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Duck Ho Oh.1997. A Study of the Narrative Degree in the Gospels. Collected Papers on Christian Language Culture, A narrative shows a complex system of tellers or voices located on various levels (narrative degrees) of the discourse. Narrative degrees are determined by who the teller is and who the audience is. Since the meaning of the passage is profoundly influenced by the teller and the audience of the passage, the study of the narrative degrees of the Gospels is crucial to understand them. Several important merits of the study of the narrative degrees are to help the reader 1) to decide the extent of a passage: 2) to find the unity of the passage; 3) to recognize the irony of the text; and 4) to understand the message of a text more clearly (Honam Theological University & Seminary)
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Recent studies on children's ability of social cognition revealed that it develops earlier than expected in the previous studies. Accordingly, perspective-taking ability which enables children to infer the other's viewpoint is regarded to develop rather earlier than thought to be. In this study, the authors designed to find out the relationship between children's age and the development of both the affective perspective and cognitive one with the method modified from the study by Tae-Lyon Kim and Jung-Oh Kim. Six pictures with relevant stories were presented respectively to seventy five male and seventy five female who were kindergartenens, first and third graders respectively, and the responses were analyzed. The results were as follows : 1. Younger the age, more affective perspective was taken, and older the age, more cognitive perspective was taken. 2. Especially, regarding affective perspective, the child who takes more affective perspective upon one figure usually tends to take more affective perspectives upon the others. 3. The differences between male and female children in these perspective taking were not apparent in this study.
The purpose of this study was to measure accurately the body fat of 37 male university Judo players based on the underwater weighing method, to calculate the body density and the body fat using Futrex, Impedance, Caliper, Skyndex and Ultra-sound and to present the prediction formula of residual volume and calculate the body density by regression equations based on the data from anthropometric measurements. 1. The body % fat of Judo players from the underwater weighing method was 72± 2.44%. 2. The residual volume was 1.3350±0.2476(1) by the oxygen rebreathing method and 1.0977±0.1238(1) by the indirect method of vital capacity. The regression equation using the vital capacity was : Residual volume(1)=0.2165+0.000245×vital capacity. 3. The regression equations of the body density calculated from the measurement of skinfold thickness were as follows: The body density by Caliper(g/ml)=1.0941-0.00088×subscapular-0.001026×triceps. The body density by Skyndex(g/ml)=1.0932-0.001137×subscapular-0.00070×triceps. The body density by Ultra-sound(g/ml)=1.1095-0.00306×triceps-0.0015×femoral. 4. The regression equations of the body density caculated from anthropometric measurements were as follow: 1) The regression equation of the body fat on skinfold thickness The body density(g/ml)+1.1007+0.000507×grith of hip-0.00145×grith of thigh+0.00122×grith of lower thigh. 2) The regression equation of the body density based on skinfold thickness by Caliper, grith of the body, height, weight and age. 3) The regression equation of the body density based on skinfold thickness by skyndex, grith of the body, height, weight and age. The body density(g/ml)=1.0808-0.0010The regression equation of the body density based on skinfold thickness by subscapular-0.0011The regression equation of the body density based on skinfold thickness by triceps+0.0002×height-0.0016×age. 4) The regression equation of the body density based on skinfold thickness by Ultra-sound, grith of the body, height, weigth, and age. The body density(g/ml)=1.1228-0.0030×triceps-0.0017×femora+0.0004×minimum grith of lower thigh-0.0010×age.
Purpose: Text-books for elementary school have been examined, classfied and assessed in order to give essential resource to those who have influences on youngsters in elementary schools to form their character. Method: Following to the method of contents analysis, the preference of names listed in this paper was defined only to those figures who were explained to get youngsters to accept their view of value, in other words the pofriles concerned mainly with a means of interpreting of historical events or of other educational functions were excluded. Therefore, the total number of 77 text books for elementary school, 9 subjects from the first grade to sixth, has formerly been examined. Outcome: 1. The educational idea was concentrated on the instruction for allegiance, namely, the overwhelming majority was classfied to belong among such patriots as those who dedicated to their home country for the restoration of independence or to get over the national disasters. 2. Most of them were not only Koreans and tended to follow formally stipulated social norms but also loyal-oriented. It was derived from the characteristic of Korean history that was weaved in a sense with the incessant foreign invasions and against them throughout its long past. 3. Most great men were composed of the upper classes and in the proportion of frequencies to the apperance, females appeared much less than males. This tendency seems to reflect implicity class consiousness. 4. The foreigners could be distinguishable as those who dedicated to their society by their own striving as well as by their own establishment. 5. The verbal portraits of Koreans depicted in stereo-typed phrases and also in complete, super-beings. Therefore, the distance between the extremes was so immense that there might be some difficulties for youngsters'making a comparision between them to get kids to accept supermen's norms of value. 6. Most Koreans can hardly instil the ideas to criticize the contradictions of social systems and to reform the social evils into youngsters, because thay acted in obedience to the specified social institutions. Suggestion 1. There should be also listed such persons who dedicated to their country not at the cost of life or self-renunciation, but with self-respect or self-affirmation. 2. The lower people is expectant to appear more frequently in the text books and women, too. 3. In the way of verbal-portraits, it is an advisable way of expression to represent them not as complete, super-persons, but as those who can have mutual relations with ordinary persons, and also they shold not be represented as they became well-kwown from beginning of their birth, but the way of depicting the greatness should be replaced by as many famous men have emerged from common people and poverty, mean surroundings.
