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A study was conducted by the author in September 1968 towards the infants and young children in some underprivileged rural villages of Korea by employing such methods as clinical assessment, nutritional biometry, and biochemical tests, in an attempt to evaluate their nutritional status with possible reference to protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). The infants and young children examined totaled 232 of whom 111 were boys and 121 were girls. The results are as follows: Ⅰ. Clinical Assessment The prevalence rates of the signs suggestive of PCM turned out to be as below : 1) Cases with dyspigmented hair were observed with 4.5% of the 45 infants examined. and 18.8% of the 187 young children examined. Cases with thin and sparse hair were seen with 22.8% of the infants, 14.0% of the young children, and l5.2% of both the infants and young children. 2) Prevalence of the pale conjunctiva rated 28.6% of the infants. 32.3% of the young children, and 30.4% of both the infants and young children. 3) Keratomalacia cases were found in 0.5% of the young children only and they corresponded, in turn, to 0.4% of the whole examined. 4) Cases with angulostomatitis rated 14.0% of the young children only, who constituted 10.0% of the total examined. 5) Those with moon-face were observed only with 2.3% of the infants, rating 0.4% of the total. 6) Cases with flaky-paint dermatosis were observed with 2.3% of the infants, 0.5% of the young children, and 0.9% of both the infants and young children. 7) Those who were found to have such skin lesions as fissure of the ear lobe, tender sores, or moist groin rash rated 15.9% of the infants, 20.4% of the young children, and 19.6% of both the infants and children. 8) Rate of those with muscles wasted was 11.4% of the infants, 25.8% of the young children, and 23.0% of both the infants and young children. 9) Those with edema were observed only with 0.5% of the young children. rating 0.4% of the total. 10) Psychomotor changes (apathetic, miserable, inert, withdrawn, or anorexic) rated 7.0% of the young children only, and 5.7% of the whole examined. 11) Prevalence rate of diarrhea precipitating dehydration and such other conditioning infections as thrush was found to be 20.5% of the infants, 7.5% of the young children, and 10.0% of both the infants and young children. 12) The results of clinical assessment led the author to the following findings: (1) Those corresponding to 29.1% of the whole examined had one or two combined signs suggestive of PCM. (2) Those with three or more signs combined rated 1.3% of the total children examined. (3) No clinically obvious kwashiorkor was found, but each of the component signs which, in constant combination, characterize it (edema, muscle-wasting, and psychomotor changes) was separately observed mainly with the young children as presented in table 2. (4) Those who impressed the author with clinically obvious nutritional marasmus were 6.7% of the infants, 3.2% of the young children, and 3.9% of both the infants and young children. Ⅱ. Nutritional Biometry 1) The mean heights. weights, chest circumference, and head circumference obtained were as shown in table 3. 2) The mean triceps skin-fold thickness, upper mid-arm-circumference. and upper-mid-arm-muscle circumference were as presented in table 4. 3) Distribution of the heights by four levels of 10% intervals indicated underweights in the light of Korean general standard, as shown in table 10. 4) Distribution of the weights contrasted likewise with the Korean general standard were as shown in table 11. 