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Flux estimator (FE) is critical for achieving high-performance sensorless drive of induction motors. A voltage model (VM) is an excellent candidate for a FE since it does not require speed information and has a simple structure. A VM using a closed-loop style has excellent sensorless drive capability over a wide speed range. However, it is limited by the uncertainties such as offset and parameter mismatch. This paper presents an improved a closed-loop style FE. To overcome the problems inherent in the conventional FE, a hybrid strategy for the changeover between control modes is applied. In the setting of the FE’s cutoff frequency (CF), the influences of the offset and parameter mismatch are analyzed. The phase distortion and acquisition of the back electromotive force are also analyzed. From this analysis, a vector compensation strategy for the flux linkage is applied. This strategy facilitates the CF setting, which improves the robustness against both the offset and parameter mismatch. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed FE in a sensorless driven induction motor is verified using simulations and experiments under various conditions.
The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
Localization of management administration is an emerging issue for the FIEs in China especially after she has joined in WTO. In this paper, management styles, efforts for localization, management routines were surveyed at the view points of employees of korean FIEs in China together with their responses for those localization efforts. This paper is some kind of a pilot survey for the further study on localization of korean FIEs in China, so there is no rigorous theoretical reasoning attempts here. But according to the previous research, difference in size of HQ-namely large vs small-medium, business field in which FIEs are operating, and division where employees are assigned to, is proved to have some relationship with localization of management administration. Regional difference could be a important factor to explain the difference of localization style, because of the socio-cultural differences in China regionally. The 40.8% of responses think that korean FIEs in China are adopting korean management style while 48.6% think in between korean and chinese style. About the rate of satisfaction for the management style of their company, small-medium, Qindao city, operation division is higher respectively than any other categories.
The Korean traditional lyric songs(kagog 歌曲) are precious musical properties. The plentiful properties are amounted to 664 male song and 190 female songs in kagogwollyou 歌曲源流. But because of imperfective notation 連音標 these songs can not revive. This study is on the intonation 四聲, notation 連音標, pitch 音高 of the words in the female lyric songs 女唱歌曲. The relationship of this three essential elements is very important to revive the songs. The purpose of this is an effort for revival the lyric songs. As a result of this study the following facts become clear ; In pyoungjo 平調 low sound mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, the main pitch is b^(b)林. Middle sound mark(│) is related with high sound word 去聲, the main pitch is c 南, f' 汰. High sound mark (/) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is ab 중, c' 湳, e^(b') 황 . In kyemyounjo 界面調 low sound mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, the main pitch is b^(b) 林. Middle sound mark (│) is related with upper sound word 上聲, the main pitch is e^(b') 潢, a^(b') 중. High sound mark(/) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is b^(b') 淋, e^(b) 황".
The Korean traditional lyric songs(Kagog 歌曲) are precious musical properties. The plentiful properties are amounted to 664 male songs and 190 female songs in Kagowollyou 歌曲源流. But because of imperfective notation 連音標 these songs can not revive. This study is on the intonation 四聲, notation 連音標, pitch 音高 of the words in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲. The relationship of this three essential elements is very important to revive the songs. The purpose of this is an effort for revival the lyric songs. As a result of this study the following facts become clear ; In Pyoungjo 平調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲 and high sound word 去聲. The main pitch is bb 림. Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is f 太. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is eb' 潢 and ab 仲. In Kyemyounjo 界面調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲 except abrupt sound word 入聲. The main pitch is bb 림 and eb 黃 Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is ab 仲. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrput sound 入聲, the main pitch is eb 潢. In Korean native word the intonation is not clear. Therefore the rule in the relationship of this three essential elements, intonation 四聲, notation 連音標 and pitch 音高 of the word in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲.
