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      • KCI등재

        豹菴 姜世晃 초상화의 제작 시기와 실존적 맥락

        강관식(Gang Gwan-sik) 한국미술사학회 2013 美術史學硏究 Vol.- No.279·280

        豹菴 姜世晃(1713-1791)은 小北系 畿湖南人의 명문가에서 태어났으나 1728년의 李麟佐 亂에 처가와 친가가 연루되어 역적 집안의 일원으로 낙인찍히며 禁錮의 몸이 된 채 鄕村에서 寓居하는 불우한 삶을 살았다. 그러나 소북계 기호남인을 중용한 영정조대의 탕평정치로 1773년 환갑의 나이에 출사하여 5년 만에 재상에 오르고 마침내 正卿까지 오른 뒤 耆老所에 들어가 “三世耆英之家”의 영광을 누리는 극적인 삶을 살았다. 강세황은 이처럼 극적인 삶 속에서 경험했던 실존적 자의식과 자아 정체성에 대한 성찰을 自畵像을 통해 의미 있게 형상화했다. 그리하여 44세부터 70세까지 많은 자화상을 그렸는데, 그 중 현재 50세 知天命과 61세 還甲의 나이로 첫 출사하던 무렵, 그리고 七旬을 맞아 그린 4점의 자화상이 남아있다. 강세황은 실존적 자의식을 가장 적합하게 형상화할 수 있는 형식과 도상 및 화법을 끊임없이 모색하며 평생 추구했던 文人畵와 창의적으로 결합시킨 혁신적인 자화상을 다양하게 시도했다. 화원에게 초상화를 그릴 때도 새로운 형식과 도상을 시도하며 끊임없는 창의성을 보여주었다. 그리하여 圓形과 扇面의 새로운 화면 형식은 물론 松下讀書圖 계열의 감상적인 인물화풍 초상화의 새로운 양식을 시도했다. 특히 자화상의 경우, 명확한 中鋒骨筆과 해정한 渲染法 중심의 전통적인 초상화법을 벗어나서, 禿筆과 渴筆을 구사한 筆描法과 積墨法을 통해 素描風의 새로운 초상화법을 보여주었다. 그리고 ‘傳神'과 ‘寫心'의 명제 아래 얼굴을 이상화시키고 미화시켜왔던 전통적 관례를 벗어나, 분노와 슬픔과 고독이 담긴 표정은 물론 거칠고 칼칼한 피부까지 있는 그대로 솔직하게 묘사함으로써 표현적 초상화의 새로운 경지를 개척했다. 또한 禁錮와 出仕, 揚名 등 삶의 변화에 따른 실존적 자의식을 烏巾像과 宕巾像, 紗帽像 같은 다양한 衣冠의 변화로 형상화하고, 紗帽野服像의 演劇的 圖像까지 창안함으로써 寓意的 衣冠 圖像學의 새로운 경지를 보여주었다. 그 결과 강세황은 많은 自畵像을 통해 心意를 가탁하며 墨戱를 즐기는 문인화의 특장을 초상화와 결합시켜 素描的 초상화와 表現的 초상화, 寓意的 초상화의 새로운 경지를 개척했다. 또한 형식적이고 규범적인 전통적 초상화를 넘어 詩書畵 一致를 지향하는 文人畵의 경지에 오른 새로운 초상화를 보여주었을 뿐만 아니라, 단순한 餘技的, 墨戱的 차원의 전통적인 문인화가의 경계를 벗어나 근대적 예술가의 선구적인 모습을 보여주었다. Gang Se-hwang (brush name: Pyoam, 1713-1791) was born to a powerful aristocratic family, but had to lead an unfortunate life since his family was involved in the Yi In-jwa"s Revolt in 1728. The non partisan impartiality policy adopted by King Yeongjo (1724-1776), however, led him to an opportunity to serve the government later in life and working in several important positions. He could represent in his self-portraits the existential consciousness he experienced through his dramatic life and introspection upon his identity, producing innovative works via ceaselessly exploring forms, images and techniques that could express his consciousness of existence in a most appropriate way and creatively combining them with the literati art. He also experimented not only with new vehicles such as circular and semi-circular fan leaves but also new, sentimental subjects such as the readers under pine trees. In addition, Gang Se-hwang tried to go beyond the traditional brush strokes and gradation and introduced new methods and techniques using, for instance, stubbed brushes, “dry brushing”, and “multi-layer brushing.” He also broke away from the convention that idealized and romanticized human faces under the traditional principles of “spiritual depiction” and tried to capture expressions full of anger, sorrow and loneliness and rough skin in a candid manner, opening a new horizon in the painting of expressive portraits.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Efficient Traffic Engineering for 5G Core and Backhaul Networks

