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[연구목적] 공공기관의 당기 성과와 목표의 차이가 차기 목표설정에 영향을 미치는 톱니현상이 존재하는지를 실증적으로 검증한다. 그리고 평가자의 감시, 상대적목표설정 그리고 인센티브가 톱니현상에 미치는 영향을 검증한다. [연구방법] A공공기관 B지방청의 2014년부터 2017년까지 30개 영업점의 120개 경영평가 연도별 자료를 표본으로 선정하여, 회귀분석을 실시하였다. [연구결과] 첫째, 공공기관에서도 당기 성과가 차기 목표수준에 영향을 미치는 톱니현상이 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 당기 성과가 당기 목표를 초과한 경우에 차기 목표가 증가하는 정도보다 당기 성과가 목표에 미달한 경우 차기 목표를 감소시키는 정도가 더 작은 하방경직적 톱니현상이 나타났다. 둘째, 평가대상 전체 영업점 매출실적에서 피평가자인 해당 영업점 매출 실적이 차지하는 비중과 피평가자인 영업점의 대도시지역 소재 여부는 톱니현상에 유의적인 음의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째 영업점이 속한 집단의 상대적 목표설정치는 톱니현상을 완화하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 평가자의 감시가 강하거나, 준거집단의 목표설정치가 클수록 피평가자의 차기 목표설정에서 톱니현상이 감소한다는 가설을 지지하는 결과로 해석하였다. [연구의 시사점] 국내 공공기관 자료를 이용하여 성과관리시스템의 목표설정에서 톱니현상과 감시, 상대적목표설정 그리고 인센티브가 차기 목표설정에 미치는 효과를 실증분석한 점에서 의의가 있다. 또한 향후 목표설정과 관련하여 공공기관 통제시스템 설계를 위한 제도 마련에 근거자료로 활용될 수 있다. [Purpose] This study empirically examines whether ratcheting exists in a public institution and whether the difference between the goal and the current performance significantly influences the goal set for the coming period and verifies the effect of the appraiser"s monitoring, relative target setting, and performance cooperation compensation on the ratcheting. [Methodology] Data for hypothesis testing are gathered from the actual measurement in the performance management system of a public institution in the period of 2014∼2017. And the regression analysis was performed based on that. [Findings] It was found that there is a ratcheting in public institutions where the difference between the results of the current term and the target affects the next target level. When the target for the current term was achieved, the more the next target increased, and when the target for the current term was not achieved, the downward rigid ratcheting appeared in which the degree of decrease in the next target was small. It was also found that the stronger the monitoring of the evaluator and the larger the relative target setting value of the reference group, the more alleviated the ratcheting. [Implications] This study is significant in that we used domestic public institution management evaluation materials to empirically analyze the current state and monitoring of ratcheting in the goal setting of performance management systems, and the effects of relatively goal setting and performance cooperation compensation on the next goal setting. In addition, it can be used as a basis for creating a system for designing control systems of public institutions in relation to future goal setting.
This study analyzed fractal characteristics of river by using GIS. In this study, topographical factors in river basin was grid-analyzed for each cell size by using GIS and regression formula was derived by analyzing correlation among topographical factors and cell size which were calculated here. And, analysis of fractal characteristics of river by using the result calculated from 1) showed that among topographical factors, rover length only increases according as cell size increases. The result of calculating fractal dimension for each cell size shows that river length, basin area, and centroidal flow path are 1.028, 1.0026 and 1.0061 respectively.
A new rainfall-runoff model(GIS-SUH) was developed to apply to a river basin by considering the calculated fractal dimension. The SUH model was developed by analyzing correlation among rainfall, discharge and topographical factors in Nakdong river basin. The GIS-SUH model was developed by using fractal dimension which was calculated in Wi stream basin. The SUH model and the GIS-SUH model were applied to Wi stream which is representative experimental river basin of IHP and were verified its sensibility. The result of analyzing sensibility by applying the SUH model and the GIS-SUH model to a real river basin showed that the GIS-SUH model simulates the runoff phenomenon more exactly than the SUH model.
The paper aims to clarify the development process of Dong-rae spa in Korea since 1876, which is well known since Lee dynasty and to be the only spa which had been urbanized in 1920's. the results are as follow : ① The spa had been changed its character in three stages ; i) Infiltration of Japanese use into traditional Korea spa, ii) Establishment of health and retreat resorts for Japanese, iii) transfiguration and establishment to large scale pleasure resorts. ② Spatial enlargement of the spa had progressed in accordance with three stage mentioned above. ③ In the final stage, the spatial structure was formed by four concentric belts ; commercial and public baths zone in the center, small hotel belt, large hotel belt, and villas belt. ④ The stocks accumulated before liberation had worked a little for the after Liberation development of spa.
In the view of the results investigated the effect of air pollutants that is emitted from a new generator facilities, the total estimated concentration which is the summation of a contributional concentration and observational concentration is much less than that of atmospheric environment criterion for the air pollutants. So we can predict that the operation of the new generator facilities with mitigation equipment don't seriously affect around environment. At the same time, we compared the contributional concentration of before mitigation equipment with that of after it to examine the decreasing amount due to mitigation equipment. The result showed that the concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM-10 is reduced to 25%, 30% and 26% of original value, respectively.
This study aims of identifying the space stocks development trace of typical spa-resorts in Korea. The main findings of this study, the space stocks(disposition style, design) development trace and structure's character & relation to each others. As a result, finding of three important factors. First, The quantitative analyses findings on the 16 categories, are the 4type of formation (A, B, C, D ). Subsequently, major of the spas start off, are of the A and D type, while the changes from type A to B are also found. Secondly, The space disposition style of travel area from A type means concentric circle type, while that from D type is large one-set type. Finally, Making room in access aspect got Utopian approach, Baesanimsu type, etc. and the space design of the inner part made a center zone at the geographically lowest area or did a point of intersection at the outer track of the center area.
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The aims of this research study is to clear the differences of the learning effects and the cognition of Home Economics by sex in the middle school and to collect the future-oriented educational datas, after implementing the 6th education curriculum. The results of the study are as follows ; 1. Most of students had the cognition that Home Economics is a subject matter of a needful knowledge and skill for the family life, half students a cultural subject matter for the modern life. The former was supported by female students, the latter by male students. 2. Most of students were interested in actual training fields of cooking and hand-sewing, had a strong interest about a field of physical and social-psychological growth. The differences by sex were statistically significant in these fields. 3. Most of students had positive responses in the learning effects of Home Economics. The most useful field was cooking and the worst was the structure and method of sewing machine. 4. The shortage and the dissatisfaction in the learning of Home Economics were lacking of the actual training hours, the old-fashioned teaching methods and the shortage of teaching materials etc.