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        한국 영 · 유아의 식생활 현황 연구

        김은경(Kim, Eun-kyung), 송병춘(Song, Byengchun), 주세영(Ju, Se-Young) 한국영양학회 2018 Journal of Nutrition and Health Vol.51 No.4

        본 연구에서는 2013 ~ 2015년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 만 1 ~ 5세의 영 · 유아의 전반적인 식생활의 현황을 파악하고자 유아와 어머니의 일반적 사항, 유아의 식생활과 질병 유무, 영양섭취 상태 및 다소비 식품에 대한 조사를 시행하였다. 영 · 유아에게 생우유를 먹이기 시작하는 시기는 평균 14 ~ 15개월이었고 이유식 시기는 평균 6.2개월인 것으로 조사되었다. 주 5 ~ 7회 아침 식사를 하는 대상자는 82.0%, 아침 식사를 거의 하지 않는 대상자는 2.3%였다. 주 5 ~ 6회 외식하는 대상자가 35.8%로 가장 많았다. 천식과 아토피, 알레르기성 비염의 유병률은 3 ~ 5세 유아의 경우가 1 ~ 2세 영 · 유아에 비해 유의하게 높았다. 영 · 유아의 영양소 섭취상태는 에너지, 탄수화물, 단백질, 지질 등 주요 영양소는 충분히 섭취하고 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 대부분의 주요 무기질 (인, 철 및 나트륨)과 비타민 (비타민 A, 티아민, 리보플라빈, 니아신 및 비타민 C)도 충분히 섭취하는 것으로 조사되었다. 하지만 3 ~ 5세의 유아의 칼슘의 평균 필요량이 470 mg (권장량 600 mg)이 칼륨은 2,300 mg인데 실제 섭취량은 칼슘이 438.6 mg이고, 칼륨은 1,873.7 mg으로 부족하게 섭취하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 한국인의 에너지 필요 추정량보다 적게 섭취한 대상자는 1 ~ 2세에서는 44.1%, 3 ~ 5세에서는 57.4%로 조사되었으며, 칼슘과 칼륨을 필요량보다 적게 섭취하는 대상자의 수도 각각 1 ~ 2세에서 51%와 79.5%, 3 ~ 5세에서 64%와 75.5%로 높게 나타났다. 식품군별 섭취량은 감자 및 전분류, 당류, 채소류, 달걀류, 기름 및 지방, 음료류, 조미료의 섭취량은 3 ~ 5세 유아가 1 ~ 2세 영 · 유아보다 많았으나, 콩류와 우유 및 유제품의 섭취량은 1 ~ 2세 영 · 유아가 3 ~ 5세 유아보다 많았다. 그리고 1 ~ 2세 영 · 유아의 다소비식품은 우유, 흰쌀, 사과, 호상 요구르트, 달걀, 액상 요구르트 순으로 나타났다. 3 ~ 5세 유아의 다소비식품은 우유, 흰쌀, 사과, 달걀, 귤, 과일음료, 호상 요구르트 순으로 나타났다. 이 결과를 이용하여 향후 지속 가능한 식생활 교육 프로그램을 개발하기 위한 기초자료를 마련하고자 한다. Purpose: This study examined the dietary habits and nutritional status of young children in Korea. Methods: Data were collected from the 2013 ~ 2015 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 1,214 (445 aged 1 ~ 2 years, 769 aged 3 ~ 5 years) young children aged 1 ~ 5 years. To analyze the dietary status of young children, the general characteristics of young children and their mothers, their dietary behaviors and health factors, and nutritional status and frequently consumed foods were analyzed. Results: The starting time of bovine milk and weaning were 14 ~ 15 months and 6.2 months, respectively. Eighty two percent of young children ate breakfast 5 ~ 7 times per week while only 2.3% of them skipped breakfast. The highest percentage (35.8%) of the frequency of eating-out was 5 ~ 6 times per week. The prevalence of asthma, atopy, and allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in young children 3 ~ 5 years old than in those 1 ~ 2 years old. The subjects with lower recommended energy intake were 44.1% and 57.4% of young children 1 ~ 2 years old and 3 ~ 5 years old, respectively. Most nutrients except calcium and potassium were taken enough. For the intakes of calcium and potassium, 51% and 64% of young children 1 ~ 2 years and 3 ~ 5 years old, respectively, were taking less than the recommended calcium intake, and 79.5% and 75.5% of young children 1 ~ 2 years and 3 ~ 5 years old, respectively, did not meet the recommended potassium intake. The frequently consumed foods of young children 1 ~ 2 years old were milk, white rice, apple, curd yogurt, and egg, and those of 3 ~ 5 years old children were milk, white rice, apple, egg, and mandarin. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to provide basic data for the nutritional education of mothers and teachers and assist in the development of sustainable dietary programs for young children.