        Gang,Wang,Gang,Feng,Shuang,Qin,Ruihan,Wen 한국통신학회 2017 Journal of communications and networks Vol.19 No.1

        The next generation mobile networks (5G) should beefficient and elastic to accommodate numerous and diverse ser-vices. By explicitly assigning bandwidth to service flows, trafficengineering (TE) is effective to improve network efficiency andelasticity. Unfortunately, existing mobile network TE schemes aremostly focused on core network only, which is inadequate for effi-cient end-to-end traffic delivery in mobile networks. In this paper,we propose a TE framework that incorporates the data gateway(D-GW) selection and exploits the topology and traffic informa-tion of both core and backhaul networks for SDN-based 5G net-works. With ideal flow to D-GW association (IFDA) strategy, weformulate the TE problem as a multicommodity flow problem toachieve network load balancing. Considering the cooperation sig-nalling between D-GWs, we propose multiple BSs to one D-GWassociation (MBODA) and multiple flows to one D-GW associa-tion (MFODA) strategy, and formulate the corresponding TE prob-lems as mixed integer linear programs (MILPs) which are NP-hard. To efficiently solve the IFDA-TE problem, we design an im-proved version of fully polynomial time approximation scheme (i-FPTAS). Moreover, we propose a heuristic method and an LP re-laxation method that both use i-FPTAS to solve the MBODA-TEand MFODA-TE problems respectively. Numerical results showthat i-FPTAS achieves close-optimal solution with significantlylower computational complexity, compared with FPTAS, and theperformance of MFODA-TE is very close to that of the IFDA-TE,while there is a small performance degradation for MBODA-TE asthe cost of computational efficiency.

      • KCI등재

        HYERS-ULAM STABILITY OF DERIVATIONS IN FUZZY BANACH SPACE: REVISITED

        ( Gang Lu ), ( Yuanfeng Jin ), ( Gang Wu ), ( Sungsik Yun ) 한국수학교육학회 2018 純粹 및 應用數學 Vol.25 No.2

        Lu et al. [27] de_ned derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces and proved the Hyers-Ulam stability of derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces. It is easy to show that the de_nitions of derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces are wrong and so the results of [27] are wrong. Moreover, there are a lot of seroius problems in the statements and the proofs of the results in Sections 2 and 3. In this paper, we correct the de_nitions of biderivations on fuzzy Banach algebras and fuzzy Lie Banach algebras and the statements of the results in [27], and prove the corrected theorems.

      • 우리나라 부동산 정책의 현황과 과제

        전강수 ( Gang Soo Jun ) 대구가톨릭대학교 사회과학연구소 2013 사회과학논총 Vol.12 No.-

        Jun, Gang-Soo Until the early-1960s, most people used to purchase housing and commercial real estate properties by their hard work and savings in Korea. However, due to the government`s real estate policy, which was mistakenly planned and implement

      • KCI등재

        ‘사이시옷'과 ‘두음 법칙' 재고(再考)

        최형강(Choe, Hyeong-Gang) 한국어문학회 2018 語文學 Vol.0 No.140

        This study focused on interpreting ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)' and ‘Word-initial Rule' the examples while maintaining the framework of ‘Korean orthography'. Also, they study examined the problem of expanding or modifying the ‘Korean orthography' framework. The findings point out that the case of western loanwords in terms of ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)', should be supplemented with Sino-Korean words, and also mentioned that ‘Word-initial Rule' should be modified with regularity. Whether or not the western loanwords can be handled with Sino-Korean words in ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)' should be reflected in the rules and commentaries, and if the western loanword should be distinguished from Sino-Korean words, the reason should be specified. ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)' and ‘Word-initial Rule' are used in this study because the use of western loanwords raises problems not only in ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)', but also in ‘Word-initial Rule'. In addition, the class of ‘lyu(류)' being treated exceptionally needs to be reconsidered. The class of ‘lyu(류)' can function as a noun, and it should be explained why it combines without the application of ‘Word-initial Rule' in any conditions. As mentioned above, the rules of ‘Insert-s(ㅅ)' and ‘Word-initial Rule' of ‘Korean orthography' need to be revised and supplemented. This study focuses on that necessity, and the issue of specifying necessity as a regulation will be discussed in more detail through further discussions.

