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장말손은 조선 세조 때의 무신이었다. 그가 1466년 함경도 회령에서 일어난 여진족 아지발 등의 침략을 물리치자, 세조는 그에게 보물 제188-2호로 지정된 <장말손 패도>를 하사하였다. 이 유물은 구조적인 면에서 젓가락을 넣을 첨자도(籤子刀)의 일종이다. 도금이나 상아 등 최고급 재료, 용이나 거북 등 상징적 형태, 금은 세공기술을 통해 왕실 공예품의 높은 수준을 엿볼 수 있다. 세종대부터 성종대까지 중국은 조공용이나 선물용으로 조선에 많은 칼을 요구하였다. 당시 조선의 도자장(刀子匠)이 크기가 작고 젓가락 등을 끼운 첨자도를 비롯한 ‘삼사도(三事刀)' 등 다용도 칼을 대량으로 제작하였다. 따라서 이 유물은 15세기 조선 왕실의 문헌기록을 실물로서 증명하는 것일뿐 아니라, 이 시대의 왕실 금속공예품을 대표한다는 점에서 역사적 학술적 가치가 매우 크다. Jang Mal-sohn was a military official during the era of King Sejo in the Joseon Dynasty. For Jang had defeated the invasion of Joseon by the Jianzhou Jurchen people in Hoeryong, Hamgyong Province in 1466, King Sejo bestowed him a cavalry sword along with other prizes. <The Ornamental Knife of Jang Mal-sohn> resembles a clasp knife(籤子刀) that was designated as national treasure number 188-2. This sword is made of luxurious materials such as gold and ivory, and it shows a strong symbolic representation with the figure of dragon and tortoise. It demonstrates the exceptional level of the imperial handcrafts through the techniques of covering with bamboo sheath and working with gold and silver. Meanwhile, the imperial China usually demanded a variety of small knives as tribe or gift for its envoys between the era of Sejong and Seongjong of Joseon. For this reason, the knife craftsmen of Joseon were to produce small clasp knives that can carry chopsticks. According to the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, the craftsmen created a large number of multipurpose knives including the set of 3 knives or the set of 5 knives . Thus, this knife contains a historical significance as it represents the imperial metal craft of the Joseon Dynasty in the 15th century.
It was said that many of the treasonable plot concerned the eunuch took place frequently and changed the political climate in the lately Chosun Dynasty period. During the reign period between the king Kwanghaegun(光海君) to Injo(仁祖), these events got mixed with the trouble of the succession of king. The times of king Sukjong(肅宗)' s was the political struggle years between Southerners(南人) and Westerners(西人). It was the changeful period from Gyongjong(景宗) to Yeongjo(英祖) that the Noron party(老論) came to the power and the Soron party(小論) responded to the Noron party in the meanwhile. All the before and after of the enthronement of Jeonjo(正祖), since when the Noron party took the political leadership. It seemed to me that the eunuch took part in the political change course because they was likely to look around the king nearly. They did not control the affairs of state by themselves but were needed inevitably by the ambitious court officials for the access or the turnover of political power. Those officials could remove the kings of the generation in Chosun Dynasty by killing or poisoning through the eunuch and the court lady who serviced on the king at the most closed palace. As time go by, the function of the eunuch and the court lady was changed. The eunuch played the middle part of treasonable affairs with the court lady in the reign of king Kwanghaegun and Injo Especially each case of Min Hee-gun(閔希騫) or Bae Hee-do(裵希度) was not the prime mover's case. Each of eunuch concerned of their case was the assistant whom the prime mover entice to kill the king at Court. Either case of Park Sang-gum(朴尙儉) or Chang Sea Gil(張世相), however, was transformed into the prime mover s cases. As is remarked above, when the bureaucratic group and the maternal relative group of King continued to attempt to seize the political power, their groups formed friendly relations with the eunuch and the court lady properly for the a treasonable plot and by their needs. For this reason, the eunuch and the court lady had consider influence upon the political transformation in the latter period of Chosun Dynasty.
The strategy and potential utilization of temperate germplasm for the improvement of tropical germplasm: genetic diversification program is a GEM (germplasm enhancement of maize) of a resource for(Zea mays L.) growers in USA
Sun-Hee,Woo,Tea-Young,Oh,Hee-Young,Jang,Jung-Hee,Ko,Seong-Bum,Baek,Young-Up,Kwon,Matthew,Krakowsky,Major,Goodman,Peter,J.,Balint-Kurti,James,B.,Holland,Yoon-Sup,So 한국육종학회 2013 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2013 No.07
In U.S.A. maize breeding, exotic germplasm is considered as high-risk and usually introduced by backcrossing specific traits into elite lines. The U.S.A. maize germplasm base is narrow. Only a few open-pollinated varieties are well represented in current programs. Currently, the barrier in using of exotic germplasm in the U.S.A is less formidable than in the 1980s. The major reason is that U.S.A materials are now used in tropical breeding to accelerate earlier maturity and lodging resistance. These exotic materials, developed with U.S.A germplasm, are being introduced back into the U.S.A.Since1994, the ARS-led Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project has sought to help broaden the genetic base of America's corn crop by promising exotic germplasm and crossing it with domestic lines. New hybrids derived from such crosses have provided corn researchers and the producers. These may include improved or alternative native source of resistance to insect pests such as corn rootworms and diseases like northern leaf blight. GEM's aim is to provide source of useful genetic maize diversity to help the producers to reduce risks from new or evolving insect and disease threats or changes in the environment or respond to new marketing opportunities and demand. During the 2009 growing season, the Ames (Iowa) and Raleigh (North Carolina) locations managed or coordinated evaluations on 17,200 nursery plots as well as 14,000 yield trial plots in Ames and 12,000 in Raleigh. A new “allelicdiversity” study is devoted to exploring and capturing the genetic variation represented by over 300 exotic corn races. Since 2001, GEM has released 221 new corn lines to cooperators for further development into elite commercial new hybrids. GEM has already identified about 50%-tropical, 50%-temperate families tracing primarily to tropical hybrids that are competitive with commercial checks. In North Carolina State University program, they have examined the potential of tropical inbredand hybrids for U.S.A. breeding by crossing temperate-adapted, 100%-tropical lines to U.S.A hybrids. There should be favorably unique alleles or genomic regions in temperate germplasm that can be helpful in tropical maize improvement as well as utilization of tropical lines in temperate areas.