      • 幼兒文學敎育 實態에 관한 基礎硏究 : 慶南地域 幼兒敎育機關을 中心으로

        姜仁彦,金英淑 진주여자전문대학 1988 論文集 Vol.10 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to examine the actual condition of the literature education of young children in Gyeong Sang Nam Do, The specific problems of this study are as follows : 1. What is the goal of young childrens's literature education? 2. What is the criteria for the selection of young children's literature books? 3. What is trends of use and interest for media of young children's literature? 1) What is trends of use and interest for fairy tales and creative tales? 2) What is trends of use and interest for picture-tales? 3) What is trends of use and interest for kinds of puppets? 4) Have you ever taken a chance of a puppet-show? 5) Have you ever taken a chance of children's drama? 6) Have you ever used the children's verse in a classroom? 4. How many books of young children's literature do they stock in kindergarten and what is the teacher s viewpoint for these? 5. How is YES or NO of the teacher s experience for a creative activity of young children's literature? 6. For fairy tales : 1) What is the title of fairy tale most used in kindergarten? 2) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-boys are most interested in? 3) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-girls are most interested in? 4) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-teachers are most interested in? 7. What do you want in the class allocated for young children's literature in college? 8. What is the problem in young cildren's literature education? For this study 27 nursery schools, 20 kindergarten attached to elementary schools and 78 private kindergarten in Kyeong Sang Nam Do were randomly sampled. The total subject of the study were 125 teachers. The instrument used for this study was a questionnaire. It was distributed to the teachers and filled out by them. Chi-square was used to analyze by the data obtained from the questionnaire. The results of this study are as follows : 1. For the goal of young children's literature education : 'to be helped creative and expressive activities to literature in various ways' was regarded to be the most important in general. 2. For the criteria for selection of young children's literature books ; 'the contents related a unit was regarded to be the most important in general. 3. For the trends of use interest fot the media of young children s literature ; 'picture-tale' and 'picture-books' are the descending order responded. 4. For books of young children's literature and teacher s viewpoint for those ; '100 books and below them' and 101-200 books' are the descending order responded and answered 'proper' for these. 5. For the YES or No of the teacher's experience for a creative activity of youg children's literature ; 'NO' was regarded to be the most in general. 6. For fairy tales and the title of fairy tale most used in kindergartens ; 'Heungbu-Jean', 'Hokburi-younggam' and 'Hae wa Dali Deun O-nui' are the descending order responded by boys. 'Kongzui and patzui' and 'Baek-seol Princess' are the descending order responded by girls. And 'Hae wa dali Deun O-nui' and 'Hokburi-younggam' are by teachers. 7. For the request to the class allocated for young children's literature in college ; 'the manufacture technique for media of young children's literature and communiate method 'and' the guidance of the creative education to the genre of young children's literature' are the descending order responded by teachers. 8. For the problem in young children's literature education ; 'the problem of manufacture technique for media', 'The difficulty of selection for a literary work and the poor of a subject matter' and 'the poor of teaching materials' are the descending order responded by teachers.