5) The underweights demonstrated by cases of mild-moderate PCM computed at four levels of 10% intervals as against the Korean general standard, rated 42.2% of the infants, 42.8% of the young children, and 42.7% of both the infants and young children. by the criteria Dr. Jelliffe suggested ??. The severe PCM cases were comprised 31.1% of the infants, 7.5% of the young children. and 12.1% of both groups of them. In the light of the above rates, more than a half of the children examined were found to be affected with PCM ascribable to deficiency of both the protein and calorie. 6) The cases with "Chest circumference/Head circumference Ratio being below 1 after the first 6 months of life" suggestive of the wasting of pectoral muscles which is attributable to PCM corresponded to 57.1% of the infants, 25.1% of the young children, and 29.3% of both the infants and young children as shown in table 13. Ⅲ. Biochemical Tests 1) Hemoglobin levels were found to be anemic (level less than 10.8gm%) with 13.8% of the 80 children examined as presented in table 5. 2) Serum total protein and serum albumin levels were as shown in tables 6 and 7, respectively. The serum albumin levels turned out to be normal with 75.9%, and "low"(2.80gm%∼3.51gm%) with 24.1% of the examined. No deficiency level (less than 2.80gm%) was found among the 29 children. 3) Serum iron content and total serum iron-bindin capacity (TIBC) were as shown in table 8. The deficiency levels of serum iron content less than 50 microgram % comprised 33.3% of the 21 children examined. Those corresponding to 25% and 75% of the 16 children examined had values of TIBC within normal range (300 microgram %∼400 microgram %) and values below the normal range (less than 300 microgram %), respectively, and no case exceeded over the range of normality inspite of the low serum iron content, suggesting the possible ascription to chronic protein deficiency ??. 4) "Urinary Urea-nitrogen / Creatinie-nitrogen excretion Ratios" regarded as an approximte index of dietary adequacy related to muscle storage of protein were obtained as presented in table 9. The cases with the ratios "30 or less" (an indication of malnutrition related to dietary adequacy of protein) rated 58.8% of the 34 children examined.
Prostaglandin A₂ (PGA₂)는 사람 골육종 세포인 U2OS 세포주에서 apoptosis와 heme oxygenase (HO)-1의 발현을 함께 유도하였다. PGA₂에 의한 apoptosis는 HO-1의 과도한 발현이나 HO-1에 대한 small interfering RNA에 의한 발현저하에 의하여 변동되지 않았으나 H₂O₂에 의한 세포사망은 HO-1의 발현 수준에 반비례하여 변동되었다. 또한 thiol antioxidant인 N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)은 PGA₂에 의한 세포사망과 HO-1의 발현 증가를 모두 차단하였지만, non-thiol antioxidant인 butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)과 ascorbic acid는 세포사망과 HO-1의 발현 유도를 차단하지 않았다. 이와 같은 결과들은 PGA₂는 산화성 손상에 의해서가 아니라 PGA₂의 thiol-reactivity에 의하여 apoptosis와 HO-1의 발현을 유도하며, HO-1의 발현은 PGA₂에 의한 apoptosis와는 독립적인 현상이거나 기능적으로 apoptosis 유도의 하부에 위치하고 apoptosis의 진행에는 기여하지 않을 것이라는 것을 시사해 준다. Prostaglandin A₂ (PGA₂), one of cyclopentenone PGs, induced both apoptosis and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in U2OS cells. PGA₂-induced apoptosis was not perturbed by either over-expression or knock-down of HO-1, whereas H₂O₂-induced cell death was inversely modulated by the expression level of HO-1. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, blocked both apoptosis and HO-1 expression induced by PGA₂. But, non-thiol antioxidants like butylated hydorxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid did not block either apoptosis or HO-1-induction. Taken together, these results suggest that PGA₂ induces both apoptosis and HO-1 expression, which are critically related to the thiol-reactivity of PGA₂, but not oxidative stress, and HO-1 expression may be independent or functionally located downstream of apoptosis by PGA₂ without contribution to apoptosis progression.
