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In this study, we examined Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract affects on the lipid metabolism in HepG2cells. Increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)phosphorylation was observed when the cells were treated with KRG. Activation of AMPK was also demonstrated by measuring the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA caboxylase (ACC), a substrate of AMPK. KRG down-regulated gene expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and its target proteins, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) in time- and dose-dependent fashions. In contrast, gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α(PPARα) and CD36 were increased. These effects were reversed in the presence of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. However, there were no differences in gene expressions of SREBP2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, and low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Taken together, KRG induced supression of SREBP1c and activation of PPARα via AMPK and these effects seem to be one of anti-hyperlipidemic mechanism of KRG in HepG2 cells.
English job application letters (EJALs) are greatly needed by an increasing number of Chinese job applicants. To address possible difficulties faced by Chinese ESL students in producing professional EJALs, the current study examined the characteristics of conventions of EJALs in terms of moves and steps, and it also explored the factors influencing the ESP writing. The EJALs of 97 native English speakers, 39 Chinese graduate students, and 93 Chinese undergraduate students were analyzed. Results indicated that the conventions of EJALs written by native English speakers and native Chinese speakers shared similarities more than differences. The factors influencing these differences were negative transfer of Chinese literary conventions, effects of the hierarchical social system of China, annular thinking modes of Chinese, Confucian etiquette, local context of job application in China, classroom instruction of the compositions, and Chinese students` low English proficiency.
With the continuous development and application of Internet technology, in recent years, new technologies such as cloud computing, big data, the Internet of Things, and AI are becoming more and more familiar to the general public. The development of a digital society has entered a new period of development. In this paper, we used on the 2018 annual data of 50 listed companies with blockchain concept stocks in China. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to study and analyze the input-output efficiency, it can be concluded that the input-output efficiency of 50 listed companies is very different. Inefficient companies are as high as 62%. Most companies have a large room for improvement in input-output efficiency due to uneconomical scale or inefficient technology. In order to better improve the company's input-output efficiency, one must improve the efficiency of resource utilization, optimize the company's research and development costs and the input and management of technical personnel; the second is to increase technological innovation and business innovation.
Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%)were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens.
This study evaluated the protective effects of ginseng leaf extract (GLE) against high fat-diet-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and explored the potential mechanism underlying these effects in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, high fat diet control (HFD), GLE-treated at 250 ㎎/㎏, and GLE-treated at 500 ㎎/㎏. To induce hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic states, mice were fed a high fat diet for 6 weeks and then administered GLE once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment, we examined the effects of GLE on plasma glucose, lipid levels, and the expression of genes related to lipogenesis, lipolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Both GLE groups lowered levels of plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids when compared to those in HFD group. Histological analysis revealed significantly fewer lipid droplets in the livers of GLE-treated mice compared with HFD mice. To elucidate the mechanism, Western blots and RT-PCR were performed using liver tissue. Compared with HFD mice, GLE-treated mice showed higher levels of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but no differences in the expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1a, fatty acid synthase, sterol-CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. However, the expression levels of lipolysis and fatty acid uptake genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and CD36 were increased. In addition, phospho-α and CD36 were increased. In addition, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression was decreased. These results suggest that GLE ameliorates hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and stimulating lipolysis, respectively, via AMPK activation.
A strain of phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from rhizosphere and identified as Burkholderia sp. by 16S-rRNA gene sequence analyses. The bacterium was found to release gluconic acid and the solubilization of hydroxyapatite in the liquid medium by a significant drop in pH to 3.7 from an initial pH 7.0. The soluble-P concentration continuously increased during the incubation periods and the total amount of soluble P released in culture filtrate was detected at 990 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> after 10 days of inoculation. Most promoted maize growth was found in the standard NPK (240-120-120 kg ha<SUP>-1</SUP>) soil inoculation with Burkholderia sp. (Twenty milliliters/ plant, 106 CFU) and also in the absence of Burkholderia sp. inoculation, the soil amended with only 2/3 levels of P gave significant higher plant yield compared to 1/3 levels of P or without P supplementation.
Delta 6-fatty acid desaturase is a membrane-bound enzyme, which is the rate-limiting factor in the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a novel delta 6-desaturase gene was cloned from Bombyx mori (BmD6DES). Sequencing analysis revealed that BmD6DES has an open reading frame of 1357 bp that encodes 448 amino acids. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that BmD6DES could synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, Δ6,9,12) by utilizing the endogenous substrate linoleic acid (LA, 18:2, Δ9,12). We found that BmD6DES transcripts were distributed in almost all B. mori tissues, with high expression levels observed at the 5th instar larval, pupal, and adult moth stages. A functional analysis of BmD6DES was performed by measuring mRNA levels after temperature stress, fungal infection, and RNA interference (RNAi). The results indicated that the highest expression of BmD6DES was observed at low temperatures (0 °C) and 6 h to 36 h after fungal infection. qPCR analysis demonstrated that BmD6DES mRNA levels in pupa after BmD6DES RNAi treatment were significantly reduced from 12 h to 72 h compared to those in the control group. Our findings suggest that BmD6DES not only induces the formation of the third carbon–carbon double bond in the LA carbon chain, but also leads to sensitivity to low-temperature stress and fungal infection. These results imply that BmD6DES is a key gene in the γ-linolenic acid pathway during B. mori development.