Potentilla chinensis has been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. In macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) released as an inflammatory mediator and has been proposed an important modulator of many pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of methanol extracts of P. chinensis (PCM) on NO production in mouse (C57BL/6)peritoneal macrophages. PCM suppressed IFN-+ and LPSinduced NO production independent of iNOS expression. Interestingly, iNOS enzyme activity was reduced by PCM treatment. On the contrary to iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression was attenuated by PCM significantly. PCM also demonstrated potent radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The present results indicate that PCM's inhibitory action on the NO production is not due to attenuation of iNOS expression but direct scavenging of NO radical. These results suggest that PCM may be beneficial in diseases which related to oxidative stressmediated inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The purpose of this study is to analyze environmental factors affecting entrepreneurship, social enterprise business performance and factors that affect social achievements. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, social enterprises did an empirical analysis to 102 participants. Questionnaires have been collected during two months of 2010 and total one hundredtwo has been considered to be valid. Smart PLS (partial least square) 2.0 and SPSS 15.0 have been utilized for deriving the study results. These findings provide significant implications for social enterprises.
Aims: N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is extensively used in the manufacturing synthetic leathers, films, fibers, coatings, and polyurethane materials. Herein, we report the first case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) after occupational exposure to DMF. Results: A 31-year-old healthy man started working at a glove factory since July 2015, where he put his bare hands in the diluted water of DMF without gloves for initial 15 days, after then, inadequate protection was noticed, despite of occupational safety education. He took no other medication or excessive alcohol, and he donated his blood successfully at Mar 2015 with normal liver tests. In Aug 2015, he felt nausea, fatigue, and intermittent hands cramping, and admitted to other hospital at 31th Aug, where elevated levels of serum bilirubin (3.1 mg/dL), AST (292 IU/L), ALT (273 IU/L), r-GT (89 IU/L) were found. He underwent liver biopsy on 9th Sep, which showed chronic hepatitis (suggestive drug induced), and liver copper content was normal (28 ug/g). After confirming (+) antinuclear antibody (ANA), and high level of immunoglobulin (IgG) (3275 mg/dL), he began to administer daily prednisolone 30 mg+azathioprine 50 mg since 30th Oct without response, so that he visited out hospital on 4th Nov 2015. His laboratory results showed that bilirubin 5.6 mg/dL, ALT 252 IU/L, IgG 3970 mg/dL, ANA 1:320 (+), anti-smooth muscle Ab (+), anti-LKM1(-), and anti-mitochondrial Ab(-). Review of previous biopsy slide showed portoperiportal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, interface activity with confluent centrilobular necrosis. Prednisolone 60 mg/day was started on 11th Nov and then changed to prednisolone 30 mg+azathioprine 50 mg with tapering of prednisolone resulted in normalization of ALT and IgG from 28 Dec Conclusions: We report the first case of AIH after occupational exposure to DMF, which suggests awareness of DMF-induced AIH is important to timely therapeutic decision.
This research analyzes that bond investors of the company recognize tax avoidance correctly according to profit forecast accuracy by financial analysts to solve information asymmetry by providing useful information between companies and investors. In particular, regarding tax avoidance by profit forecast accuracy by financial analysts who solve information asymmetry by providing useful information between companies and investors due to the differentiation between this study and precedent study, whether creditors recognize it correctly and it is reflected well in load decision making was analyzed. As profit forecast accuracy by financial analysts gets higher and reliability for the accounting information of relevant companies gets increased, rate of return for investors gets lower and lower to cause low cost of borrowing capital. As profit forecast accuracy by financial analysts gets lower, reliability gets lower on accounting information of relevant companies to increase rate of return for investors and cause high cost of capital. Correct accounting information for financial analysts is being applied and used as a critical factor for investment decision making, which is resulted.
The composition and semiconducting properties of the passive films formed on Ni- (15, 30)Cr-5Mo alloys in pH 8.5 buffer solution were examined. The depth concentration profile of passive films formed on Ni-(15, 30)Cr-5Mo in pH 8.5 buffer solution showed that Mo enhances the enrichment of Cr. The Mott-Schottky plot for the passive film on Ni-(15, 30)Cr- 5Mo closely resembled that for the film on Cr, whereas those for the less Cr-enriched film on Mo-free alloys showed similar behavior to that for the film on Ni. The acceptor density was reduced by increasing Cr content in Ni-(15, 30)Cr-(0, 5)Mo alloys, but addition of Mo considerably increased the acceptor density.