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      • 오차드그라스의 예취빈도에 따른 무기태질소의 단기시용 효과

        조익환,이용세,전하준 대구대학교 과학기술연구소 1998 科學技術硏究 Vol.5 No.2

        A study was made to estimate the economic level(Necon.) of mineral nitrogen and a proper cutting frequency for the dry matter production of Orchardgrass (Dactlyis glomerata L.) during the harvested years in 1993∼1995. Annual mineral nitrogen was applied at the levels of 0, 90, 180, 270 and 360 kg ha^(-1) in 3 cuttings, 0, 120, 240. 360 and 480 kg ha^(-1) in 4 cuttings, and 0. 150. 300. 450 and 600 kg ha^(-1) in 5 cuttings, respectively. The dry matter yields of all cutting frequencies in 1993 were significantly higher than in the other harvested years. Mean dry matter yield were 13.1, 12.7 and 14.3 tons ha-1 in 3, 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. Higher efficiencies of dry matter production in response to mineral nitrogen application were recorded as 12.9 kg at level of 360 kg ha^(-1) yr-1 in 3 cuttings. 27.3 kg at level of 240 kg ha-1 yr^(-1) in 4 cuttings, and 20.5 kg at level of 150 kg ha-1 yr-1 in 5 cuttings, respectively. Significantly higher dry matter yields appeared as 4.6 tons ha-1 at 1st cut in 3 cuttings, 3.7 tons and 4.1 tons ha^(-1) at 2nd cut in 4 and 5 cuttings, respectively. The estimated marginal dry matter yields(Ymar.) were 11.7∼12.3 tons ha^(-1) at ranges of economic N level of 285.5∼316.6 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 3 cuttings, 10.4∼10.5 tons ha-1 at ranges of 176.7∼196.6 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 4 cuttings, and 11.2∼11.6 tons ha^(-1) at ranges of 246.1∼286.0 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 5 cuttings, respectively. Maximun dry matter yields(Ymax.) were 14.3 tons at the level of limiting N(Nmax.) of 379.5 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 3 cuttings. 11.1 ton at level of limiting N of 298.4 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 4 cuttings, and 12.3 ton at level of limiting N of 467.7 kg ha^(-1) yr^(-1) in 5 cuttings, respectively. Economic N level in all cuts were in the ranges of 85.1∼116.1 kg ha^(-1) cut^(-1) in 3 cuttings, 31.3∼69.7 kg ha^(-1) cut^(-1) in 4 cuttings, and 30.8∼81.4 kg ha^(-1) cut^(-1) in 5 cuttings, respectively.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Preparation of Thermo-Responsive and Injectable Hydrogels Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Their Drug Release Behaviors

        Ha Dong In,Lee Sang Bong,Chong Moo Sang,Lee Young Moo,Kim So Yeon,Park Young Hoon The Polymer Society of Korea 2006 Macromolecular Research Vol.14 No.1

        Copolymers composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) were prepared to create temperature-sensitive injectable gels for use in controlled drug delivery applications. Semi-telechelic PNIPAAm, with amino groups at the end of each main chain, was synthesized by radical polymerization using 2-aminoethanethiol hydrochloride (AESH) as the chain transfer agent, and was then grafted onto the carboxyl groups of HA using carbodiimide chemistry. The result of the thermo-optical analysis revealed that the phase transition of the PNIPAAm-grafted HA solution occurred at around 30$\∼$33$^{circ}C$. As the graft yield of PNIPAAm onto the HA backbone increased, the HA-g-PNIPAAm copolymer solution exhibited sharper phase transition. The short chain PNIPAAm-grafted HA ($M_{w}$=6,100) showed a narrower temperature range for optical turbidity changes than the long chain PNIPAAm-grafted HA ($M_{w}$=13,100). PNIPAAm-grafted HA exhibited an increase in viscosity above 35$^{circ}C$, thus allowing the gels to maintain their shape for 24 h after in vivo administration. From the in vitro riboflavin release study, the HA-g-PNIPAAm gel showed a more sustained release behavior when the grafting yield of PNIPAAm onto the HA backbone was increased. In addition, BSA released from the PNIPAAm-g-HA gels showed a maximum concentration in the blood 12 h after being injected into the dorsal surface of a rabbit, followed by a sustained release profile after 60 h.