I am reporting here a syntematic in vitro examination for specificity of anti-cancer effect of several oriental herbs, which have been used frequently for cancer pateints(therapy), on Molt-4 LCL(Lymphoblastoid Cell Line) Leukemic cells in relation to its density and time of incubation. 1. ErOH extract of Jujubae Fructus reduced Molt-4 cell's survival rate effectively after 48 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density and it reduced survival rate of LCL effectively after 12 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density. 2. EtOH extract of Cordyceps reduced LCL's survival rate effectively after 36 hour's treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density. 2. EtOH extract of Fici Fructus reduced LCL's survival rate effectively after 36 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density. 4. EtOH extract of Trionycis reduced Molt-4 cell's survival rate even at 500㎍/㎖ density and further effective at 1000㎍/㎖ density after 24 hours treatment and it killed the cells completely at 1000㎍/㎖ density after 48 hours treatment, It also Killed LCL completely after 12 hours and 36 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density. 5. EtOH extract of Biotae Cacumen reduced LCL's survival rate effectively after 12 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density, and after 36 hours treatment it reduced LCL's survival time very effectively. 6. EtOH extract of Psoraleae Fructus reduced Molt-4 cell's survival rate very effectively after 24 hours' treatment at 500㎍/㎖ and 1000㎍/㎖'s density, and after 48 hours' treatment at 250㎍/㎖'s density it reduced effectively and it killed the cell completely at 500㎍/㎖ and 1000㎍/㎖'s density. It also killed LCL completely after 12 hours and 36 hours' treatment at 1000㎍/㎖'s density. I hope to proceed with more advanced experiment in vivo and clinically as for the two kinds of oriental herbs and another herbs effective for leukemia.
This study was performed to investigate the accuracy and availability of the interocclusal recording materials for Denar articulator and compare with the accuracy of the Pantronics. 15dental students in Wonkwang University were paticipated in this study and interocclusal recording materials used in this study were Wax(Modelling wax, Dentrey, England), Corpl wax(Surgident, Columbus Dental, U.S.A.), Impression compound(Pericompound, G-C, Japan)and Impression plaster(Xanthano, Bayer, Germany). The immediate side shift and protrusive condylar guidance were measured from Denar articulator(MarkⅡ,Denar Corp.) and Pantronic(Denar Corp.) The obtained results were as follows: 1. The mean values of left and right immediate side shift were some higher with Impression plaster and Wax, but there were no statistical difference. 2. The mean value of protrusive condylar guidance was higher with Impression compound, but there was no statistical difference. 3. All interocclusal recording materials used in this study were available for interocclusal record.
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On contraction of the muscles, marked changes in X-ray reflections are observed, suggesting that conformational changes of contractile molecules and the movement of myosin heads during muscle contraction. Time slice requires tension peak after the onset of stimulation and the height of tension peak depends on the number of twitch cycle. The muscles were stimulated by five successive stimuli at an interval of 80 ms started while the tension was still being exerted by the muscles. The intensity of I_(11), I_(10), 143Å and 215Å reflection measured with 5ms time resolution and is recorded in isometric tension. The peak height of In and 143Å intensity is changed after the onset of a stimulation I_i, and the length of twitch is shortened by successive twitches in the case of stimulation T_i. On the other hand, the peak height of I_(11) and 215Å intensity starts to decrease at the 1st twitch and remains constant at low peak height without appreciable recovery during the contraction term. In the case of successive twitch stimulation, the myosin heads of muscle are once moved from their resting position and never returned to their initial position.
