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      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effect of Breed (Lean or Fat Pigs) and Sex on Performance and Feeding Behaviour of Group Housed Growing Pigs in a Tropical Climate

        D.,Renaudeau,M.,Giorgi,F.,Silou,J.,L.,Weisbecker 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.4

        The effects of breed and sex on individual growth performance and feeding behaviour were studied between 45 and 90 kg BW in two replicates of forty group-housed pigs. The first and the second replicates were carried out during the warm season (i.e. between February and April 2003) and during the hot season (i.e. between August and October 2003), respectively. During the warm season, ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 25.3째C and 86.0%. The corresponding values for the hot season were 27.9째C and 83.6%. The pigs were grouped in pens of 10 animals on the basis of breed (Creole or Large White) and sex (gilt or castrated male) and given ad libitum access to a grower diet (9.0 MJ/kg net energy and 158 g/kg crude protein) via feed intake recording equipment (Acema 48). An ear-tag transponder was inserted into each pig and this allowed the time, duration, and size of individual visits to be recorded. The growth performance and feeding pattern were significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. The Creole pigs (CR) had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (642 vs. 861 g/d, p<0.01) and carcass lean content (LC90kg) (35.4 vs. 54.5%; p<0.01) and a higher backfat thickness at 90 kg BW (BT90 kg) (23.4 vs. 10.4 mm; p<0.01) than Large White pigs (LW) whereas the average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not affected by breed (2.34 vs. 2.22 kg/d, respectively for CR and LW pigs; p>0.10). Consequently, the food:gain ratio was higher in CR than in LW (3.65 vs. 2.58; p<0.01). CR had less frequent meals but ate more feed per meal than LW (5.9 vs. 8.8 meals/d and 431 vs. 279 g/meal; p<0.01). The rate of feed intake was lower (27.6 vs. 33.9 g/min; p<0.01) and the ingestion time per day and per meal were higher in CR than in LW (87.1 vs. 69.7 min/d and 15.8 vs. 8.4 min/meal; p<0.01). The ADFI and BT90 kg were higher (2.38 vs. 2.17 kg/d and 18.1 vs. 15.9 mm; p<0.05) and LC90 kg was lower (43.5 vs. 46.4%; p<0.01) in castrated males (CM) than in gilts (G) whereas ADG was not affected by sex (p = 0.12). The difference in lean content between CM and G was greater in CR than in LW. The ADFI and ADG were reduced during the hot season (2.18 vs.2.38 kg/d and 726 vs. 777 g/d, respectively; p<0.05) whereas feed conversion and carcass lean content were not affected by season (p>0.05). Average feeding time per meal and meal size decreased during the hot season (10.9 vs. 13.2 min/meal and 316 vs. 396 g/meal; p<0.01) whereas the rate of feed intake was not affected by season (p = 0.83). On average, 0.69 of total feed intake was consumed during the diurnal period. However, this partition of feed intake was significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. In conclusion, the breed, sex and season significantly affect performance and feeding pattern in growing pigs raised in a tropical climate. Moreover, the results obtained in the present study suggest that differences observed in BW composition between CR and LW are associated with difference in feeding behaviour, in particular, the short-term regulation of feed intake. The effects of breed and sex on individual growth performance and feeding behaviour were studied between 45 and 90 kg BW in two replicates of forty group-housed pigs. The first and the second replicates were carried out during the warm season (i.e. between February and April 2003) and during the hot season (i.e. between August and October 2003), respectively. During the warm season, ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 25.3째C and 86.0%. The corresponding values for the hot season were 27.9째C and 83.6%. The pigs were grouped in pens of 10 animals on the basis of breed (Creole or Large White) and sex (gilt or castrated male) and given ad libitum access to a grower diet (9.0 MJ/kg net energy and 158 g/kg crude protein) via feed intake recording equipment (Acema 48). An ear-tag transponder was inserted into each pig and this allowed the time, duration, and size of individual visits to be recorded. The growth performance and feeding pattern were significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. The Creole pigs (CR) had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (642 vs. 861 g/d, p<0.01) and carcass lean content (LC90kg) (35.4 vs. 54.5%; p<0.01) and a higher backfat thickness at 90 kg BW (BT90 kg) (23.4 vs. 10.4 mm; p<0.01) than Large White pigs (LW) whereas the average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not affected by breed (2.34 vs. 2.22 kg/d, respectively for CR and LW pigs; p>0.10). Consequently, the food:gain ratio was higher in CR than in LW (3.65 vs. 2.58; p<0.01). CR had less frequent meals but ate more feed per meal than LW (5.9 vs. 8.8 meals/d and 431 vs. 279 g/meal; p<0.01). The rate of feed intake was lower (27.6 vs. 33.9 g/min; p<0.01) and the ingestion time per day and per meal were higher in CR than in LW (87.1 vs. 69.7 min/d and 15.8 vs. 8.4 min/meal; p<0.01). The ADFI and BT90 kg were higher (2.38 vs. 2.17 kg/d and 18.1 vs. 15.9 mm; p<0.05) and LC90 kg was lower (43.5 vs. 46.4%; p<0.01) in castrated males (CM) than in gilts (G) whereas ADG was not affected by sex (p = 0.12). The difference in lean content between CM and G was greater in CR than in LW. The ADFI and ADG were reduced during the hot season (2.18 vs.2.38 kg/d and 726 vs. 777 g/d, respectively; p<0.05) whereas feed conversion and carcass lean content were not affected by season (p>0.05). Average feeding time per meal and meal size decreased during the hot season (10.9 vs. 13.2 min/meal and 316 vs. 396 g/meal; p<0.01) whereas the rate of feed intake was not affected by season (p = 0.83). On average, 0.69 of total feed intake was consumed during the diurnal period. However, this partition of feed intake was significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. In conclusion, the breed, sex and season significantly affect performance and feeding pattern in growing pigs raised in a tropical climate. Moreover, the results obtained in the present study suggest that differences observed in BW composition between CR and LW are associated with difference in feeding behaviour, in particular, the short-term regulation of feed intake.