Prostaglandin $A_2$ ($PGA_2$)는 사람 골육종 세포인 U2OS 세포주에서 apoptosis와 heme oxygenase (HO)-1의 발현을 함께 유도하였다. $PGA_2$에 의한 apoptosis는 HO-1의 과도한 발현이나 HO-1에 대한 small interfering RNA에 의한 발현저하에 의하여 변동되지 않았으나 $H_2O_2$에 의한 세포사망은 HO-1의 발현 수준에 반비례하여 변동되었다. 또한 thiol antioxidant인 N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)은 $PGA_2$에 의한 세포사망과 HO-1의 발현 증가를 모두 차단하였지만, non-thiol antioxidant인 butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)과 ascorbic acid는 세포사망과 HO-1의 발현 유도를 차단하지 않았다. 이와 같은 결과들은 $PGA_2$는 산화성 손상에 의해서가 아니라 $PGA_2$의 thiol-reactivity에 의하여 apoptosis와 HO-1의 발현을 유도하며, HO-1의 발현은 $PGA_2$에 의한 apoptosis와는 독립적인 현상이거나 기능적으로 apoptosis 유도의 하부에 위치하고 apoptosis의 진행에는 기여하지 않을 것이라는 것을 시사해 준다. Prostaglandin $A_2$ ($PGA_2$), one of cyclopentenone PGs, induced both apoptosis and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in U2OS cells. $PGA_2$-induced apoptosis was not perturbed by either over-expression or knock-down of HO-1, whereas $H_2O_2$-induced cell death was inversely modulated by the expression level of HO-1. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, blocked both apoptosis and HO-1 expression induced by $PGA_2$. But, non-thiol antioxidants like butylated hydorxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid did not block either apoptosis or HO-1-induction. Taken together, these results suggest that $PGA_2$ induces both apoptosis and HO-1 expression, which are critically related to the thiol- reactivity of $PGA_2$, but not oxidative stress, and HO-1 expression may be independent or functionally located downstream of apoptosis by $PGA_2$ without contribution to apoptosis progression.
<▼1><P>Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text</P></▼1><▼2><P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>The prognosis of early-onset sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term outcome and prognostic factors of sporadic CRC in young patients.</P><P>From 2006 to 2011, 8207 patients underwent curative or palliative surgery for CRCs in our institution. A total of 693 patients who were ≤45 years old with sporadic CRC were enrolled as the young group. A total of 1823 patients aged between 56 and 65 years were identified as middle-aged control group for this study. Survival outcome and prognostic factors were compared between the two groups.</P><P>Young patients had higher recurrence rate than older patients in stages I and II (8.8% vs 2.7%, <I>P</I> <0.001). There was no significant difference of recurrence rate in stage III and IV cancers (27.5% vs 27.9%, <I>P</I> = 0.325). Metachronous cancers were developed more frequently in young patients (1.4% vs 0.6%, <I>P</I> = 0.038). Advanced stage CRC was diagnosed significantly more common in the young group (55.6% vs 47.9%, <I>P</I> = 0.001). High microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors are less likely to have advanced stage cancers (odds ratio (OR) 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07–0.70) or cancer recurrence (OR 0.11, 95% CI = 0.01–0.85) in young patients. Cancer-specific survival was worse in young patients than that in older patients (81.2% vs 87.8%, <I>P</I> <0.001). However, there was no significant difference in cancer-specific survival for each stage between the two groups. Independent prognostic factors for survival in young patients were undifferentiated cancer (hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% CI = 1.23–4.31) and 3 months or longer duration of symptom (HR 2.57, 95% CI = 1.34–4.94). Young women had better survival compared with young men (HR 0.55, 95% CI = 0.33–0.90).</P><P>Prognosis of sporadic CRC in young patients is poorer than older patients, because of poorer histologic differentiation and delay in diagnosis. Early detection of CRC confers survival benefit to young patients. Because of higher recurrence rate and metachronous cancer risk, post-operative surveillance is also important in young patients.</P></▼2>
Two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; BgAChE1 and BgAChE2) from Blattella germanica were functionally expressed using the baculovirus system. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that BgAChE2 had higher catalytic efficiency but lower substrate specificity than BgAChE1. Except paraoxon, BgAChE1 was generally less sensitive to inhibitors than BgAChE2. Western blot analysis using anti-BgAChE antibodies revealed that BgAChE1 was far more abundant in all examined tissues compared to BgAChE2, which is only present in the central nervous system. Both BgAChEs existed in dimeric form, covalently connected via a disulfide bridge under native conditions. Most fractions of BgAChE1 had a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, but a small fraction comprised a collagenlike tail. BgAChE2 appeared to have a collagen-GPI-fused tail. Based on the kinetic and molecular properties, tissue distribution and abundance, BgAChE1 was confirmed to play a major role in postsynaptic transmission.