The historical critical theology of the nineteenth century to the early twenty century failed to discover the historical of Jesus. It had doubted the historical existence of Jesus Christ. This result was led from the problems that are still remained in the historical-critical method. However, without the assumption on the Reality of the historical existence of Jesus Christ, Christianity cannot exist. We are going to consider the historical existence of Jesus Christ and its significance through another method. In particular, we are going to confirm the historical existence of Jesus Christ through the theory called “The mysterious union with Christ”. Therefore, it is necessary to point out and to discuss about this theory (the mysterious union with Christ). The mysterious union with Christ comes through the Holy Spirit that Jesus Christ sends us and causes faith inside us which cause us to grasp Christ and leads us to the mysterious union with Him. This union is impossible without the premise of the historical existence of Jesus Christ. The conception of “the first fruit of the resurrection” explains the organic relationship between Jesus Christ in the history and the people who will be going to experience the physical resurrection at the end. So to speak, what Paul explained about the physical resurrection at the end, is based on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Baptism is an event, in which the Holy Cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ is applied to the christians. In Chapter 6 of the Romans, Paul points out that the two steps of baptism depicts the same picture of the Holy Cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Therefore, baptism which is one of the most important events in Christians life can only be explained based on the Holy Cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Holy Communion teaches and disciplines Christians time consciousness. The Bible verses about the Holy Communion teach us to remember a point in the past of our lives. That one point would be the death of Jesus Christ. Especially the verse, “Remember me” implicates the meaning that the past event manifests in the presence. As the Holy Communion takes place it means that the past of the historical existence of Jesus Christ still applies in the presence. On the other hand, the Holy Communion leads us to another point which lies in the future. This point would be the Second Advent of Christ. It implicates the horizontal dimension, the association with our brothers and sisters in Christ. There is in the presence a tension which exists between the past and the future. We are not going to corrupt as long as this tension exists. According to this theory, communion causes Christians to live in an structural consciousness. In other words, Christians are people who live with the historical mind, which contains the remembrance of the Holy Cross in the past, and the anticipation of the Second Advent of Christ in the future. The Idea of Imao Dei from the perspective of a mirror reveals Gods glory that could not be seen through our naked eyes. Jesus Christ, who is Imogo Dei, showed us who God is. Humanbeing also can play the same role. In terms of chronology, we can still see Jesus Christ from 2000 years ago in the devout Christians around us. Rev. Son Yang Won could be one example for that. He is a Christian who has experienced the mysterious union with Christ and revealed Jesus Christ who lives in him. He connected his life with the Holy Cross and the resurrection of Jesus Christ from 2000 years ago. Through Rev. Son it was possible for unbelievers to recognize the historical existence of Jesus Christ. Through E. Troltsch's concept of 'Analogie', which belongs to the historical-critical Method, we can prove the historical reality of Jesus. Rev. Son Yang Won, a historical person, would be a good analogy, who reveals the historical reality of Jesus. E. Troltsch mentioned that if all the present events can lie in a continuous correlation, the events from the past can be accepted as truth. There is a continuous correlation between Rev. Sons life during the twenty century and the Bible, which is a record of the past events. The rise and the destruction of Christianity depends on the historical existence of Jesus Christ, in the post modernism world which is in the middle of the flood- tied of pluralism. If this historical reality remains as unconfirmed, Christianity will be falled into the docetism. Because of the many unsolved problems in the historical- critical method, it is not worth it to argue about those methods, but to give consequence to the doubt of the historical existence of Jesus Christ itself. The life of Christian it self, such as baptism, communion provide us indirect evidence of the existence of Jesus Christ. The causes of many current Problems within the Christianity, consist in the dualistic docetic way of thinking, failing to notice the historical reality of Jesus. Passing over the historical reality of Jesus could be responsible for the daring wicked act of current Christians. To keep our identity as Christians it is important to confirm the historical existence of Jesus Christ.
Exhaust gas emissions from internal combustion engines are one of the major sources of air pollution. And, it is extremely difficult to increase gasoline engine efficiency and to reduce NOx and PM(particulate matter) simultaneously in diesel combustion. This paper offers some basic concepts to overcome the above problems. To solve the problems, a recommended technique is CAI(controlled auto-ignition) combustion. In this paper, internal EGR(exhaust gas recirculation) effect is suggested to realize CAI combustion. An experimental study was carried out to achieve CAI combustion using homogeneous premixed gas mixture in the constant volume combustion chamber(CVCC). A flame trap was used to simulate internal EGR effect in the CVCC. Flame propagation photos and pressure signals were acquired to verify internal EGR effect. Flame trap creates high speed burned gas jet. It achieves higher flame propagation speed and more stable combustion due to the effect of geometry and burned gas jet.