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Recently, deep brain stimulation(DBS) has been applied in many patients to treat movement disorder. Though this new methodology is in the stage of settlement, many aspects on DBS has not been well known yet. I reviewed related articles and my experience to summarize facts on DBS. Key words:Deep brain stimulation;Movement disorder.
Functional materials are often exposed to high temperatures and inherent temperature gradients. These temperature gradients act as thermodynamic driving forces for the diffusion of mobile components. The detailed consequences of thermodiffusion depend on the boundary conditions of the non-isothermal sample: Once the boundaries of the sample are inert and closed for exchange of the mobile components, thermodiffusion leads to their pile-up in the stationary state (the so called Soret effect). Once the system is open for an exchange of the mobile component, chemical diffusion adds to the Soret effect, and stationary non-zero component fluxes are additionally observed in the stationary state. In this review, the essential aspects of thermodiffusion and Soret effect in inorganic functional materials are briefly summarized and our current practical knowledge is reviewed. Major examples include nonstoichiometric binary compounds (oxides and other chalcogenides) and ternary solid solutions. The potential influence of the Soret effect on the long term stability of high temperature thermoelectrics is briefly discussed. Typical Soret coefficients for nonstoichiometric compounds are found to be of the order of (dδ/dT) ≈ 1%/K.
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On the basis of OECD trade statistics at SITC 5 digit level for the period 1961-1999 this paper shows the classification of international trade in (1) inter-industry trade; (2) horizontal intra-industry; and (3) vertical intra-industry trade used in the empirical trade literature to be unstable at the individual product level. This indicates that this type of statistical classification based on unit-values is probably not very useful. On the other hand, the paper also shows in accordance with the literature, that the aggregate distribution of trade into the three categories apparently is rather stable with vertical intra-industry trade (between Germany and France) making up 50-60%. The high level of vertical intra-industry trade probably cover-up many products shifting between e.g. vertical and horizontal intra-industry. The statement from the literature that the European integration process involves heavy adjustment costs because of the size of vertical intra-industry trade is therefore rather dubious.
This paper examines the effect of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries where products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In the absence of quality regulation the producer in the large country produces a higher quality than the producer in the small country. Moreover, the quality levels between the two producers converge in case of market integration i.e. when the trade barrier is reduced. If a common minimum quality standard is introduced, which forces the low quality producer to increase the quality of his product, the high quality producer reacts strategically by lowering the quality of his product. On unregulated markets, market integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Introducing a minimum quality standard also has ambiguous effects on welfare.
당사자자치는 전 지구적으로 실정 국제사법 입법에 의하여 인정되고 있으며 그 인정범위는 늘어나고 있다. 그러나 그 이론적 기초는 불분명하며 수십년 동안 관심을 받지 못하였다. 즉, 당사자자치로부터 나오는 실제적 효용만으로 충분하다고 여겨졌다. 그러나 라틴아메리카나 중동의 일부 국가의 입법처럼 당사자자치를 배척하는 입법을 반박하기에는 그것만으로는 부족하다. 따라서 이 논문에서는 당사자자치에 이론적으로 반대하는 논쟁들을 논구대상으로 삼고자 한다. 그 논쟁들은 헤겔철학 이래 주류로 되어 있는, 주권에 기초한 법관념에 뿌리를 두고 있으며, 그러한 법관념은 법을 사회적 불균형에 대한 조정장치로 보는 오늘날의 법관념에 반영되어 있다. 필자는 자유로운 준거법선택의 2分枝的 이론을 계몽주의 철학에 기하여 전개한다. 자유로운 준거법선택의 핵심부는 多法域 世界에서의 개인의 자연권의 일부이지만, 다각적 제한을 포함하는 그 주변부는 다양한 법역들의 실정 저촉규칙에 의하여 확립되고 명하여져야 한다. 이 이론은 계약만이 아니라 가족법이나 상속법, 지적재산권법, 불법행위법과 같은 다른 법분야에도 적용된다. 다만 후자의 분야들에서는 계약 분야에 비하여 자유로운 준거법선택에 대한 실정적 제한이 더 많고 자세할 수 있다.
Quality control of protein folding represents a funda-mental cellular activity. Early steps of protein N-glycosylation involving the removal of three glucose and some specific mannose residues in the endoplasmic reticulum have been recognized as being of importance for protein quality control. Specific oligosaccharide structures resulting from the oligosaccharide processing may represent a glycocode promoting productive protein folding, whereas others may represent glyco-codes for routing not correctly folded proteins for dislocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol and subsequent degradation. Although quality control of protein folding is essential for the proper functioning of cells, it is also the basis for protein folding disorders since the recognition and elimination of non-native conformers can result either in loss-of-function or pathological-gain-of-function. The machinery for protein folding control represents a prime example of an intricate interactome present in a single organelle, the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, current views of mechanisms for the recognition and retention leading to productive protein folding or the eventual elimination of misfolded glycoproteins in yeast and mammalian cells are reviewed.
This paper examines the relation between price differences and quality differences in an oligopoly model with intra-industry trade, where goods are horizontally as well as vertically differentiated. The analysis demonstrates that the ratio of prices is not linked to the ratio of qualities in any simple way. The paper therefore questions empirical trade studies using unit values as an indicator for the quality of the traded goods. However, we also show that the ratio of prices is a reasonable proxy for the ratio of qualities if sunk cost is dominating in the cost structure.