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Egg production farms in Turkey are currently more intensive than in past years. The intensive egg production may have some negative environmental effects on air, soil and water and induce some health problems for workers and animals. This study aimed to determine the NH3 and CO2 emission rates from layer houses in the Bursa region in the west part of Turkey. The environmental conditions and NH3 and CO2 concentration were simultaneously measured in 24 h for five consecutive days at the beginning, middle period and end of four summer months in 2013. During the study period, the exhaust temperature varied from 16.80°C to 34.71°C, whereas the relative humidity was 34.60-86.18%. The hourly variation of the exhaust and ambient environmental conditions was observed. The average hourly mean NH3 and CO2 concentrations were 9.9 ppm and 732 ppm, respectively. The exhaust NH3 concentrations did not show clear diurnal variations. The hen-specific emission rates (fully occupied and active) were 0.25 ±0.23 g d −1 hen−1 for NH3 and 70 g d −1 hen−1 for CO2. For NH3 and CO2 emission rates, the daily and hourly variations were relatively stable during the monitoring period. The ambient and exhaust air velocity, exhaust temperature and relative humidity have statistically significant effects on only the hen-specific CO2 emission rates.
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the effects of restrained shrinkage on the in-plane deflection behavior of reinforced beams cast with self-compacting concrete. The load-deflection data from the tests on two sets of heavilyreinforced concrete beams were analyzed. The first set of beams was made with self-compacting concrete while conventionally vibrated concrete with shrinkage reducing admixture was used in the second set. It was found out that the first set underwent shrinkage cracking at early ages and this cracking caused the member responses of the beams to be closer to the fully-cracked response at the initial stages of loading. The second set of beams was found to have initial responses approximate to the uncracked response and the maximum shrinkage restraint stresses were calculated to be in the order of 20-40% of the modulus of rupture of concrete. The maximum shrinkage-induced restraint stress expressions of the AS 3600-2001, AS 3600-2009, EC2, and CSA A23.3-04 codes were found to underestimate the restraint stresses developed in the first set, yet the estimates from code solutions were in closer agreement with the experimental values in the second set.
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is abundant substitute for natural aggregate in many areas. It is obtained by crushing of old road pavements in milling machine during rehabilitation and reconstruction process. In this study, reclaimed asphalt pavement mortars (RAPM) have been produced with different cement dosages and replacement ratios. The destructive and nondestructive tests have been conducted on specimens to determine physical and mechanical properties of RAPM. The free and restrained shrinkage tests on RAPM have been conducted to predict fractural behavior of mortars. The aim of the shrinkage tests was to delay crack formation and improve strain capacity of mortars before cracking. The results showed that RAPM exhibits lower elasticity modulus; however the tensile capacity was improved for deformation before cracking.
This study reports the results of nondestructive monitoring of macro void developments in mortars manufactured with both ordinary Portland cement and sulfate resistant cement. Two types of curing were utilized; tap water curing and another curing environment that contains 5% Na2(SO4) solution. Being the primary objective of this study, macro void developments of the mortar specimens were monitored by X-ray Medical Computerized Tomography. Compressive strength tests and water absorption tests were conducted on specimens that were kept in both curing environments for a duration of 560 days. Data analyses yielded consistent results among the three tests used in this experimental study. Macro void ratios of mortars decreased at the beginning of experiments for a certain period; afterwards, macro void ratios increased. The objective of this study was accomplished as anticipated since X-CT image analysis was able to nondestructively monitor macro void development process in cement mortars.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of EEG signals on different cognitive tasks of the pedestrians. The author developed new software for simulation, called Pedestrian 3D virtual simulator which considered in detail the decision-making cognitive tasks of pedestrians, with simultaneous measurement of the EEG signals. Two walking sessions were designed: one receiving the SMS while walking, the other involved replying SMS while walking. Fifty subjects participated in the study. Based on the Singular Value Decomposition algorithm the EEG was considered to analyze of features. The results of this study show that It was determined that the right frontal lobes were active in distractions when pedestrians while walking. EEG changes during the tasks were seen in alpha 1 and alpha 2 bands substantial changes were observed in F1, FZ, F2 channels. The use of mobile phones (especially replying SMS) while walking negatively affected the perception of pedestrians, putting them at a risk for accidents, suggesting the need for interventions to decrease the use of mobile phones while walking. One of the most important results of the study is that an ongoing response is recorded in the middle of the prefrontal cortex in those who are careless walking.