      • 가토(家兎) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 신장도(伸張度)에 대(對)하여

        이동일,주영은,Lee,,Dong-Il,Choo,,Young-Eun 대한생리학회 1973 대한생리학회지 Vol.7 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        가토(家兎)의 외경동맥(外頸動脈)의 신장도(伸張度)를 알기 위(爲)하여 좌측(左側) 외경동맥(外經動脈)을 절단(切斷)하여 적출(摘出)하고 전혈질(全血質)과 횡절편(橫切片) 및 종절편(縱切片)을 작성(作成)한 후(後) 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水) 중(中)에 둔 군(群)과 동일(同一)한 방법(方法)으로서 얻은 각(各) 혈질표본(血質標本)을 0.15 mM 및 0.30 mM의 ATP 용액중(溶液中)에 둔 군(群)에서 각각(各各) 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 길이 일장력곡선중(一張力曲線中) 탄성(彈性)의 한계(限界) 내(內)에서 Hooke의 법칙(法則)에 따르는 부위(部位)에서 Young 율(率)을 구(求)하여 서로 비교(比較)하였던 바 다음의 결과(結果)를 얻었다. 1) 가토(家兎) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 전혈질(全血質)을 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水)에 둔 군(群)에서는 그 Young 율(率)이 실험시간(實驗時間) 15분(分)에서는 $4.74{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$이었으나 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서는 각각(各各) 4.62 및 $4.13{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$이었다. 한편 ATP 0.30mM의 농도(濃度)에서는 0.15mM의 농도(濃度)에 비(比)하여 낮은 Young 율(率)을 나타내었다. 2) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 횡절편(橫切片)의 Young 율(率)은 생리적식염수중(生理的食鹽水中)에서는 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 각각(各各) 4.11, 3.75 및 $3.90{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$으로서 15분(分)이 가장 높고 그 후(後)는 큰 변화(變化)가 없는 경향(傾向)이었으나, ATP 첨가(添加)로서는 실험시간(實驗時間)에 따른 변화(變化)는 볼 수 없었다. ATP 첨가(添加)로서는 0.30mM의 농도(濃度)에서 0.15 mM의 농도(濃度)에 비(比)하여 Young 율(率)이 낮았다. 3) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 종절편(縱切片)의 Young 율(率)은 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水)에 둔 군(群)에서는 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 각각(各各) 2.12, 2.48 및 $2.46{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$으로서 실험초기(實驗初期)에 비(比)하여 후기(後期)에서 Young 율(率)이 약간(若干) 높은 경향(傾向)을 나타내었고, 이러한 경향(傾向)은 ATP의 첨가(添加)로서도 비슷하였다. The distensibility of the major arteries has been investigated extensively, but the value expressed as Young Modulus varies widely by the different schools of the investigators, the major reason undoubtedly being the difficulties encountered in the measurement. In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the distensibility of the external carotid artery of the rabbit, which was placed in saline immediately after removing from the apparently healthy, normal rabbit without anesthesia. The circular section strip and longitudinal section strip were made from the whole artery, and Young Modulus of the whole artery, circular section and longitudinal section strips was calculated from the length-tension curve of each sample. Also, the similar samples of the artery seperately obtained were placed in ATP solution in the concentration of 0.15 mM and 0.30 mM, and Young Modulus was similary calculated. Experiments were performed at 15,45 and 75 min after the artery was removed from the rabbit, and the results thus obtained are summarized as follows. 1) Young Modulus of the whole external carotid artery of the rabbit in saline was $4.74{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$ at 15 min, but lower values were obtained at 45 and 75 min, Young Modulus being $4.62{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;4.13{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$, respectively. When the arterial samples were placed in ATP solutions, Young Modulus did not change much throughout the experiment, and lower Young Moduli were obtained in 0.30 mM ATP solution than in 0. 15 mM ATP solution. 2) Young Modulus Of the Circular Section Strip in Saline was $4.11{\times}10^7dyne/Cm^2,\;3.75{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;3.90{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2,$ respectively, at 15, 45 and 75 min, the value at 15 min being the highest. However, when the strip was placed in ATP solutions, no appreciable change was observed throughout the experiment, and Young Moduli were lower in 0.30 mM ATP solution than in 0.15 mM ATP solution. 3) Young Modulus of the longitudinal section strip in saline was $2.12{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2,\;2.48{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;2.46{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$, respectively, at 15, 45 and 75 min, Young Modulus being slightly elevated in the latter part of the experiment. A similar tendency was observed when the strip was placed in ATP solutions.

      • Clinical and microbiological features of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection in young adult : experience at a tertiary hospital

        ( Eun Hye Lee ), ( Ah Young Leem ), ( Sang Hoon Lee ), ( Joo Han Song ), ( Song Yee Kim ), ( Kyung Soo Chung ), ( Ji Ye Jung ), ( Moo Suk Park ), ( Young Sam Kim ), ( Joon Chang ), ( Young Ae Kang ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2018 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.126 No.-

