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This work deals with the membrane fouling mode and the unclogging in seawater ultrafiltration process. The identification of the fouling mechanism by modeling the experimental flux decline was performed using both the classical models of Hermia and the combined models of Bolton. The results show that Bolton models did not bring more precise information than the Hermia's and the flux decline can be described by one of the four Hermia's models since the backwash interval is ≤ 60 min. An experimental screening study has been then conducted to choose among 5 parameters (backwash interval, duration, pulses and the flow-rate or injected hypochlorite concentration) those that are the most influential on the fouling and the net water production. It has emerged that fouling is mainly affected by the backwash interval; its prolongation from 30 to 60 min engenders an increase in the reversible fouling and a decrease in the irreversible fouling. This later is also significantly reduced when the hypochlorite concentration increases from 4.5 to 10 ppm. Moreover, the net water production significantly increases with increasing the filtration duration up to 60 min and decreases with decreasing the backwash duration and backwash flow-rate from 10 to 40 s and from 15 to ≥ 20 L.min<SUP>-1</SUP>, respectively.
Background: The incidence of pediatric melanoma is very rare. Dermoscopic features help to distinguish pediatric melanoma and common nevi. Objective: To study the evolution of dermoscopic findings in benign nevi in childhood through serial observation and photography. Methods: We examined 504 melanocytic lesions in 100 patients. From each participant, dermoscopic images of the nevi from 4-year dermoscopic follow-up were obtained, including randomly selected nevi. Results: The most common dermoscopic patterns were homogeneous (193 nevi; 38.3%), globular (92 nevi; 18.3%), and reticular (86 nevi; 17.1%). Dermoscopic pattern changes were detected in 27% of patients aged 2∼10 years and in 20% of patients aged 11∼16 years. The main pattern changes consisted of the transition from homogeneous to globular-homogeneous (16%), from homogeneous to reticular-homogeneous (12%) and from globular to globular- homogeneous (10%). Although 257 of the 504 nevi (51.0%) have stable duration without size changes, 169 of the 504 nevi (33.5%) were enlarged, and 78 of the 504 nevi (15.5%) had become smaller. Conclusion: These results contrast with the prevailing view that dermoscopic patterns in pediatric nevi are usually characterized by globular patterns and that melanocytic nevi generally undergo a characteristic transition from a globular pattern to a reticular pattern. Fifty one percent of patients did not exhibit a size change. While 33% of patients had symmetrical enlargement, 15% of patients had involution. Therefore, enlargement is a common dermoscopic change in pediatric nevi, and is not a specific sign of pediatric melanoma. (Ann Dermatol 31(5) 518∼524, 2019)
Purpose: Evaluating the effect of hormonal treatment on quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer patients by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment (FACT) questionnaire is the main purpose of this trial. Methods: Breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant between January 2007 and December 2009 were evaluated. The first survey was done after patients completed their whole adjuvant treatment except for the hormonal therapy and this was as ‘basal assessment.' The second survey was done 6 to 12 months after the basal surveys during their routine policlinic controls. The last survey was done within the last 18 to 24 months of the follow-up period. Results: The effect of marital status, number of pregnancies, residence in the village or city, hemoglobin levels, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for any other reason except for breast cancer on the QoL could not be seen. Endocrine subscale scores were detected to be higher in patients aged >60 years than in younger ones. The other dimension scores were low in the elderly patient group. There was a statistically significant relationship between being >30 years old and improvement in the social well-being score (p=0.028). The functional well-being scores were found to be significantly higher in the patient group that had no comorbid disease (p=0.018). Endocrine subscale scores were statistically worse in patients who had psychiatric disease (p=0.057) but the general QoL data were similar with others. It was shown that all QoL scores for all dimensions had statistically significant changes (p<0.001) in terms of hormonal regimes. Conclusion: The diagnosis of breast cancer was found to be an independent factor that affects social well-being and social life in a negative way. We must give attention to complaints including complaints about sexual life and hormonal status in order to ensure compliance of patients with the required hormonal regimens. By the help of future research, we can improve the prognosis of this disease through increased treatment adherence and belief of patients.
Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 universal adhesives used in different application modes to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods Extracted 160 sound human incisors were used for the study. Teeth were divided into 4 treatment groups: No treatment, 35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide. After bleaching treatments, groups were divided into subgroups according to the adhesive systems used and application modes (n = 10): 1) Single Bond Universal, etch and rinse mode; 2) Single Bond Universal, self-etch mode; 3) Gluma Universal, etch and rinse mode; 4) Gluma Universal, self-etch mode. After adhesive procedures nanohybrid composite resin cylinders were bonded to the enamel surfaces. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results No significant difference were found among bleaching groups (35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide, and no treatment groups) in the mean SBS values. There was also no difference in SBS values between Single Bond Universal and Gluma Universal at same application modes, whereas self-etch mode showed significantly lower SBS values than etch and rinse mode (p < 0.05). Conclusions The bonding performance of the universal adhesives was enhanced with the etch and rinse mode application to bleached enamel and non-bleached enamel.