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본 연구의 목적은 교류분석 이론에 근거한 성인용 드라이버와 시간구조화 척도를 개발하고 타당성을 검증하는 것이다. 연구 대상은 성인 1,671명(남 594명, 여 1,067명)으로 1차(2018년)와 2차(2019년) 두 차례의 연구로 진행되었다. 1차 연구는 드라이버 척도 64문항(완벽하게 하라 12문항, 남을 기쁘게 하라 12문항, 서둘러라 12문항, 열심히 하라 14문항, 강해져라 14문항), 시간구조화 척도 71문항(폐쇄 14문항, 의식 14문항, 활동 10문항, 잡담 13문항, 게임 10문항, 친밀 10)에 대해 타당성을 검증하여 신뢰로운 문항을 선정하는 것이었다. 2차 연구는 1차 연구분석 결과 선정된 드라이버 척도 45문항(5요인 각 9문항), 시간구조화 척도 48문항(6요인 각 8문항)에 대한 타당성 검증과정을 거쳐 드라이버와 시간구조화 척도를 표준화하는 것이었다. 연구 결과를 보면, 개발된 드라이버 45문항과 시간구조화 48문항 모두 신뢰롭고 타당도가 높은 문항임이 확인되었다. 본 연구에서 개발된 두 척도는 급속한 성장을 이룬 한국사회 성인의 병리적 현상과 특성을 이해하는데 유용할 것으로 판단된다. 또한 드라이버와 시간구조화 척도는 심리특성 진단, 학교 교육, 기업 등 다양한 분야에서 진단도구로 활용될 수 있다는 점에서 그 의의가 있다고 할 수 있다. The purpose of this study is re-validate the validation of the Driver Scale and Time Structuring Scale devised by Moon, ho- young in 2017. This study is carried out two times with 1671 people - 1021 adults at first time and 650 at the other. The first study included 50 questions on driver scale devised by Moon, ho- young and 64 questions that added 14 questions: two questions on ‘Be perfect', two on ‘Please others', two on ‘Hurry up', four on ‘Try hard', four on ‘Be strong.'71 questions regarding on time structuring scale were studied in detail as the following: 11 questions were added to the 60 basic questions and the 11 questions were consisted of four questions on ‘Withdrawal', four on ‘Rituals', and three questions on ‘Pastimes'. The writers select highly valid and trustworthy questions using various method of analysis. The second study was conducted to validate the validation of the scale with 45 questions on drive scale and 48 questions on time structuring scale that were chosen from the first study result. Through these two studies researchers completed the Korean driver scale and time structuring scale. The result of this study clearly shows that 45 questions on driver scale questions and 48 questions on time structuring scale devised by Moon, ho- young(2017) including some modified questions and one newly invented question were highly valid and trustworthy in evaluating the validity of each scale. This result of this study proves that the driver scale and time structuring scale devised by Moon, ho-young(2017) is a valid tool for testing Korean adults.
