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In the study, the effect of welding time on resistance spot weldability of aluminum 5052-H32 alloy was analyzed throughsimulation and experiments. The resistance spot weldability was evaluated by measuring the tensile shear strength, nuggetsize, and hardness of welds with variations in the welding time. The simulated results of parameters such as tensile shearstrength and nugget size obtained using the SORPAS program were compared with the experimental results. Furthermore,a simulation was performed to calculate the temperature inside the weld nugget based on the distance from the center of thenugget. Hence, an optimum welding time to retain the required weld strength of the aluminum 5052-H32 alloy was obtained.
<P>We propose a new method of layer-by-layer (LbL) doping of thin graphene films. Large area monolayer graphene was synthesized on Cu foil by using the chemical vapor deposition method. Each layer was transferred on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate followed by a salt-solution casting, where the whole process was repeated several times to get LbL-doped thin layers. With this method, sheet resistance was significantly decreased up to ∼80% with little sacrifice in transmittance. Unlike samples fabricated by topmost layer doping, our sample shows better environmental stability due to the presence of dominant neutral Au atoms on the surface which was confirmed by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sheet resistance of the LbL-doped four-layer graphene (11 × 11 cm<SUP>2</SUP>) was 54 Ω/sq at 85% transmittance, which meets the technical target for industrial applications.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/ancac3/2010/ancac3.2010.4.issue-8/nn1008808/production/images/medium/nn-2010-008808_0006.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/nn1008808'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
<P>The electrochemical (EC) behavior of mechanically exfoliated graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is studied at high spatial resolution in aqueous solutions using Ru(NH<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>3+/2+</SUP> as a redox probe whose standard potential sits close to the intrinsic Fermi level of graphene and graphite. When scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) data are coupled with that from complementary techniques (AFM, micro-Raman) applied to the same sample area, different time-dependent EC activity between the basal planes and step edges is revealed. In contrast, other redox couples (ferrocene derivatives) whose potential is further removed from the intrinsic Fermi level of graphene and graphite show uniform and high activity (close to diffusion-control). Macroscopic voltammetric measurements in different environments reveal that the time-dependent behavior after HOPG cleavage, peculiar to Ru(NH<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>3+/2+</SUP>, is not associated particularly with any surface contaminants but is reasonably attributed to the spontaneous delamination of the HOPG with time to create partially coupled graphene layers, further supported by conductive AFM measurements. This process has a major impact on the density of states of graphene and graphite edges, particularly at the intrinsic Fermi level to which Ru(NH<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>3+/2+</SUP> is most sensitive. Through the use of an improved voltammetric mode of SECCM, we produce movies of potential-resolved and spatially resolved HOPG activity, revealing how enhanced activity at step edges is a subtle effect for Ru(NH<SUB>3</SUB>)<SUB>6</SUB><SUP>3+/2+</SUP>. These latter studies allow us to propose a microscopic model to interpret the EC response of graphene (basal plane and edges) and aged HOPG considering the nontrivial electronic band structure.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/ancac3/2015/ancac3.2015.9.issue-4/acsnano.5b00550/production/images/medium/nn-2015-00550c_0009.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/nn5b00550'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
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This investigation was carried out ot study on the generation property, management and separate collection rate of solid waste in the Gu-Gok Falls. Generation rate of solid waste was 80.785kg/day and unit waste generation rates was 65.55g/dayㆍtourist one person. Physical component of solid waste were garbage 46%, papers 20%, empty bottles 10%, respectively. A plan is required to decrease generation rate of garbage waste, As result to investigate separated garbage can, papers and can were separated more than 60%. But empty bottles and scrap iron were separated less than 50%. P.E.T, steel can, aluminum can and empty bottles were 20% of total generation rate, and profit of reuse is ￦700,800/year.
According to the flow of communication based on knowledge, politics, social, economic, and culture is changing of a pace. During democracy took root through the age of authority, lifelong education of Gun- an dtizen, school, family, social, and work place is searching to study th method of vitality. Policy of lifelong Educator was analyzed. Also, perception of busines for Lifelong Educator was analyzed. This analysis is for Method of vitality related Live long Educator in Gun-san by question of studying conduct d b 324 people in Gu-san. And to replace lifelong education or Gun-san` citizen in school, horn, work place ctc, 324 employed people in relation to tub of education and general branch were conducted through the question. They arc as followings F`irst, Gun-san city Welong education and policy is needed govern officer fulfilled of consciou ness and specialty. Second, For vitality of lifelong education, educational institution is needed to extension and to develop educator of this area and to vary program of education.
This study aimed to establish the best applicable method for the National Ecosystem Survey (NES) guidelines by (i) verifying the efficiency of an insect trap that combined the Malaise trap, flight intercept trap, and pitfall trap (MFP trap) as part of the improvement for the terrestrial insect field in the fifth NES, and (ii) comparing the result with the currently used Malaise trap and pitfall trap (MP traps). We found that the efficiency of attaining species diversity was much higher with the added flight intercept trap function than the current Malaise trap alone for flying insect collection. For collecting ground insects, the efficiency of attaining species diversity of the pitfall trap from the MFP trap was lower than that from the MP trap. Besides, the Malaise trap of the MP trap showed superior efficiency than that of the MFP trap in species diversity. The results suggested that modification, supplementation, and re‐testing should be performed by analyzing various factors such as the trap material, barrier size, capturing container inlet, and mesh size, with consideration of the design of the current Malaise trap. Therefore, in survey‐based research, which aims at identifying insects species diversity and inhabiting status—such as the NES, it is necessary to introduce the MFP trap with the flight intercept trap function added to the Malaise trap function, and for the pitfall trap function of the MFP trap, it can be operated as a separate trap from the MFP trap.