        Background: The prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD) is increasing worldwide. However, there is limited information about the NTM-LD of young age people. Methods: Patients diagnosed with NTM-LD at severance hospital between January 2006 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics and microbiologic features of patients under 40 years were compared with patients over 40 years. Results: Total 906 patients were identified NTM-LD. Of these, 29 patients (3.2%) were under 40 years of age (young age group) and the remaining 877 were over 40 years of age (old age group). Mean age of the two groups were 32 (IQR 24-33) and 64 (IQR 56-72), respectively. Female was predominant in both groups and about half of the patients had a history of tuberculosis (51.7% vs.51.5%, p=0.984). 7 patients (24.1%) of the young age group had malignancy history and among them, 6 patients were hematologic cancer who subsequently received bone marrow transplantation. The proportion of the nodular bronchiectatic form of NTM-LD is significantly higher in old age group (67.5%) compared to young age group (31.0%) (p=<0.001). M.avium complex (MAC) was the most common etiologic organism in both groups, however, it was less common in the young age group (44.8% vs. 65.3%, p=0.023). Identification of M.abscessus complex (MABC) was higher in young age group although statistically insignificant (24.1% vs. 17.0%, p=0.318). Conclusion: This study could help to better understand the characteristics and microbial features of NTM-LD of young age people.

      • KCI등재

        청년농업인 학습조직 활성화 방안 연구 - 영농4-H회를 중심으로

        이은영(Eun Young Lee), 한승연(Seung yeon Han) 중앙대학교 한국인적자원개발전략연구소 2016 역량개발학습연구 Vol.11 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구는 청년농업인 학습조직에서 개인차원과 조직차원의 활성화요소를 확인하고 학습조직 구성원의 인식을 살펴봄으로써 청년농업인 학습조직의 활성화를 위한 시사점을 얻고자 하였다. 연구대상은 청년농업인(영농)4-H회 회원 9명, 담당 농촌지도사 1명이었다. 첫째, 개인차원의 요소로는 비전의 공유, 혁신의지, 책무성, 협력의지, 애향심, 리더십, 의사소통능력이 도출되었다. 청년농업인들은 농업인으로서 전문성 향상을 위한 개인적 노력을 기울이고 있음에도 불구하고 4-H회의 비전으로 공유하고 있지는 못했다. 한편 새로운 기술의 적용이나 제도 개선의 의지를 갖고 있었으며 스스로 농촌의 미래를 책임지고 있다고 인식하고 있었으나 이를 학습조직을 통해 조직차원에서 적극적으로 추진해 나가고 있지는 못한 상태였다. 둘째, 청년농업인 학습조직 활성화를 위한 조직차원의 요소로는 조직정체성, 지도자의 전문성, 권한위임, 수요자중심 학습, 홍보의 강화, 영농네트워킹이 도출되었다. 청년농업인 학습조직의 조직정체성형성은 미흡한 것으로 나타났다. 학습조직활동이 원활히 추진되기 위해서는 구성원의 자율적이고 적극적인 참여가 중요하나, 활동의 주도권을 농촌진흥기관이 갖고 있어 회원들은 주도적이기보다는 참여수준에 머무르고 있어 권한위임이 필요한 것으로 타나났다. The purpose of this study was to investigate facilitating factors to improve learning organization for young farmers from individual and organizational perspectives. In depth interviews with 9 members of Young Farmers 4-H Club and 1 leader of 4-H club were conducted. The results of this study are as follows. First, the facilitating factors at the individual level include sharing of visions, will for innovation, sense of responsibility, willingness to collaborate, local patriotism, leadership, and communication skills. Second, the facilitating factors at the organization level include group identity, expertise of leaders, empowerment, learner-centered learning, promotions, and farming networking. The study results showed that Young Farmers 4-H Club did not clearly formed its identity despite it is emphasized as a learning organization for young farmers in policy. Common goals and visions for learning organizations should be clearly set so that young farmers can have prides and desires motivation for farming and this should be shared to clearly establish the identity as a learning organization for young farmers.