The primo vascular system (PVS) is a very important topic of study nowadays because of their role in transport and regeneration of tissue and in cell migration and cancer metastasis. The PVS was detected in different organs of the rabbit but not in the placenta. In this work, we observe the PVS inside the blood vessels of the placenta for the first time. The main characteristic features of the primo vessels (PVs) from the rabbit placenta were in agreement with the PVS in different organs of animals, including the rod-shaped nuclei and their arrangement.
본 연구는 터키, 한국과 미국에서 영재 아동들의 부모 의식을 개선하는 교육 프로그램을 비교조사하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 본 연구의 연구 도구로 학위논문 4편, 학술지 논문 10편 총 14편의 논문을 문헌 조사 방법을 통해 연구하였다. 본 연구를 위해 세 국가의 영재 부모교육 프로그램을 분석하여 유사점과 차이점을 비교하였다. 연구 결과, 유사점은 세 나라 모두 영재 부모들이 영재 양육에 필요한 프로그램 개발과 정서와 행동, 진로에 관한 프로그램 개발에 중점을 두었다. 차이점으로는 첫째, 내용면에서 한국 프로그램들이 터키, 미국과 비교하면 영재 학생들의 창의성과 예술성을 개발하는 프로그램들에 강점을 보였으며 둘째, 부모교육 프로그램은 미국과 터키 프로그램이 한국의 프로그램보다 실행 기간이 짧았다. 셋째, 학습 방법에 있어서 터키는 한국과 미국보다 다양한 방법들을 고루 사용하였다. The present study analyzes parent education programs designed for the parents of gifted children in Turkey, South Korea, and the USA, using the methodology given in the literature review. The literature review covers 4 dissertations and 10 articles and compares 14 programs. Firstly, the present study shows that all of the parent education programs in Turkey, South Korea, and the USA focus on the gifted children's cognitive, social, and emotional needs and the demands and problems of parenting them. However, the two programs conducted in South Korea are different from those in Turkey and the USA in that they offered opportunities for creativity and art in parent education. There are other differences between the length of the programs and teaching methods for parents in each country. The shortest-term programs used in the USA and Turkey are shorter than those in South Korea. The teaching methods also show differences between Turkey in contrast to South Korea and the USA in terms of variety. Further studies may focus on multi-dimensions of parent education program with participation of gifted children.
Blood feeding behavior is crucial in both incriminating a vector in disease transmission and in understanding the mechanism of transmission, too. Blood feeding is a complex behavior that includes many details (begin with landing on host's skin and end with take-off host's skin after feeding). Experiments were designed to monitor such details in Cx. (Cx.) univittatus mosquito, in relation to sugar deprivation time and species of the host. Twoway ANOVA revealed that both host species and sugar deprivation time had significant effects on feeding behavior of Cx. (Cx.) univittatus. Regarding the effect of host species on feeding behavior of Cx. (Cx.) univittatus, human was observed to be more attractive to the mosquito than the other hosts. The deprivation time (24 h) had the highest effect on the blood feeding behavior of Cx. (Cx.) univittatus. Generally, the tow-way ANOVA indicated that the kind of host species had a greater effect on feeding behavior than the sugar deprivation time. The combined effect of interaction between host species and sugar deprivation time showed significance in three cases only (% females landed, time to probing and % fully-engorged females). The combined effect presented its highest value in the case of percentage fully-engorged females. Meanwhile, the least value of the combined effect was in the case of time to full engorgement. These results suggested that Cx. (Cx.) univittatus could play a role in the maintenance of arboviruses within bird and animal populations in Saudi Arabia. Additional studies are needed to complete the figure of vectorial capacity of this mosquito species.
To our knowledge, the imaging features of costochondral grafts (CCGs) on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) have not been documented in the literature. We present the case of a CCG in the facial soft tissue to the anterior mandible, with changes mimicking a cartilaginous neoplasm. This is the first report to describe the CBCT imaging features of a long-standing graft in the anterior mandible. Implants or grafts may be incidental findings on radiographic images made for unrelated purposes. Although most are well-defined and radiographically homogeneous, being of relatively inert non-biological material, immune reactions to some grafts may stimulate alterations in the appearance of surrounding tissues. Biological implants may undergo growth and differentiation, causing their appearance to mimic neoplastic lesions. We present the case of a cosmetic autogenous CCG that posed a diagnostic challenge both radiographically and histopathologically.
In the first part of this paper we show that, under some conditions, a polynomially demicompact operator can be demicompact. An example involving the Caputo fractional derivative of order $\alpha $ is provided. Furthermore, we give a refinement of the left and the right Weyl essential spectra of a closed linear operator involving the class of demicompact ones. In the second part of this work we provide some sufficient conditions on the inputs of a closable block operator matrix, with domain consisting of vectors which satisfy certain conditions, to ensure the demicompactness of its closure. Moreover, we apply the obtained results to determine the essential spectra of this operator.