      • 인공지능을 이용한 3D 콘텐츠 기술 동향 및 향후 전망

        이승욱,황본우,임성재,윤승욱,김태준,김기남,김대희,박창준,Lee,,S.W.,Hwang,,B.W.,Lim,,S.J.,Yoon,,S.U.,Kim,,T.J.,Kim,,K.N.,Kim,,D.H,Park,,C.J. 한국전자통신연구원 2019 전자통신동향분석 Vol.34 No.4

        Recent technological advances in three-dimensional (3D) sensing devices and machine learning such as deep leaning has enabled data-driven 3D applications. Research on artificial intelligence has developed for the past few years and 3D deep learning has been introduced. This is the result of the availability of high-quality big data, increases in computing power, and development of new algorithms; before the introduction of 3D deep leaning, the main targets for deep learning were one-dimensional (1D) audio files and two-dimensional (2D) images. The research field of deep leaning has extended from discriminative models such as classification/segmentation/reconstruction models to generative models such as those including style transfer and generation of non-existing data. Unlike 2D learning, it is not easy to acquire 3D learning data. Although low-cost 3D data acquisition sensors have become increasingly popular owing to advances in 3D vision technology, the generation/acquisition of 3D data is still very difficult. Even if 3D data can be acquired, post-processing remains a significant problem. Moreover, it is not easy to directly apply existing network models such as convolution networks owing to the various ways in which 3D data is represented. In this paper, we summarize technological trends in AI-based 3D content generation.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

        Y.D.,Jang,M.D.,Lindemann,H.J.,Monegue,R.L.,Stuart 아세아·태평양축산학회 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

        Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin D3 with variable addition of vitamins A and E) orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (±vitamins D3 and E in drinking water) for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (±injection of a vitamin D3/A/E product 2 wk prepartum). In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin D3 was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05). The injectable administration with vitamin D3 and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH D3 (p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (p<0.05) concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH D3 concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05). In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01). In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin D3 product prepartum, serum 25-OH D3 concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01), and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01) and weaning (p<0.05) were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 concentration regardless of administration routes and α-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin D3 prepartum increased 25-OH D3 in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of 25-OH D3 are critical in weanling pigs, a variety of means to increase those levels are available to swine producers.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Optimal Dietary Ratio of Spray Dried Plasma Protein (SDPP) and Dried Porcine Solubles (DPS) in Improving Growth Performance and Immune Status in Pigs Weaned at 21 Days of Age

        Kim,,J.D.,Hyun,,Y.,Sohn,,K.S.,Kim,,T.J.,Woo,,H.J.,Han,,In,K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.3