      • KCI등재후보

        유아의 애착유형과 정서조절 및 사회적 유능성

        이은순(Eun Soon Lee), 황미영(Mi Young Hwang), 김영희(Yeong Hee Kim) 충북대학교 생활과학연구소 2009 생활과학연구논총 Vol.13 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of attachment styles on social competence mediated by emotional regulation among young children. The subjects of this study were 283 mothers who had three to five year old children and it was drawn from four kindergartens located in Cheongju, Chungju, and Jecheon. Data were analyzed by factor analysis and Cronbach's α with SPSS Win program. Additionally, the theoretical model was specified and estimated based on previous literature. The model was tested through the analysis of correlation matrix in LISREL VIII package using maximum likelihood estimation. The findings of the study were as follows: 1) Young children's secure attachment style directly varied their social competence which was categorized into four dimensions including leadership, reciprocity, non-cooperation, and avoidance. The study result showed that young children with secure attachment was more likely to perform leadership in their peer relationship, and to show positive reciprocity in their interaction with peers and teachers. 2) Young children's secure attachment style, mediated by internal and external regulation of emotion, indirectly predicted their social competence. Specifically, leadership and reciprocity of social competence were indirectly explained. 3) Unlike secure attachment style, young children's insecure attachment style did not have a direct effect on their social competence. The result indicated that insecure attachment style did not explain any type of young children's social competence. 4) Despite the outcome in relation to the direct relationship between insecure attachment style and social competence, insecure relationship indirectly predicted their social competence through a mediating effect of external regulation of emotion. Insecure attachment made a young child to be not cooperative by causing difficulties in external regulation of emotion. 5) As well as external regulation, internal regulation of emotion also mediated the relationship between insecure attachment and social competence among young children. Young children's insecure attachment style increased the degree of their non-cooperation and avoidance by deteriorating ability of internal regulation of emotion.

      • 원저(原著) : 황제내경(黃帝內經) 영추(靈樞)에 관한 연구

        이은주 ( Eun Joo Lee ), 이준연 ( Jun Yeon Lee ), 신인순 ( In Soon Shin ), 김희영 ( Hee Young Kim ), 이봉효 ( Bong Hyo Lee ) 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 2011 東西醫學 Vol.36 No.4

        Objectives : The Huang Di Nei Jing(黃帝內經) is comprised of So Moon(素問) and Young Chu(靈樞). This short review is focused on tracing the origin of Young Chu. Methods : The literatures concerning the background and origin of Young Chu were reviewed. Results :1. Young Chu was based on the Zu bi shi yi mai jiu jing(足臂十一脈灸經) and Yin yang shi yi mai jiu jing(陰陽十一脈灸經). 2. The Young Chu appeared to reference an old literature entitled "Pulse diagnosis (脈法)" 3. The Young Chu was made of three hypothesis. Conclusions : The Young Chu includes accumulated knowledge from old literatures.

      • KCI등재

        유아문학교육을 위한 대학 교재에 대한 분석

        이대균 ( Dae Kyun Lee ), 김은영 ( Eun Young Kim ) 한국어린이문학교육학회 2001 어린이문학교육연구 Vol.2 No.1

        대학에서 예비교사를 대상으로 하는 유아문학교육 강좌는 대학 교재를 중심으로 진행된다. 이러한 관점에서 유아문학 관련 대학 교재는 유아문학교육에서 중요한 의미를 갖게 된다. 유아교육계에서 유아문학에 대한 관심이 높아지면서 1∼2권에 지나지 않던 유아문학 관련 대학 교재가 최근 5년 사이에 10권 가까이 증가하였다. 그러나 이들 유아문학 관련 대학 교재에 대한 체계적 분석은 아직 이루어지지 않고 있다. 본 연구에서는 이들 유아문학 관련 대학 교재의 편집 측면과 내용 측면을 구체적으로 비교 분석하여 유아문학교육에 필요한 대학 교재의 개선 방향을 제시함을 목적으로 수행되었다. The object of this study is to analyze the college textbooks for the young children`s literature education and grope the way for improvement, especially in compilation and contents. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, it is necessary to keep the balance of theory and practice in the contents of college textbooks for young children`s literature because seeing and listening are more important than reading in young children`s literary activities. Second, it is needed to improve the editing technique such as blank space, visual arrangement, the style of writing, and the picture of book cover because college students want higher level of editing and designing. Third, it is very important for textbooks to be written in terms of young children`s literature education. The object of young children`s literature education is to bring up the young children`s literary interests rather than to be used in the other subjects such as mathematics, science, and moral education. Fourth, the ratio of teaching materials which are based on the multimedia technique should be increased because young children are more responsive to audio-visual materials than ordinary books. Fifth, the contents for creative writing are to be included in textbooks because college students need to practice the creative power of writing new stories which are based on young children`s interest and need.

