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The works of Hur Kyun(1569-1618) dispersed at the time of his execution after being accused of treason. His works, therefore, have often been found outside his anthologies, and on Dong Shi Poom Hwi Bo (동시품휘보 ), recently found in the Yenching Library of Harvard Universities, were five of his Kwashi(). Korea's Kwashi is a form of poetry that cannot be found in Chinese literature. It is heptasyllabic old poem () modified with several modes, and consists of eighteen rhymes and thirty-six lines. It was designed for the state examinations in the old Korea, as the examiners had to evaluate a large number of tests in a short period of time. Because it is a form found uniquely in Korea, it was also often called dong shi(Eastern Poetry). The title, Dong Shi Poom Hwi Bo, means that it is a restoration of the great Kwashi of Korea. Hur Kyun began studying for the examinations at the age of twelve, after his father's death. He passed the civil service examination () at the age of twenty-six and three years later had the highest scores in the joongshi(), a test given exclusively to the passers of the first examination. After that, in the Hongmoonkwan() monthly examinations (), during summer, autumn, and winter trimesters, he continued to receive that highest score in twenty-seven exams. From these records it is clear that he was a great writer of Kwashi but there were, in fact, no Kwashi written by Hur that were published. Fortunately, the recent discovery of Dong Shi Poom Hwi Bo in the Yenching Libraries gives us a chance to witness, through the five example's of Hur's Kwashi, his literary skills made legendary by his performances in the examinations. This book contains sixty-seven Kwashi from forty-four different authors, and through writings of Lim Che (1549-1587) and Kwon Pil (1569-1612) we can see the Kwashi in the pre-Imjin War period. The previously discoered collections of Kwashi have mostly been collected and edited in the nineteenth century; the sole fact that we are able to witness these sixteenth century works gives book it's extraordinary value.
<P>2,6-Bis((4-hexylphenyl)ethynyl)-9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene, <B>4</B>, and 9,10-bis((4-hexylphenyl)ethynyl)-2,6-bis (phenyl ethynyl)anthracene, <B>5</B>, have been synthesized to study their electronic and photophysical properties. It should be noted that the difference between these compounds is the substitution position of 1-ethynyl-4-hexylbenzene groups into an anthracene ring. In particular, substitution in the 9,10-positions of the anthracene ring enhanced J-aggregated intermolecular interactions. Since <B>5</B> has a lower bandgap energy and more compact film morphology, it exhibited higher hole mobility (∼0.27 cm<SUP>2</SUP> V<SUP>−1</SUP> s<SUP>−1</SUP>) in thin-film transistor devices.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/orlef7/2011/orlef7.2011.13.issue-8/ol200299s/production/images/medium/ol-2011-00299s_0006.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol200299s'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
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Experiments have been performed to investigate the formation of smoke layer in case of several furniture fires such as trashcan, chair, carpet, sofa, mattress, and wardrobe in a residential room. As a result of the present investigation, the uniformly distributed fire of carpet showed that the ignition and the initial growth period were relatively short while the fully developed period was considerably long. The concentrated fires such as mattress and wardrobe showed that the ignition and the initial growth period were relatively long. The descending time of the interface heights was within 1-3 minutes to reach around 1m. However, the interface height was lowered to 0.25-0.75m above the floor at the time of the maximum temperature.
Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lokos et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lokos et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed.
Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. L?kos et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. L?kos et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed.
Post radical mastectomy reconstruction using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap involves certain problems at the donor site as the difficulty in closure secondary to excessive tension and the development of a postsurgical abdominal hernia. The usage of alloplastic materials such as Marlex may also cause eventual weakness as well as a foreign body reaction. While autogenous tissues may be used for a remote myocutaneous flap transposition or a free-tissue transfer, the problems such as a donor site defect, atrophy secondary to denervation, etc. exist. To avert these problems, we propose to use the autogenous tissue in a manner that provides a dynamic support in addition to the functional reconstruction. The components separation method decribed here separates the muscle groups of the abdominal wall, and allows several advantages over treating the abdominal wall as a single unit. One of the advantages is the increased mobility of individual muscles. The allows transferance of the flap over a greater distance which in turn reduces excessive tension and makes closure of the donor site defect easier. Thus, this procedure provides a dynamic support and reduces the incidence of hernia. We experienced 3 cases of abdominal wall reconstruction after TRAM flap transfer(one case after bilateral TRAM flap, two cases after contralateral unilateral TRAM flap) using external oblique muscle sharing or rectus sharing. So we present clinical cases of the abdominal wall reconstruction after TRAM flap transfer with a review of the literature.