      • 포스터 발표 제1분과: 식물상 및 식생 관리 ; 한라산 아고산대 구상나무군락의 물질생산과 탄소수지

        장래하 ( Rae Ha Jang ),최재윤 ( Jae Yun Choi ),유영한 ( Young Han You ) 한국환경생태학회 2014 한국환경생태학회 학술대회지 Vol.2014 No.2

        본 연구는 우리나라 한라산 아고산대에서 구상나무림의 물질생산, 탄소분포와 탄소수지에 대하여 알아보기 위해 수행되었다. 구상나무림의 현존량은 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 와 2013에 각각 98. 88, 106. 42, 107. 67, 108. 31와 91. 48ton/ha 유기탄소량은 44. 5, 47. 89, 48. 45, 48. 74와 41. 17 ton C/ha 이었다. 순생산량은 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 년에 각각 11. 40, 7. 41, 0. 05 와 -9. 46 ton ha-1yr-1 이었고, 유기탄소 순생산량은 5. 13, 3. 33, 0. 02와 -4. 25 ton C ha-1yr-1 이었다. 2009~2013년 연간 낙엽생산량은 각각 2. 42, 4. 02, 2. 94, 5. 47, 2. 67 ton ha-1yr-1이었고, 낙엽생산량의 유기탄소량은 1. 09, 1. 80, 1. 32, 2. 46, 1. 20 ton C ha-1yr-1. 연간 임상낙엽량 6. 09, 5. 40, 4. 45, 2. 57 ton/ha 임상냑엽량의 유기탄소량은 2. 74, 2. 43, 2. 00, 1. 16 ton C/ha. 토양 20cm까지의 유기탄소축척량은 각각 55. 77, 54. 90, 50. 69, 44. 42, 41. 87 ton C ha-120cm-1. 2012년 토양호흡을 통해 배출된 유기탄소량은 2011, 2012년에 각각 4. 42, 4. 14 ton Cha-1yr-1 이었다. 한라산 구상나무림에서는 2011년에 총 0. 01 ton C ha-1yr-1의 유기탄소를 대기로 방출하였고 2012년에 -8. 39 ton C ha-1yr-1의 유기탄소를 대기로 배출하였다.

      • KCI등재

        한라산 아고산대 구상나무림에서 연간 물질생산과 유기탄소량 변화1a

        장래하 ( Rae Ha Jang ),조규태 ( Kyu Tae Cho ),유영한 ( Young Han You ) 한국환경생태학회 2014 한국환경생태학회지 Vol.28 No.6

        국가장기생태사업(LTER)의 일환으로 한라산 아고산대 구상나무림의 물질생산과 탄소분포의 특성을 밝히고자 2009년부터 2013년까지 현존량, 유기탄소분포, 낙엽생산, 임상낙엽량과 토양 유기탄소 축척량을 조사하였다. 식물현존량은 상대생장법에 의해 보고된 물질생산 식을 이용하여 측정하고 이를 이산화탄소의 고정량으로 환산하였다. 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 와 2013년의 현존량은 각각 98.88, 106.42, 107.67, 108.31 와 91.48 ton ha-1 였다. 이 기간 동안의 유기탄소는 지상부 생물량에 35.95, 38.69, 38.96, 39.46, 33.2 ton C ha-1, 지하부 생물량에 8.54, 9.2, 9.49, 9.28, 7.97 ton C ha-1 이 각각 분포하였다. 5년 동안 낙엽 생산을 통해 1.09, 1.80, 1.32, 2.46 와 1.20 ton C ha-1 의 유기탄소가 생태계로 유입되었다. 2010, 2011, 2012와 2013년의 임상낙엽층의 유기탄소량은 2.74, 2.43, 2.00 와 1.16 ton Cha-1였고, 토양 20cm깊이까지의 유기탄소 축적량은 55.77, 54.90, 50.69, 44.42 와 41.87 ton C ha-120cm-1였다. 이와 같이 현존량과 유기탄소량이 2009~2012년까지 매년 증가하였지만 태풍이 있었던 2013년에는 감소하였다. 이러한 현상은 자연적 교란이 한국의 아고산대 생태계에 크게 영향을 미친다는 것을 의미한다. Annual biomass production and amount of organic carbon in Abies koreana forest at Mt. Halla were conducted as a part of Korea National Long-Term Ecological Research (KNLTER). We measured standing biomass change of litter, soil production and organic carbon amounts of the forest floor and soil layer of A. koreana forest in Mt. Halla from 2009 to 2013 in permanent plots. Standing biomass, which was determined by allometric method, was converted into CO2. The standing biomass in A. koreana forest was 98.88, 106.42, 107.67, 108.31, 91.48 ton ha-1 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 year, respectively. The amount of annual carbon allocated to above ground was 35.95, 38.69, 38.96, 39.46, 33.2 ton C ha-1 and below ground biomass was 8.54, 9.2, 9.49, 9.28, 7.97 ton C ha-1 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 year, respectively. Amount of organic carbon returned to the forest via litterfall was 1.09, 1.80, 1.32, 2.46 and 1.20 ton C ha-1 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Amount of organic carbon in annual litter layer on forest floor was 2.74, 2.43, 2.00 and 1.16 ton C ha-1 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 year, respectively. Amount of organic carbon within 20cm soil depth was 55.77, 54.9, 50.69, 44.42 and 41.87 ton C ha-120cm-1 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 year, respectively. Then standing biomass and organic carbon distribution increased steadily until 2012. But there declined in 2013 because of the typhoon Bolaven. Thus, standing biomass and organic carbon distribution of this subalpine forest were largely affected by natural disturbance factor.