        An experiment was conducted to determine the optimal inclusion ratio of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) and dried porcine solubles (DPS) for maximizing growth and improving immunity in weaned pigs. One hundred-fifty male (barrow) pigs were allotted in a completely randomized block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) control (6% SDPP), 2) S6D6 (6% SDPP+6% DPS), 3) S6D3 (6% SDPP+3% DPS), 4) S3D6 (3% SDPP+6% DPS) and 5) S3D3 (3% SDPP+3% DPS). Each treatment has 6 replicates with 5 pigs per replicate. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were highest, but not significantly different when pigs were fed a diet contained 6% SDPP and DPS from d 0 to 7 after weaning. Pigs fed the S6D3 diet showed better weight gain and feed intake than other treatments, especially compared with pigs fed S3D6 diet (p<0.05) from d 8 to 21 after weaning. For the overall experimental period, pigs fed the S6D3 diet showed the best improvement in ADG and ADFI. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were higher in pigs fed the S6D6 diet than other diets from d 0 to 7 after weaning. However, pigs fed S6D3 diet showed higher DM, CP and essential amino acids (except methionine and arginine) digestibilities than pigs fed other diets from d 8 to 21 after weaning, although there was no significant difference. From d 8 to 21 after weaning, threonine, valine, isoleucine and leucine digestibilites were higher in S6D6 group, and phenyalanine, histidine, lysine and arginine digestibility were higher in S6D3 group than other groups. The ratio of CD4 and CD8 positive lymphocytes during the overall experimental period was independent of the ratio of SDPP and DPS. However, CD4+:CD8+ ratio was numerically lowered in pigs fed diet the S6D3 diet. Therefore, the present study suggests that an optimal inclusion ratio for maximizing growth performance and maintaining low immune status is 6% of SDPP and 3% of DPS in weaned pigs.

      • 비타민 D3 의 경구투여 또는 자외선 조사가 브로일러 병아리의 증체 및 비타민 D3 대사에 미치는 영향

        장윤환,김중달,Holick,,M,F,황선일 한국영양사료학회 1995 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.19 No.6