Korean traditional lyric song (kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- pyoungjo (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and female. The pyoungjo kagog by male are all 11 tunes and the kyemyounjo are 13. Almost of precedent studies on kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for keomungo(玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of keomungo only. This study is on the melody of all songs in kagog by male. It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. There are three lineage in pyoungjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·wooling 羽弄·panyoup 半葉 - lak 樂 lineage ; woorak 羽樂·ollak 言樂 - pyoun 編 lineage ; woopyoun 羽編·pyoullak 編樂 Also there are three lineage in kyemyounjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·taepyoungga 太平歌·panypoup 半葉 - nong 弄 lineage ollong 言弄·pyoungnong 平弄 - pyoun 編 lineage pyounsudaeyoup 編數大葉·ollpyoun 言編·pyoullak 編樂
24 sorts of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used in Yongsanhoesang. 19 sorts of these were used for Taegum, 14 sorts of these for Piri and 12 sorts of these for Haegum. Various ornaments appear the most affluently in Taegum melody. Second Piri melody has much ornaments more than Haegum. In slow tune (Sangyongsan, Chungyongsan) various ornaments appear frequently and affluently, in quick tune (Taryong, Kunak) they appear in conrast with slow tune. Ornament ∧ is used the most frequently among 24 ornaments, then comes ornament □□, ㅅ, 9, ㄷ, ㄱ and 6 in that order. Each of ornaments has a special function. Ornament ㅅ, □□ and h are used for horizontal tune, ornament ㄴ, □□, h, □□, 6, I and □□ are used for downward tune, ornament ∧, ㄱ, □□ , 9 and □□ are used for upward tune. Ornament □□, □□, and □□ are used for upward or downward tune. Ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase and □□ is used for end.
Through all classical music (Chongak) for Haegum(two stringed fiddle) 17 kinds of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used, 12 sorts of these were used in Yongsanhoesang. All ornaments can be classified three groups according to style. The first group is fore-ornament, the second group is back-ornament, and the third group is peculiar one. Each of ornament appears individually in every 9 tune of Yongsanhoesang(sangyongsan, chungyongsan, seryongsan, karakdori, sanghyonhwanip, hahyonhwanip, yombulhwanip, taryong, kunak) In slow tune various ornaments appear affluently, in quick tune they appear in contrast with slow one. Each of ornament has a special function. For example, ornament ㅅ is used for continuance of same tone and ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase. The function of ornament 9 same with string instrument and ornament □□ is similar to other wind instrument. The remarkable fingering of all ornament is same as follow. In case of fore-ornament, the fingering of index finger-ring finger-middle finger and index finger-ring finger-index finger were applied. In case of back-ornament, the fingering of middle finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger and index finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger were applied.
Proteus vulgaris 를 ammonia와 carbon dioxide gas-sensor에 고정시켜 감응도와 재현성이 우수한 요소에 대한 박테리아 전극을 직접 제조하여 pH, 온도, 완충용액, 박테리아의 양, 여러 가지 아미노산 및 무기염류에 대한 영향과 전극의 수명 등에 관하여 조사하였다. 먼저 ammonia-박테리아 전극은 25℃에서 pH 7.4인 0.05M phosphate 완충용액을 사용하였을 때가 최적이었으며, 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) -3.0 ×10 exp (-2)M 내에서 직선을 나타내었고, 이때 감응도는 116.7mV/decade였다. 한편, carbon dioxide-박테리아 전극은 30℃, pH7.0, 0.1M phosphate 완충용액에서 가장 우수한 감응을 보였다. 이 경우는 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 5.0 ×10 exp (-2)M 내에서 45.4 - 45.7mV/decade를 나타내었다. 이들 두 전극중에서 carbon deoxide-박테리아 전극을 이용하여 요소를 정량한다면 방해물질들의 방해가 최소화되었다. 실제 임상적 응용에서 분광 광도법과 비교한 결과 실험과정이 간단하고 편리하여 신속하게 많은 양의 시료분석이 가능하다. Bio-electrodes for urea have been constructed by immobilizing the Proteus vulgaris on ammonia and carbon dioxide gas-sensors. The bacteria containing urease convert each molecule of urea into two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide gas. Ammonia-bacterial electrode based on ammonia gas-sensor has linearity in the range of 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 3.0 ×10 exp (-2)M urea in pH 7.4, 0.05M phosphate buffer solution at 25℃. While carbon dioxide-bacterial electrode based on carbon dioxide gas-sensor has linearity in the range of 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 5,0 ×10 exp (-2)M urea in pH 7.0, 0.1M phosphate buffer solution at 30℃. These electrodes were investigated for the effects of pH, temperature, buffer solutions, bacterial amounts and interferences, and life time. As the clinical applications, urea in urine was determined by these devices and was compared with spectrophotometric method. As the results, those methods were by far more simple and rapid than these method.