The design of reinforced concrete buildings must satisfy the serviceability stiffness criteria in terms of maximum lateral deflections and inter story drift in order to prevent both structural and non-structural damages. Consideration of plastic hinge formation is also important to obtain accurate failure mechanism and ultimate strength of reinforced concrete frames. In the present study, an iterative procedure has been developed for the analysis of reinforced concrete frames with cracked elements and consideration of plastic hinge formation. The ACI and probability-based effective stiffness models are used for the effective moment of inertia of cracked members. Shear deformation effect is also considered, and the variation of shear stiffness due to cracking is evaluated by reduced shear stiffness models available in the literature. The analytical procedure has been demonstrated through the application to three reinforced concrete frame examples available in the literature. It has been shown that the iterative analytical procedure can provide accurate and efficient predictions of deflections and ultimate strength of the frames studied under lateral and vertical loads. The proposed procedure is also efficient from the viewpoint of computational time and convergence rate. The developed technique was able to accurately predict the locations and sequential development of plastic hinges in frames. The results also show that shear deformation can contribute significantly to frame deflections.
Advanced material models for concrete are not widely available in general purpose finite element codes. Parameters to define them complicate the implementation because they are case sensitive. In addition to this, their validity under severe shear condition has not been verified. In this article, simple engineering plasticity material models available in a commercial finite element code are used to demonstrate that complicated shear behavior can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. For this purpose dynamic response of a squat shear wall that had been tested on a shaking table as part of an experimental program conducted in Japan is analyzed. Both the finite element and material aspects of the modeling are examined. A corrective artifice for general engineering plasticity models to account for shear effects in concrete is developed. The results of modifications in modeling the concrete in compression are evaluated and compared with experimental response quantities.
Higher concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in animal barns can negatively affect production and health of animals and workers. This paper focuses on measurements of summer concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in a naturally ventilated laying henhouse located at an egg production facility in Bursa region, western Turkey. Also, indoor and ambient environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity were measured simultaneously with pollutant gas concentrations. The average NH3 concentrations during summer of 2013 was 8.05 ppm for exhaust and 5.42 ppm for inlet while average CO2 concentration was 732 ppm for exhaust and 625 ppm for inlet throughout summer. The overall minimum, average and maximum values and humidity were obtained as 16.8°C, 24.72°C, and 34.71°C for indoor temperature and 33.64%, 63.71%, and 86.18% for relative humidity. The lowest exhaust concentrations for NH3 and CO2 were 6.98 ppm and 609 ppm, respectively. They were measured in early morning at the maximum diurnal ventilation rate in July 2013 and August 2013. The highest concentrations were 10.58 ppm for NH3 and 904 ppm for CO2 recorded in the afternoon when the ventilation rate was the lowest in June 2013.
The aim of this study is to determine the ceramic properties of Karacasu clay (KC) fired at various temperatures. For this purpose, the clay sample was first characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), DTA/TG analysis and plasticity measurements. The mineralogical composition of KC was dominated by illite/mica, kaolinite, smectite, quartz and hematite. DTA/TG analyses showed comparable behaviour to those of illitic clays. The data obtained from plasticity tests indicated that KC was very high plastic clay. To evaluate firing behaviors, pressed clay samples were fired separately at temperatures between 850 and 1200℃. Fired specimens were evaluated by water absorption, linear shrinkage, bulk density, bending strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that there became a significant densification at temperatures especially above 1000℃. Based on the technological characteristics, KC could be used in the manufacture of structural ceramics.