본 연구는 유아의 개인 변인(성, 지능 성격)과 교사 창의성이 유아 창의성에 대해서 어떠한 효과를 갖는지 위계적 선형 모형을 활용하여 규명하고 있다. 본 연구를 위해서 대전광역시교육청 산하에 있는 25곳의 유치원 중에서 42학급을 선정하였다. 연구 대상은 만 5세 유아 총 765명과 해당 학급의 교사 42명이었다. 연구결과, 유아 창의성은 학급 간에 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 본 연구에서 설정한 학급 수준 변인인 교사 창의성은 유아 창의성에 주효과를 가지지 않았지만, 유아변인인 유아의 지능과 성격은 유아 창의성에 주효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 교사 창의성은 유아의 지능 및 성격과 상호작용하여 유아 창의성에 효과를 미치는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the individual variables of young children (such as sex, intelligence, and personality) and teacher creativity can explain the creativity of the young children. The data used in this study was collected from 42 teachers and 765 kindergarten students. The instruments employed here were Torrance Tests of Creativity Thinking (TTCT) and Chon's (2001) Korean Figural Creativity Test for Young Children. The statistical analysis utilized in this study is the Hierarchical linear Model technique. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: First, the examination of the ratios from group dispersion between classes and individual dispersion within a group indicates that differences in the young children's creativity exist between different classes as well as within classes among classmates. Second, the teacher creativity, which is the class level variable, shows no significant direct influence on young children's creativity, whereas young children's intelligence and personality, which are children level variables, show significant influence on young children's creativity. Teacher creativity and young children's variables have interaction effects on young children's creativity.
A recent study reported that p53 can induce HO-1 by directly binding to the putative p53 responsive element in the HO-1 promoter. In this study, we report that nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of HDM2, induces the transcription of HO-1 in a transcription-independent manner of p53. Nutlin-3 induced HO-1 expression at the level of transcription in human cancer cells such as U2OS and RKO cells. This induction of HO-1 did not occur in SAOS cells in which p53 was mutated and was prevented by knocking down the p53 protein using p53 siRNA transfection, but not by PFT-alpha, an inhibitor of the transcriptional activity of p53. Accompanying HO-1 expression, nutlin-3 stimulated the accumulation of ROS and the phosphorylation of MAPKs such as JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. Nutlin-3-induced HO-1 expression was suppressed by TEMPO, a ROS scavenger, and chemical inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK but not ERK1/2. In addition, nutlin-3-induced phosphorylation of JNK but not p38 MAPK was inhibited by TEMPO. Notably, the levels of nutlin-3-induced ROS were correlated with the mitochondrial translocation of p53 and this induction was prevented by PFT-beta, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial translocation of p53. Consistent with the effect of the ROS scavenger and MAPK inhibitors, PFT-beta reduced HO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of JNK induced by nutlin-3. In the experiments of analyzing cell death, the knockdown of HO-1 augmented nutlin-3-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that nutlin-3 induces HO-1 expression via the activation of both JNK which is dependent on ROS generated by p53 translocated to the mitochondria and p38 MAPK which appears to be stimulated by a ROS-independent mechanism, and this HO-1 induction may inhibit nutlin-3-induced apoptosis, constituting a negative feedback loop of p53-induced apoptosis.
Backgrounds: Prostaglandin (PG) A2 reportedly stimulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 at the level of transcription via the activation of p38MAPK. Details of the mechanism, however, have not been provided, and this includes identification of the transcription factors responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Herein is described an analysis of the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and how PGA2 increases the activity of Nrf2 during PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Methods: Expressions of HO-1 and Nrf2 were analyzed at the levels of both mRNA and protein. Nrf2 siRNA, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, and scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used to identify the effects of Nrf2, p38MAPK and ROS on PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Results: Although SB203580 suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression, genetic activation of p38MAPK could not stimulate the transcription of HO-1. Cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein translation, almost completely prevented PGA2-induced increase of HO-1 transcription, but it did not prevent the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, which suggests that both de novo protein synthesis and p38MAPK activity are required to induce the transcription of HO-1 in response to PGA2 treatment. In addition, PGA2 increased the level of both Nrf2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. The PGA2-induced transcription of Nrf2 was prevented by ROS scavengers such as n-acetyl-l-cysteine and tempol but not CHX. Furthermore, siRNA against p38MAPK did not change the level of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PGA2 induces HO-1 transcription via an increase in Nrf2 protein, the transcription of which is initiated by an accumulation of ROS that is independent of the p38MAPK activation pathway.