      • KCI등재

        유아주도적 질문과 교사주도적 질문이 유아의 동화이해력에 미치는 효과

        손은주(Son Eun Joo), 박영태(Park Young Tea) 학습자중심교과교육학회 2011 학습자중심교과교육연구 Vol.11 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구는 유아주도적 질문과 교사주도적 질문이 유아의 동화이해력에 미치는 효과를 분석하는데 목적을 두고 만 5세 남아 39명, 여아 36명 모두 75명을 대상으로 실험하였으며, 동화를 이용한 유아주도적 질문 프로그램과 동화를 이용한 교사주도적 질문 프로그램을 실험도구로 하고, 동화이해력 검사를 측정도구로 이용하였다. 본 연구에서 나타난 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 동화이해력은 유아주도적 질문과 교사주도적 질문은 모두 통제집단에 비하여 효과는 있으나 이 두 집단 간에는 차이가 없다 둘째, 동화이해력 중 구조이해는 유아주도적 질문, 교사주도적 질문은 모두 통제집단에 비하여 효과는 있으나 이 두 집단 간에는 차이가 없다. 셋째, 동화이해력 중 추론이해는 유아주도적 질문, 교사주도적 질문은 모두 통제집단에 비하여 효과는 있으나 이 두 집단 간에는 차이가 없다. This research is aimed to analyze the effect of young children-directed questioning and teacher-directed questioning on story comprehension of young children. To achieve the above research purposes, 75 5-year-old children, 39 boys and 36 girls, were selected. Experimental tools were young children-directed questioning and teacher-directed questioning reading a story. Measuring tools were story comprehension test. The main conclusion of this research is as following. First, story comprehension was more effective in young children-directed and teacher-directed questioning than in the control group, but there was no difference between these two experimental groups. Second, understanding the structure of the story was more effective in young children-directed and teacher-directed questions than in the control group, but there was no difference between these two experimental groups. Third, reasoning was more effective in young children-directed and teacher-directed questions than in the control group, but there was no difference between these two experimental groups.

      • 개구리 皮膚의 伸張度와 X線 全身照射가 이에 미치는 影響

        李基錫,朱永恩 慶北大學校 醫科大學 1975 慶北醫大誌 Vol.16 No.1

        개구리皮膚의 伸張度와 X-線照射가 이에 미치는 影響을 알기 爲하여 腹部 및 背部皮膚에서 各各 矢狀 및 橫斷切片을 作成하여 길이-張力曲線中 彈性의 限界內에서 Hooke의 法則에 따르는 部位에서 Young率을 求 하고 1,000R의 X-線全身照射를 한 後 1,3,5,7 및 10日에서 各各 皮膚切片의 伸張度를 求하여 서로 比較 하였던 바 다음과 같은 結果를 얻었다. 1. 正常개구리의 腹部皮膚의 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 背部皮膚에서 얻은 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 2. X-線 全身照射를 한 群에서 腹部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 3日에서 5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그 後는 漸次 낮아지는 傾向을 나타내었고 照射 10日에서는 4.20×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値에 가까워지는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서는 照射 3日 및 5日에서 Young率이 各各 4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그後는 第10日까지 次次 낮아진듯하나 그 傾向이 矢狀切片에서 처럼 뚜렷하지 않았다. 3. X-線 全身照射로서 背部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 높아지는 傾向을 나타내고 그後는 漸次 낮아져서 第10日에서는 正常値와 비슷하게 되는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서의 Young率도 照射後 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠및 6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値보다 若干 높은듯 하고 그後는 낮아지는 傾向을 보이나 그 程度가 矢狀切片에서 처 럼 뚜렷하지 못하였다. In an attempt to observe the changes of the distensibility of the frog skin by whole body X-irradiation, the sagittal and transverse strips were excised from the abdominal and back skin of the frog (Rana nigromaculata) following whole body X-irradiation with 1,000R. Young Modulus of the strip was calculated from the length-tension curve of each sample, and a comparison was made with the non-irradiated control group. Experiments were performed on 1,3,5,7 and 10 days after the irradiation, and the results thus obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Young Modulus of the sagittal and transverse strips of the abdominal skin of the normal frog was 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ and 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠, respectively. Young Modulus of the back skin of the normal frog was 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the sagittal strip, and 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the transverse strip. 2. Young Modulus of the sagittal strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group was the highest (5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) on the 3rd post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease to the normal value on the 10th post-irradiation day was observed. In the transverse strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group, the highest values of Young Modulus were observed on the 3rd(4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease till 10th day was observed, but the tendency was not as prominent as in the sagittal strip. 3. A tendency of the elevated values of Young Modulus on the 3rd(4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day with the decreasing values to the normal value on the 10th day was observed in the sagittal strip of the back skin of the irradiated frog. In the transverse strip of the irradiated frog, Young Modulus showed a slight increase on the 3rd(6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) day after the irradiation, but a tendency of decrease was observed thereafter.

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