      • KCI등재

        새만금간척지에서 사료맥류의 파종량에 따른 생육과 수량 특성

        류진희 ( Jin Hee Ryu ),김영주 ( Young Joo Kim ),이수환 ( Su Hwan Lee ),오양열 ( Yang Yeol Oh ),김영두 ( Young Doo Kim ),홍하철 ( Ha Cheol Hong ),양창휴 ( Chang Hyu Yang ),김선림 ( Sun Lim Kim ) 한국국제농업개발학회 2015 韓國國際農業開發學會誌 Vol.27 No.4

        본 연구는 새로 조성된 간척지에서 사료맥류 종자의 안정생산을 위한 적정 파종량을 구명코자 2011년부터 2013년까지 수행하였다. 청보리와 트리티케일은 ha당 200, 300 및 400 kg 호밀과 귀리는 ha당 100, 200 및 300 kg을 파종하고 토양화학성과 작물별 수량성을 조사 하였다. 사료맥류의 출현율과 입모율은 호밀, 트리티케일, 청보리, 귀리 순으로 높았다. 사료맥류 종실의 질소 함량은 트리티케일, 호밀, 보리, 귀리 순으로 높았고 트리티케일과 호밀은 파종량 증가에 따라 질소함량이 높아지는 경향을 나타냈다. 사료맥류의 종실수량은 트리티케일, 귀리, 호밀, 청보리 순으로 많았다. 파종량에 따른 종실수량은 청보리와 트리티케일은 ha당 300 kg에서, 호밀과 귀리는 200 kg에서 많았다. 수량구성요소 중 m2당 이삭수가 종실수량에 큰 영향을 미쳤고 수당립수와 천립중은 파종량 감소에 따라 증가하는 경향을 나타냈다. 연구 결과 새로 조성된 간척지에서 동계 사료맥류 종자의 안정생산을 위한 적정 파종량은 ha당 청보리는 320 kg, 트리티케일은 290 kg, 호밀은 220 kg, 귀리는 210 kg으로 나타났다. This study was carried out to investigate the optimum seeding rate of winter cereal forage crops(WCFC) for stable seed production in newly reclaimed land. Plots of barley and triticale were treated with seeding rate of 200, 300, and 400 kg ha-1. And, plots of rye and oat were treated with seeding rate of 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1. Emergence rate and seedling establishment were higher in order of rye, triticale, barley and oat. Plant height of triticale and rye was increased with decreasing seeding rate. Number of panicles was increased with increasing seeding rate. Grain yield was higher in order of triticale, oat, rye, and barley. Grain yield of barley and triticale were the highest at seeding rate of the 300 kg ha-1. Grain yield of rye and oat were the highest at seeding rate of the 200 kg ha-1. Number of panicles per unit area (m2) greatly influenced on grain yield. Thousand grain weight and number of grains per panicle increased with decreasing seeding rate. As the result, the seeding rate of barley (320 kg ha-1), triticale (290 kg ha-1), rye(220 kg ha-1), and oat(210 kg ha-1) would be recommendable for seed production of WCFC in newly reclaimed land.