        본 연구는 육계에 대한 vitamin D₃(VD₃)의 경구투여 또는 중파자외선(UVB) 照射가 증체와 VD₃대사에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 구명코자 실시되었다. 1일령 Hubbard 계통 병아리 360수(6 처리 × 3반복 × 20수)에, 기본사료에 VD₃를 1,000, 2,000 또는 3,000IU/㎏(처리 1, 2, 3) 첨가하여 급여하거나, 기본사료만 급여하고 UVB를 30, 45 또는 60분 照射하여(처리 4, 5, 6) 6주간의 증체량, 사료섭취량, 영양소 이용율, 혈장중 Ca, P, VD₃및 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃〔25(OH)D₃〕 함량을 측정하였다. Ca은 원자 흡수 분광광도계로, P은 molybdovanadate 분광광도 계법으로, VD₃와 25(OH)D₃는 HPLC에 의하여 정량되었다. 6주간의 증체량에 있어서 처리간에 유의차가 없었으며, 사료섭취량 및 전환율에 있어서도 유의차가 나타나지 않았다. 가용 무질소물의 이용 효율에 있어서도 각 처리간에 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 Ca 농도는 처리 1∼4가 처리 5와 6보다 더 높은 수치를 보였고(P$lt;.05), 6주령 때에는 처리 1과 2가 처리 4∼6보다 높게 나타났으나(P$lt;.05), P 함량은 3주 및 6주령 모두 비슷한 수준을 보였다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 VD₃농도는 처리간 유의차가 없었고 25(OH)D₃함량은 처리 2와 3에서 처리 4보다 더 높은 성적을 보였다(P$lt;.05). 6주령 병아리의 VD₃함량은 처리 1과 2가 처리 4와 6보다 높게 나타났으며(P$lt;.05), 25(OH)D₃농도에서는 처리 1∼3이 처리 4와 5보다 높은 결과를 보였다(P$lt;.05). 대체로 혈장 내 Ca, VD₃및 25(OH)D₃함량상 VD₃경구 투여가 UVB 照射 보다 더 높은 값을 보였다. 그 이유로서 VD₃증가 급여는 체내의 Ca 및 VD₃함량을 증가시키고 때로는 중독증을 유발하나, UVB 照射는 불필요한 VD₃의 생성을 억제하기 때문이라 생각 되었다. 본 연구에서는 병아리의 증체를 더 증시하고 처리 1의 VD₃1,000IU/㎏의 경구투여 또는 처리 4의 UVB 30분 照射(매일)를 추천코자 한다. 이 두 처리의 비용을 비교하였을 때 처리 4의 방법이 처리 1보다 경제성이 있었다. 그러므로 육계사육시에 병아리를 태양광선에 노출시키는 연구도 필요 할 것이라 생각된다. This research was carried out to compare the effects of oral administration of vitamin D₃(VD₃) and the irradiation of medium wave ultraviolet(UVB) light for the performance and VD₃metabolism in broiler chicks. Day old Hulbard fine 360 chicks(6 treatment × 3 replication × 20 chicks) were fed the basal diet plus VD₃1,000, 2,000 or 3,000IU/㎏(treatment 1, 2 or 3, respectively) or fed the basal diet only and exposed to UVB light for 30, 45 or 60 min everyday at I'm distance (treatment 4, 5 or 6, respectively). The body weight gain and feed consumption were measured for 6 wk. The nutrient utilization of 2-3 and 5-6 wk period were investigated. The Ca, P, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃contents in plasma of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were analyzed. The Ca and P were quantitated by atomic absorption and molybdovanadate spectrophotometry, and VD₃and 25(OH)D₃by HPLC. The body weight gain, feed consumption, feed Conversion and N-free extract utilization were not significantly different among treatments tested. Ca concentrations in plasma of treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 at 3 wk was significantly higher than those of treatments 5 and 6 (P$lt;.05). Those were also higher in treatments 1 and 2 than those of rest groups at 6 wk (P$lt;.05). However, the P concentrations in whole groups both of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were similar. The VD₃levels represented no significant difference among treatments at 3 wk age, however, 25(OH) values in treatments 2 and 3 were greater than that in group 4(P$lt;.05). The VD₃contents in plots 1 and 2 were higher than those in treatments 4 and 6 (P$lt;.05), and 25(OH)D₃levels in groups 1-3 were more than those in treatments 4 and 5 (P$lt;.05) at 6 wk old birds. With respect to the concentrations of Ca, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃briefly, the oral VD₃administration presented the higher values compared to the UVB irradiation. It was shown that increasing the dietary supplemental VD₃level presented an increased Ca, VD₃or 25(OH)D₃content in plasma, but increasing the irradiation time of UVB light brought a limited level of those compositions, inhibiting the toxicity of excess VD₃, which was confirmed by other researchers. Consequantly, it was thought that the oral administration of VD₃1,000IU/㎏ that was lowest level among 3 treatments or the UVB irradiation of 30 min, shortest time among 3 applications would be desirable for broiler performance. However, it was known that UVB irradiation for 30 min cost less than VD₃administration of 1,000IU/㎏ did. Furthermore, it was considered that studies on exposing the broiler chicks to the sunlight would be needed in the future.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

        H.J.,Chung,K.W.,Kim,D.W.,Han,H.C.,Lee,B.C.,Yang,H.K.,Chung,M.R.,Shim,M.S.,Choi,E.B.,Jo,Y.M.,Jo,M.Y.,Oh,S.J.,Jo,S.,K.,Hong,J.K.,Park,W.,K.,Chang 아세아·태평양축산학회 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.11

        Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

        Jang,,Y.D.,Lindemann,,M.D.,Monegue,,H.J.,Stuart,,R.L. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

        Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin $D_3$ with variable addition of vitamins A and E) orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (${\alpha}$vitamins $D_3$ and E in drinking water) for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (${\pm}injection$ of a vitamin $D_3$/A/E product 2 wk prepartum). In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin $D_3$ was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH $D_3$) concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05). The injectable administration with vitamin $D_3$ and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH $D_3$ (p<0.05) and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (p<0.05) concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH $D_3$ concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05). In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin $D_3$ and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01). In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin $D_3$ product prepartum, serum 25-OH $D_3$ concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01), and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01) and weaning (p<0.05) were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ concentration regardless of administration routes and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin $D_3$ and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin $D_3$ prepartum increased 25-OH $D_3$ in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of 25-OH $D_3$ are critical in weanling pigs, a variety of means to increase those levels are available to swine producers.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