      • KCI등재

        거버넌스 구축을 위한 시민사회단체지원방안에 관한 연구 : 부산광역시를 중심으로

        강성철(Gang Sung Chul), 박영강(Park Young Gang), 문유석(Mun You Suk), 김상구(Kim Sang Gu), 허철행(Heu Chul Hang) 慶星大學校 社會科學硏究所 2009 社會科學硏究 Vol.25 No.1

        최근 거버넌스가 전통적 관료제를 대체하는 대안적 행정방식으로 제기되었으나 한국의 지방정부 내지 지방행정에 적용하는 것은 한계가 있다고 판단된다. 왜냐하면 거버넌스를 위한 제도적 장치도 미흡했지만 거버넌스 체제의 중요한 일부분이라고 할 수 있는 시민사회와 시민사회단체의 발전이 충분하지 않기 때문이다. 본 연구는 건전한 거버넌스 체제 구축을 위해서는 시민사회단체의 발전이 요청된다고 보고, 기존의 연구결과들과 공무원 및 시민단체관계자들을 대상으로 한 설문조사 자료를 분석하여 다음과 같은 시민단체의 지원방안들을 제시하였다. 첫째, 시민사회단체들의 참여를 위한 제도적 장치가 마련되어야 한다. 둘째, 시민사회단체에 대하여 재정지원사업을 적극 확대해야한다. 셋째, 시민사회단체 지원사업의 평가와 운영을 전담할 독립적 기관의 설립을 고려하야야 한다. 넷째, 조세지원, 행정편의, 사무실지원 등 간접적 지원을 강화하여야 한다. 본 연구는 결론에서 건전한 시민사회의 육성을 위해서는 시민사회단체의 발전이 요구되며, 중앙 및 지방정부의 시민사회단체에 대한 적극적이고 전략적인 지원이 건전한 지역거버넌스 체제 구축을 통한 지역사회발전의 단초를 제공할 수 있다고 주장하고 있다. Governance has been recently proposed as an alternative ways of public service provision in the field of public administration, but it's applicability to the context of local public administration in Korea seems to be limited. That is because most localities are not only poorly-equiped with institutional arrangements for governance but also their civic society and civic organizations have not been fully developed yet, which constitutes a key element of governance. Recognizing the development of civic organizations is essential to construct an effective governance system, this study suggested the following policy directions based upon the results of analyses using data collected through a survey conducted on public servants and staffs of civic organizations serving in Busan Metropolitan areas: First, institutional arrangements to secure participation of civic organization need to be prepared. Second, financial support for civic organizations needs to be expanded. Third, an independent organization to operate and evaluate support programs for civic organizations needs to be established. Fourth, indirect support including tax deduction, administrative assistance, and office provision also needs to be considered. In conclusion, this study further stressed proactive and strategic governmental support for civic organizations is currently desired to construct basis for local development through governance system.

      • KCI등재

        HYERS-ULAM STABILITY OF DERIVATIONS IN FUZZY BANACH SPACE: REVISITED

        Lu,,Gang,Jin,,Yuanfeng,Wu,,Gang,Yun,,Sungsik Korean Society of Mathematical Education 2018 純粹 및 應用數學 Vol.25 No.2

        Lu et al. [27] defined derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces and proved the Hyers-Ulam stability of derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces. It is easy to show that the definitions of derivations on fuzzy Banach spaces and fuzzy Lie Banach spaces are wrong and so the results of [27] are wrong. Moreover, there are a lot of seroius problems in the statements and the proofs of the results in Sections 2 and 3. In this paper, we correct the definitions of biderivations on fuzzy Banach algebras and fuzzy Lie Banach algebras and the statements of the results in [27], and prove the corrected theorems.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Myopericytoma Involving the Parotid Gland as Depicted on Multidetector CT

        Zhi-Gang,Chu,Jian-Qun,Yu,Zhi-Gang,Yang,Zhi-Yu,Zhu,Hong-Mei,Yuan 대한영상의학회 2009 Korean Journal of Radiology Vol.10 No.4

        Myopericytoma is a newly proposed subgroup of perivascular tumors in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissue tumors. In this study, we report a case of a benign myopericytoma with detailed multidetector CT (MDCT) findings in the parotid gland, a location that has not been described for this type of tumor previously. The clinical presentation, imaging features, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, and the differential diagnosis with other tumors in the parotid gland are described and reviewed.

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