      • P168 : Split-face comparison study of new hyaluronic acid filler for efficacy and safety of HA-IDF versus Restylane® for correction of nasolabial folds

        ( Jie Hyun Jeon ),( Joo Ha Kim ),( Jung Woo Lee ),( Kui Young Park ),( Seong Jun Seo ),( Hae Jun Song ) 대한피부과학회 2013 대한피부과학회 학술발표대회집 Vol.65 No.2

        Background: After successive trials and failures of various injectable materials such as bovine collagen, polyacryamide, calcium hydroxylapatite, etc., hyaluronic acid (HA) has become the most popular filling material. Many new HA fillers are being produced for the purpose of correcting wrinkles and augmentation of soft tissue. Objectives: This study aimed to test the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a new HA filler, HA-IDF (Yvoire Classic s touch-up, LG Life Sciences, Inc., Seoul, South Korea) and compare HA-IDF with Restylane (Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden). Methods: Fifty-eight subjects with visible nasolabial folds (NLFs) were enrolled in a randomized, multi-center, single-blind, active-controlled, matched-pair clinical study. Each subject was injected with HA-IDF in one NLF and Restylane in the other. All participants were assessed for cosmetic change at 2, 10, 18, and 26 weeks. Results: At screening, the average Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) for both right and left NLFs was 3.24±0.43. After 26 weeks, the results were 2.56±0.09 for both groups. There was no significant difference in WSRS scores for wrinkle improvement and in incidence of adverse events for both HA filler treatments. Conclusion: The new HA filler HA-IDF is effective and safe for correcting NLFs.

      • KCI등재

        Enhanced Stability of Hydroxyapatite-coated Liposomes for Ultrasound-triggered Drug Release

        Jueng Ha,조성근,박은석,한건,한희동,신병철 대한화학회 2015 Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society Vol.36 No.1

        Thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have been developed for enhancing drug release in the tumor microenvironment by external stimulations, such as hyperthermia, for cancer chemotherapy. However, the TSL-induced side effect of the drug on normal cells after intravenous (i.v.) injection is usually found in circulation. Therefore, we developed sterically stabilized TSLs by coating hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the liposomal surface to increase its stability in serum. HA coating on the liposomal surface was achieved via the ionic interaction of calcium acetate with phosphoric acid. The amount of HA coated on the liposomal surface was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. In addition, temperature-sensitive drug release was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The HA-coated TSL (HA-TSL) showed lower drug release at body temperature due to the HA coating on the liposomal surface compared to TSL. Moreover, compared with TSL, HA-TSL showed increased stability in serum, thereby indicating a long circulation time in the body without protein adsorption. Taken together, we demonstrated the use of HA coating on the surface of TSL for enhancing the stability of TSL, and the results indicated the applicability of the method for prolonging the circulation of drugs with carriers within the human body. As a novel and highly effective delivery platform with long circulation in blood streams, HA-TSL shows great potential for use in a broad range of applications for the treatment of various human diseases.

      • KCI등재

        Ultrasound-Triggered Drug Release of Hydroxyapatite Coated Liposomes

        조성근,위태인,하정,조선행,한건,한희동,신병철,Cho, Sung Keun,Wee, Tae In,Ha, Jeung,Cho, Sun Hang,Han, Kun,Han, Hee Dong,Shin, Byung Cheol Korean Chemical Society 2013 대한화학회지 Vol.57 No.4