<P>Background: The clinicopathological significance of oncofetal mRNA-binding protein, human insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), in gastric carcinoma (GC) is not fully understood. Materials and Methods: Tissue microarray blocks with specimens from 346 patients with GC were constructed to evaluate the clinicopathological role of IMP3 expression in GC. These results were validated with an online dataset of 876 patients from the Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Sera from 15 controls and 57 patients with GC were collected in order to compare the levels of serum IMP3 between groups. Results: High expression of IMP3 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Survival curves from the Kaplan-Meier Plotter showed that high IMP3 expression was significantly related to worse disease-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: Tissue overexpression of IMP3 might be used as a predictor of advanced disease or lymph node metastasis, and is associated with poorer prognosis in GCs.</P>
임진왜란은 한국, 일본, 중국에서 인기가 있는 연구주제이다. 지금까지 임진왜란에 관해 수 백권의 저서와 수 천편의 논문이 출판되었다. 이에 비해, 영어권의 저술은 아주 미미한 수준에 머무르고 있다. 본 논문에서는 먼저 영어로 저술된 임진왜란에 관한 대표적인 출판물을 간단히 소개한 후, 이 중에서 가장 심도 있는 연구저서로 평가되는 Samuel Hawley의 저서인 The Imjin War: Japan’s Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China와 Kenneth Swope의 저서인 A Dragon’s Head and a Serpent’s Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 1592-1598에 대해 전체적인 비평을 가한다. 나아가, 이 두 저서의 한계와 문제점을 보다 선명히 하기 위해, 두 저서의 저자인 Samuel Hawley와 Kenneth Swope가 각자 임진왜란 시기의 강화교섭에 대해 어떠한 분석을 가하고 있는지 몇 가지 중요한 이슈들을 중심으로 검토한다. 검토의 결과 발견되는 것은 이 두 저서에는 임진왜란에 대한 기술에 있어 셀 수 없을 정도로 많은 실증되지 않는 사실, 왜곡되거나 후에 만들어진 소설 같은 이야기가 많이 포함되어 있다. 이러한 엉터리 같은 사실의 기술은 모두 그들이 의존하고 있는 자료의 빈약한 품질에 기인한다. 그 결과, Samuel Hawley와 Kenneth Swope의 임진왜란에 대한 분석은 심각할 정도로 틀리거나 왜곡되어 있다. 임진왜란에 대한 사료는 아주 풍부하며, 나라에 따라 다른 언어들로 채록되어 있기 때문에 이들을 전부 읽고 분석하여 확고한 기초 데이타를 구축하는 작업은 쉽지 않은 과제이다. 그러나 이러한 가장 근본적인 과제를 달성하지 않고 임진왜란에 대한 수준 높은 분석을 기대한다는 것은 불가능하다. The Imjin War has been a popular topic of research in Korea, Japan and China. To date, hundreds of books and thousands of journal articles and book chapters have been written on this international conflict. In contrast, the overall number of works in English remains miniscule. In this article, Hur introduces a list of major English-language books and articles on the Imjin War and proceeds to offer critical comments on the most representative works to date -- Samuel Hawley’s The Imjin War: Japan’s Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China and Kenneth Swope’s A Dragon’s Head and a Serpent’s Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 1592-1598. In order to further illustrate a range of limits and problems found in these two books, Hur takes up some key issues pertaining to truce negotiations in the Imjin War and reviews how these are treated by Hawley and Swope, respectively. Hur points out that the two books contain countless factual errors and a flood of false data, all stemming from the quality of the sources upon which they relied. As a result, their analyses are fatally flawed or skewed. Given that primary sources on the Imjin War are plentiful and that they come in different languages, Hur suggests that it would be a challenge to establish a firm base of empirical data, but that, without accomplishing this fundamental task, it would be impossible to produce a high-quality analysis of the Imjin War.