements and the degree of the influence of those variables
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of work on heart rate. The subjects of this study were 6 athletes whose ahtletic careers were about 5 years and 6 nonathletes. And the items which were tested were resting heart rete, maximum heart rate, and recovery heart rate in 1, 3, 5 minute. The conclusoin were as follows ; 1. The resting heart rate of athletic group was 64.16 +/-2.22 beats/min and 74.00 +/-8.48 in nonathletic group. Therefore the resting heart of athletic group was significantly lower than that of nonathletic group. (P<.05) 2. The maxium heart rates of athletic and non athletic group were 186.167 +/-3.656 beats/min and 204.000 +/-11.313 beats/min. The maximum heart rate of athletic group was significantly lower than that of nonathletic group. (P<.01) 3. The heart rates of recovery phase were shown 136.500 +/-14.152 beats/min and 159.167 +/-9.347 beats/min, 105.333 +/-8.477 beats/min and 127.000 +/-5.366 beats/min, 102.667 +/-7.1888 beats/min and 119.500 +/-7.007 beats/min in each 1, 3, 5, minute recovery phase. The heart rate of recovery phase in ahtletic group were significantly lower than of nonathletic group in each recovery phase.
In this paper, I estimate the Marxian rate of profit in Korean economy for the 1970-1986 period. I decompose the movement of the esimated rate of profit into the movements of its main constituent elements. especially the rate of surplus value and the value composition of capital . My empirical analysis shows that teh law of teh tendency of the rate of profit to fall(TRPF) is operating behind the process of accumulation and crisis in Korea. Actually the rate of profit was falling tendentially over the period 1970-1986. In addition, the cyclical fall of the rate of profit during 1974-75, 1979-80 period was totally owing to the cyclical rise of the value composition of capital. But the mode of operation of the law of TRPF is modified in the case of Korean economy. The specific mode of operation of the law of TRPF can be found in the following facts. First , the rate of profit of Korean economy did not as much fall as those of advanced capitalist nations during the period of the structural crisis of the world capitalism. 1970-1986. Second , the level of the rate of profit as well as that of the rate of surplus value of Korean economy sustantially higher than those of advanced capitalist nations. Third, in contrast to the cases fo advanced capitalist nations . the production of absolute surplus value is organically combind with the prouction of relative surplus value in Korean economy . I interprete these facts as the result of the uneven and combined development of Korean capitalism in the environment of the structural crisis of the world capitalism.