        리포솜은 표적 약물을 봉입하여 병소에 안전하게 전달할 수 있는 약물전달체로서 연구되고 있다. 그러나 일반적인 리포솜은 표적부위에서 약물방출이 제한적인 문제점이 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 리포솜의 안정성을 향상시키고 표적부위에서 외부 초음파로부터 약물의 방출을 극대화시키기 위하여 하이드록시아파타이트(hydroxyapatite, HA)가 코팅된 리포솜을 개발하였다. 대조군 리포솜은 인지질과 콜레스테롤을 이용하여 제조하였고, 대조군 리포솜의 표면에 칼슘 아세테이트, 포스포릭에시드, 그리고 25% 암모니아용액을 이용하여 HA를 코팅하였다. 모델 약물로는 독소루비신을 사용하였다. HA코팅 리포솜의 크기는 120 nm 이었고, 약물봉입효율은 95% 이상이었다. 30% 혈장용액 내에서 HA코팅 리포솜의 입자크기는 일정한 상태를 유지하였으며, 대조군 리포솜은 크기가 1.4배 증가하였다. 외부 초음파 자극에 의한 리포솜으로부터 약물 방출을 유도한 후, 방출된 약물의 세포 이입율은 HA 코팅된 리포솜이 3배 이상 대조군 리포솜에 비하여 증가하였다. 본 연구에서는 외부 초음파 자극에 의하여 리포솜으로부터 약물의 방출을 극대화시키기 위한 초음파 민감형 리포솜을 개발하였고, 본 제형은 표적부위에서 약물의 방출을 효과적으로 제어하기 위한 분야에 활용이 가능할 것이다. Liposomes, which can deliver payload at target site, have been studied as drug carrier. However, conventional liposomes have limitation for drug release at target site. Therefore, we developed hydroxyapatite (HA) coated ultrasound sensitive liposomes to increase drug release at target site and to enhance stability in blood stream. Control liposome was prepared using hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and cholesterol, and then we assessed HA coating on the surface of control liposomes using calcium acetate, phosphoric acid, and 25% ammonium solution. Doxorubicin was used as a model drug. Size of HA coated liposomes was 120 nm and encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin in liposomes was up to 95%. Size of HA coated liposomes are not changed in 30% serum solution, however, the control liposomes was 1.4 fold increased. After ultrasound triggered drug release from liposomes, intracellular efficiency of drug released from HA coated liposomes was 3 fold increased compared to control liposomes. In this study, we developed ultrasound sensitive liposomes to enhance drug release, which will be applied in controlled drug release at disease site.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Valuation of ecosystem services in the organic carbon of the Pinus densiflora forest at Mt. Namsan, Seoul Metropolitan City

        Lee, Eung-Pill,Lee, Soo-In,Jeong, Heon-Mo,Han, Young-Sub,Lee, Seung-Yeon,Park, Jae-Hoon,Jang, Rae-Ha,Hong, Youg-Sik,Jung, Young-Ho,Kim, Eui-Joo,Lee, Sang-Hun,You, Young-Han The Ecological Society of Korea 2019 Journal of Ecology and Environment Vol.43 No.4

        Background: Standing biomass, litter production, rate of litter decomposition, amount of litter on forest floor, and amount of soil organic carbon distribution were investigated from March 2016 to November 2018 in order to evaluate the ecosystem value through organic carbon distribution in the Pinus densiflora forest at Namsan, Seoul Metropolitan City. Results: The amount of organic carbon in the Pinus densiflora forest was 261.09 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> during the research period, and fixed organic carbon in plant through net photosynthesis was 3.2 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>. The organic carbon in plant was 62.77 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> (24.04%), in litter on the forest floor was 3.65 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> (1.40%), and in soil was 194.67 ton C ha<sup>-1</sup> (74.56%). The value of plant, litter on forest floor, and soil organic carbon distribution were each 6,277,000 won ha<sup>-1</sup>, 365, 000 won ha<sup>-1</sup>, and 19,467,000 won ha<sup>-1</sup>. The value per ton of fixed organic carbon in plant through net photosynthesis was 320,000 won ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup> and the value of ecosystem services stored in carbon in the Namsan forest ecosystem was about 26.1 million won ha<sup>-1</sup> for 3 years. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the pine forests of Namsan rapidly decompose leaves due to the high atmospheric temperature and accumulate a large amount of organic carbon in the soil to provide climate control regulatory service function.

      • KCI등재

        갈대 생육지에서 질소 시비가 사초의 생육과 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향

        서성,박진길,김원호,김맹중,이상학,정종성,박형수,성하균,이종경,Seo, Sung,Park, Jin Gil,Kim, Won Ho,Kim, Meing Jooung,Lee, Sang Hak,Jung, Jong Sung,Park, Hyung Soo,Sung, Ha Guyn,Lee, Joung Kyong 한국초지조사료학회 2013 한국초지조사료학회지 Vol.33 No.2

