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The origins of modern Consumerism can be traced back to the eighteenth century, whereby the concept ofconsumer societies began to flourish in the European block (Stearns, 2001).These were the economies that formed the hub of commercial activities, having had an access to the global products. Furthermore, post Second World War culminated into the ‗economy of abundance‘ as has been rightly suggested by Galbraith in his book ‗The affluent society‘, (1958). This affluence was the result of industrialization and technological revolution in United States and other developed countries that led to the mass production of goods and henceforth increased individuals‘standard of living. 21st century witnessed mushrooming growth in branded goods and consumer‘s aspiration to endlessly spend on luxury goods items. Since then there has been a continuous temptation on consumers end to spend extravagantly and acquire prestigious goods to appear more urbane, chic and sophisticated. Consumers choice of luxury brands is also considered as social indicators that also serve as an artifact for the reflection of their status, eminence and position in Society (Power and Hauge, 2008) Consumers incessant desire to spend on high end luxury brands such as Channel, Burberry, Gucci and Rolex have compelled researchers to understand the prime motivators and determinant factors that instigate consumer behavior towards branded goods. This paper seeks to understand the factors that influence consumer‘s selection of luxury brands in Pakistan and specifically those attributes on the basis of which different product categories are selected. The subsequent text reflects on the literature review related to consumer behavior towards conspicuous goods consumption with specific reference to luxury goods market in Asia and Pakistan.
Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (CARALL) are one of the aluminum based Fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which, due to their high strength to weight ratio and good impact resistance are greatly replacing aluminum alloys in aircraft structures. In this research work, interlaminate shear strength of Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) manufactured CARALL has been investigated. Numerical simulation model incorporated with real time material data has been developed to predict the delamination behavior of CARALL laminates. Standard CARALL specimens with different surface morphologies were prepared by electric discharge machining, mechanical, chemical and electrochemical surface treatments. T-peel tests were carried out according to standard ASTM D1876-08 to find out inter laminate shear strength. FMLs made out of mechanically, chemically and electrochemically cleaned metal sheets depicted high interlaminate shear strength. SEM micrographs of failed surfaces verify the high adhesive strength of epoxy. Developed numerical simulation model accurately predicts the delamination behavior of CARALL as observed during experimentation.
Muhammad,Suleman,Rani,Faryal,Muhammad,Masroor,Alam,Salmaan,Sharif,Shahzad,Shaukat,Uzma,Bashir,Aamir,Adnan,Khurshid,Mehar,Angez,Massab,Umair,Mian,Muhammad,Sufian,Yasir,Arshad,Syed,Sohail,Zahoor,Zaidi 대한진단검사의학회 2017 Annals of Laboratory Medicine Vol.37 No.2
From 2013 to 2015, the National Institute of Health, Pakistan, received 1,270 blood samples of suspected dengue cases reported from inpatient and outpatient departments of various hospitals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province. In this study, we determined the circulating dengue virus (DENV) serotypes using real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR to understand the serotype-based epidemiology of DENV. All four serotypes (DENV-1 [6%], DENV-2 [33%], DENV-3 [47%], and DENV-4 [0.1%]) were found circulating during the study period. Our findings suggest the need for an active surveillance system coupled with the laboratory diagnosis, especially in the chronic endemic areas of the country. Public awareness programs are needed for effective control and prevention of outbreaks in the future.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a non-receptor type cytoplasmic protein and a known tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. Polymorphisms in SYK have been reported to be associated with cell invasion/cell morality and an increased risk of cancer development. In this case control study, all exons of the SYK gene and its exon/ intron boundaries were amplified in 200 breast cancer cases and 100 matched controls and then analyzed by single stranded conformational polymorphism. Amplified products showing altered mobility patterns were sequenced and analyzed. Twelve variations were identified in exonic and intronic regions of DNA encoding SH2 domain and kinase domain of the SYK gene. All of these mutations are novel. Among them, 5 missense mutations were observed in exon 15 while one missense mutation was found in exon 8. In addition to these mutations, six mutations were also identified in intronic regions. We found a significant association between SYK mutations and breast cancer and observed that Glu241Arg, a missense mutation is associated with an increase risk of ~7 fold (OR=6.7, 95% CI=1.54-28.8), Thr581Pro (missense mutation) is associated with increased risk of ~16 fold (OR=15.5, 95%CI=2.07-115.45) and 63367 T>G (missense mutation) is associated with increased risk of ~13 fold (OR=12.8, 95%CI=1.71-96.71) for breast cancer. Significant associations were observed for each of these variations with both late menopause (p<0.01) and early menarche (p<0.005) cases when compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the polymorphic gene SYK may contribute to the development of breast cancer in at least the Pakistani population. This study provides an insight view of SYK which may provide a significant finding for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.
Khan,,Zohaib,Muller,,Steffen,Ahmed,,Shahzad,Tonnies,,Justus,Nadir,,Faryal,Samkange-Zeeb,,Florence Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.11
Background: Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men and second only to breast cancer among women in Pakistan. For the effective control and prevention of oral cancer, Pakistan needs to recognize the importance of research and generation of the evidence-base which can inform policy making and planning and implementation of intervention programs. The objective of this review was to quantify oral cancer research output in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A systematic electronic search in "Medline", "ISI-Web of Science" and "Pakmedinet", supplemented by a Google search, was carried out in January and February, 2014, to identify literature from Pakistan relevant to oral cancer. The selection of publications for the review was carried out according to preset criteria. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 166 publications comprising 62 case series, 36 cross sectional, 31 case control, 10 basic laboratory research, eleven reviews and two trials, were included in this review. Some 35 % of the publications focused on risk factors for oral cancer. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the institution with the highest contribution. Conclusions: There is a lack of research in the field of oral cancer research in Pakistan. Focused efforts should be put in place to improve both quality and quantity of oral cancer research in the country.
The plant species of genus Nepeta are used totreat various human diseases and for ornamental purposesas well. Nepethalate B (1) was isolated as a result ofphytochemical investigations of Nepeta clarkei and wassubjected in the present study for investigation of analgesic,anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system (CNS)depressant activities. The percentage inhibition in phase Iof the acetic acid induced writhing test of compound 1(dose of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg of body weight) was 53.3,58.0 and 86.7 % respectively. These results were foundsignificantly higher (P\0.01) as compared to the negativecontrol. Moreover, the percentage inhibitions of threephases for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg were higher than thevalues obtained for Aspirin (positive control). In formalintest, the percentage pain inhibition between 0 and 5 min(early phase) was 68.0, 25.5, and 75.5 % for 0.1, 0.2 and0.4 mg/kg intra-peritoneal doses of compound 1 respectively. In case of late phase (20–30 min) it was 63.0, 66.7and 48.1 %, respectively. In comparison to aspirin, overallpercentage inhibition of compound 1 was significantlyhigher in early and late phases. Interestingly, at all dosescompound 1 showed more potent anti-inflammatory effectsin terms of intensity and duration as compared to aspirin. The gross behavioral study of nepethalate B (1) was alsocarried out and the results revealed that it exhibited CNSdepression in the mice and showed a prominent decrease inlocomotor activity.