        Chung,,H.J.,Kim,,K.W.,Han,,D.W.,Lee,,H.C.,Yang,,B.C.,Chung,,H.K.,Shim,,M.R.,Choi,,M.S.,Jo,,E.B.,Jo,,Y.M.,Oh,,M.Y.,Jo,,S.J.,Hong,,S.K.,Park,,J.K.,Chang,,W.K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.11

        Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

      • RF 스위치 적용을 위한 박막 PZT 엑추에이터의 d<SUB>31</SUB> 구동과 d<SUB>33</SUB> 구동 특성 비교

        신민재(M. J. Shin), 서영호(Y. H. Seo), 최두선(D-S. Choi), 황경현(K-H. Hwang) 한국정밀공학회 2006 한국정밀공학회 학술발표대회 논문집 Vol.2006 No.5월

        In this work, we present the comparison between d<SUB>31</SUB> and d<SUB>33</SUB> mode characterization using the PZT micro-actuator for large displacement. The PZT micro-actuator consisted of Si, PZT, and Pt layer on SOI wafer. The electrode shapes were laminated and interdigitated for d<SUB>31</SUB> and d<SUB>33</SUB> mode, respectively. In order to characterize the actuation mode, we measured the displacement using laser interferometer. The maximum displacement of d<SUB>31</SUB> mode was 12.2㎛ at 10V, the actuation characterization of d<SUB>31</SUB> was better than that of d<SUB>33</SUB> mode. We estimated that displacement of d<SUB>33</SUB> mode would be larger than that of d<SUB>31</SUB> above 30V.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Replacing Dried Skim Milk With Wheat Gluten and Spray Dried Porcine Protein on Growth Performance and Digestibility of Nutrients in Nursery Pigs

        Burnham,,L.L.,Kim,,I.H.,Hancock,,J.D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.11

        Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional value of wheat gluten (WG) and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in diets for nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 120 weanling pigs (5.7 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 35-d growth assay. Treatments for d 0 to 14 were: 1) dried skim milk (DSM)-dried whey-SBM based control; 2) WG to replace the protein from DSM; 3) SDPP; and 4) WG-SDPP (50:50 blend on a protein basis) to replace the protein from DSM. From d 14 to 35, all pigs were fed a common corn-SBM-whey-based diet. For d 0 to 14, there were no differences in ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed (p>0.11). However, for d 14 to 35, pigs fed diets with WG had greater gain/feed than those fed SDPP (p<0.05), and pigs fed diets with the WG-SDPP blend had greater ADG than pigs fed diets with WG or SDPP alone (p<0.07). In a second experiment, 60 weanling pigs (5.1 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 28-d growth assay. All pigs were fed the WG-SDPP diet fed in Exp. 1 for d 0 to 14, and changed to experimental diets for d 14 to 28. Treatments were: 1) the whey-SBM-based diet used for d 14 to 28 in Exp. 1; or 2) a whey-SBM based diet with 3% added SDPP. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, gain/feed, or apparent digestibilities of DM and N among treatments for d 14 to 28 or overall (p>0.14). In a third experiment, 150 weanling pigs (5.6 kg avg initial BW) were used in a 32-d growth assay to determine the optimal blend of WG and SDPP for use after weaning. The SDPP was added as 8% of the control diet, and WG was substituted on a protein basis to yield the desired SDPP:WG blends. Treatments were (d 0 to 14): 1) SDPP; 2) 75% SDPP and 25% WG; 3) 50% SDPP and 50% WG; 4) 25% SDPP and 75% WG; and 5) WG. As in Exp. 1, all pigs were switched to a common corn-SBM-whey-based diet for d 14 to 32. For d 0 to 14, ADG and ADFI increased as replacement of the SDPP was increased up to 50% and decreased when more of the SDPP was removed from the diet (quadratic effects, p<0.004 and 0.02, respectively). Apparent digestibilities of DM and N (at d 13) were not affected by treatments (p>0.18). For d 14 to 32, treatments did not affect ADG (p>0.2), although there were quadratic responses in ADFI (p<0.04), with pigs fed the 50:50 blend suggested the greatest intake of feed. For the overall experimental period (d 0 to 32), ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed increased as WG was used to replace as much as 50% of the SDPP (quadratic effects p<0.04, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively). In conclusion, WG can successfully replace up to 50% of the SDPP in a complex nursery diet, when SDPP is included at the 8% level. There is no advantage to keeping SDPP in the diet after Phase I (d 0 to 14).

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