        본 연구는 질소(N) 시비가 부존 조사료자원인 갈대(Phragmites communis)의 생육과 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향을 구명하고자 2012년에 충남 천안과 경기 안산지역에서 실시되었다. 천안 국립축산과학원 갈대 재배지에서는 N 무시비구, N 50 kg/ha구, N 100 kg구 등 3처리를 두고 4월 30일 시비, 6월 21일 수확하였으며, 안산 시화간척지 갈대 자생지에서는 N 무시비구, N 60 kg/ha구 등 2처리를 두고 5월 1일 시비, 8월 1일 수확하였다. 갈대의 초장과 엽색은 N 시비구에서, 그리고 N 시비수준이 높을 때 양호하였다. 건물률은 N 시비구에서 약간 낮아지는 경향으로 천안지역은 무시비구 39.8%, N 시비구 37.6%, 36.7%, 안산지역은 무시비구 39.4%, N 시비구 37.6%였다. 천안지역의 건물수량, 조단백질 수량 및 가소화 건물수량은 무시비구에서 ha당 각각 4,026 kg, 235 kg, 1,850 kg, N 50 kg 시비구는 각각 4,658 kg, 306 kg, 2,388 kg, N 100 kg 시비구는 각각 5,622 kg, 446 kg, 3,143 kg으로 유의적으로 증가하였으며 (p<0.05), 안산지역은 무시비구에서 각각 2,802 kg, 177 kg, 1,288 kg, N 60 kg 시비구는 각각 3,876 kg, 294 kg, 1,853 kg으로 유의적으로 증가하였다 (p<0.05). 천안지역의 조단백질 함량, 건물 소화율 및 상대사료가치 (RFV)는 무시비구에서 각각 5.85%, 45.96%, 64.0 (품질 5등급), N 50 kg 시비구는 각각 6.58%, 51.27%, 72.3 (5등급), N 100 kg 시비구는 각각 7.94%, 55.91%, 72.7 (5등급)로 높아졌으며, 안산지역도 무시비구에서 각각 6.30%, 45.98%, 70.2 (5등급), N 60 kg 시비구는 각각 7.59%, 47.80%, 78.3 (4등급)으로 높아지는 경향이었다. 이상의 결과를 종합하여 볼 때, 갈대 생육지는 시비가 가능한 조건이라면(하천변이나 강변 등 수질오염이 우려되는 지역이 아닌), ha당 N 60~100 kg을 생육기에 시용해 주는 것이 생산량과 사료가치를 크게 개선시켜줄 수 있어 바람직하였다. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the forage growth, production and quality of native reed (Phragmites communis) grasses. Field experiments were conducted in Cheonan and in Ansan, 2012. Treatments were control (no N fertilization), 50 kg/ha and 100 kg/ha in Cheonan plots (fertilization on April $30^{th}$, and harvest on June $21^{st}$). Treatments in Ansan plots were control (no N fertilization) and 60 kg/ha (fertilization on May first, and harvest on August first). Forage growth and leaf colors were improved in N fertilized plots. However, the drymatter (DM) percentage was slightly decreased with N fertilization. Forage yields, in terms of DM, crude protein (CP) and digestible DM (DDM), were significantly increased with N fertilization in both sites. In Cheonan, DM, CP and DDM yields per ha were 4,026 kg, 235 kg and 1,850 kg, respectively, in the control plot, and were 4,658 kg, 306 kg and 2,388 kg, respectively, in the N 50 kg plot, and 5,622 kg, 446 kg and 3,143 kg, respectively, in the N 100 kg plot. In Ansan, DM, CP and DDM yields per ha were 2,802 kg, 177 kg and 1,288 kg, respectively, in the control plot, and were 3,876 kg, 294 kg and 1,853 kg, respectively, in the N 60 kg plot. Forage quality in terms of CP content, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and relative feed value (RFV) were also increased with N fertilization in both sites. In Cheonan, the CP content, IVDMD and RFV were 5.85%, 45.96% and 64.5 (grade 5), respectively, in the control plot, 6.58%, 51.27% and 72.3 (grade 5), respectively, in the N 50 kg plot, and 7.94%, 55.91% and 72.7 (grade 5), respectively, in the N 100 kg plot. In Ansan, the CP content, IVDMD and RFV were 6.30%, 45.98% and 70.2 (grade 5), respectively, in the control plot, and 7.59%, 47.80% and 78.3 (grade 4), respectively, in the N 60 kg plot. In conclusion, N fertilization of 60~100 kg/ha was desirable for greater forage production, with a higher quality of native Phragmites communis achievable. This should only be applied if the fertilization area is not located at a riverside/streamside or in riparian land where there is a high risk of water pollution by fertilization.

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