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Under severe accidents, the pressure and temperature response has an important role for the integrity of a nuclear power plant containment. The history of the pressure and temperature is characterized by the amount and state of steam/air mixture in a containment. Recently, the heat transfer rate to the structure surface is supposed to be increased by the wavy interface formed on condensate film. However, in the calculation by using CONTAIN code, the condensation heat transfer on a containment wall is calculated by assuming the smooth interface and has a tendency to be underestimated for safety. In order to obtain the best- estimate heat transfer calculation, we investigated the condensation heat transfer model in CONTAIN 1.2 code and adopted the new forced convection correlation which is considering wavy interface. By using the film tracking model in CONTAIN 1.2 code, the condensate film is treated to consider the effect of wavy interface. And also, it was carried out to investigate the effect of the different cell modelings - 5-cell and 10-cell modeling - for KNGR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) containment phenomena during a severe accident. The effect of wavy interface on condensate film appears to cause the decrease of peak temperature and pressure response . In order to obtain more adequate results, the proper cell modeling was required to consider the proper flow of steam/air mixture.
Product naming is one of the most important communication decisions for any firm to deliver product information to consumers. Product names are highly likely to have critical impacts on the market performances of products, in particular, consisting of unobservable attributes such as motion pictures, music, books, and games. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of product naming strategies on their market performances and provide managerial implications on how to name products, especially for experience goods such as movies. We, firstly, suggest a conceptual framework to describe naming decisions as two-stage strategic decisions. The first stage decision is about what type of product information should be provided to consumers via a product name, which we call information choice strategy, and the second stage decision is about how to express the product information in the name, which we call expression strategy. We develop a two-level hierarchical Bayesian log-linear model to consider the main effects of product information strategy with the 1st level of the model, and the mediate effects of expression strategies with the 2nd level of the model. We applied the model to a data set consisting of viewership, names, and release dates of 634 movies released in eight countries where English is an official language. We have decided the types of naming strategies with the help of three industry practitioners, who have been working in the film industry for over 10 years as a producer, marketer, and investor, respectively. The country characteristics, obtained from Hofsted's Homepage (National culture scores of each country) and the World Bank (GDP and population of each country at the released t year), were considered for country heterogeneity. The empirical results show that information choice for movie titles have significant impacts on the movie viewership. Especially, movie titles including story or negative words have more positive impact on their market performances. One of the important findings is that the effects of “what to choose” depends on “how to express”. For example, not frequently used words, nonwords, proper nouns, foreign words in movie titles have positive impacts on the viewership. Popular words used for movie titles have a positive influence directly on the viewership. Interestingly, while sentences for movie titles have negative impacts on the viewership, storyline and theme expressed in sentences show positive impacts on the viewership. Another important finding is the mediating effects of country and product heterogeneities. The effects of naming strategy differs across movie genres and country characteristics. This study makes at least three contributions to the literature. Firstly, this study suggest a conceptual framework an empirical model for naming strategies in the literature. Secondly, this study provides information on what type of naming strategies are more effective on market performance, which has never been addressed in the literature. Lastly, the study provides some managerial implications which are useful for researchers and industry practitioners who are interested in product naming.
Not every individual who experiences a traumatic event is diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or shows its symptoms. Resilience has been understood to be a key factor that helps individuals adapt successfully following an adversity. Acceptance has also been considered a therapeutic factor for such individuals. However, there are few studies that investigated the relationship between resilience and acceptance, and their impacts on post-traumatic stress symptoms. The current study examined the effect of resilience on post-traumatic stress symptoms and the mediating role of acceptance in the relationship. A total of 140 participants who experienced trauma (80 females and 60 males) were included in the analyses. Resilience was found to be negatively correlated with post-traumatic stress symptoms and acceptance was found to mediate the relationship between the two. This study provides an understanding of the mechanism underpinning the effect of resilience on post-traumatic stress symptoms. Study limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
( Kyung Jin Eoh ), ( Jung-yun Lee ), ( Sunghoon Kim ), ( Sang Wun Kim ), ( Jae Hoon Kim ), ( Young Tae Kim ), ( Ji Soo Park ), ( Hyung Seok Park ), ( Jeongwoo Han ), ( Seung-tae Lee ), ( Eun Ji Nam ) 대한산부인과학회 2016 대한산부인과학회 학술대회 Vol.102 No.-
목적: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for simultaneous sequencing of multiple cancer susceptibility genes and may be more efficient and less expensive than sequential testing. We assessed the frequency of germline mutations among individuals with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received multigene panel test using NGS. 방법: Patients with EOC (n = 43) with/without family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited consecutively, from March 2016 to June 2016. Germline DNA was sequenced with a 35-gene NGS panel to identify mutations. Cross validation with direct sequencing was done, when genetic alteration was detected by the panel testing. 결과: Thirteen patients (30.2%) were identified to have pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in 6 genes, in BRCA1 (n = 6), BRCA2 (n = 3), CHEK2 (n = 1), BRIP1 (n = 1), POLE (n = 1), and RAD51C (n=1). Among the 18 patients with family history of cancer, 8 patients (44.4%) revealed to have pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations, and 3 patients had mutations other than BRCA 1/2, such as CHECK2, POLE, and RAD51C. Eighteen patients (41.9%) were identified to carry variants of uncertain significance (VOUS) gene alterations. Lynch syndrome-related gene VOUS were identified in 5 individuals. 결론: Among sequential patients with ovarian cancer, 30.2% were found to have germline mutations in a gene that predisposes women to breast or ovarian cancer, using the panel. NGS substantially improved the detection rates of a wide spectrum of mutations in ovarian cancer patients, than does BRCA1/2 testing alone.
( Kyung Jin Eoh ), ( In Ok Lee ), ( Young Shin Chung ), ( Jung-yun Lee ), ( Eun Ji Nam ), ( Sunghoon Kim ), ( Young Tae Kim ), ( Jae Hoon Kim ), ( Sang Wun Kim ) 대한산부인과학회 2016 대한산부인과학회 학술대회 Vol.102 No.-
목적: Teach a new procedure. 방법: The purpose of this video is to show single-port total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a patient with 6 months sized uterus and safe in bag morcellation techniques. A 1.5 cm sized skin incision on the umbilicus and punctured the fascia and peritoneum with a blade number 11. The incision size was same as women's index finger diameter measuring smaller than 1.5cm. X-small sized Alexis wound retractor was inserted through the incision and then a surgical glove was attached to the wound retractor. I made small holes on the finger tips of the surgical glove and inserted 5 mm trocar into the 5th finger tip, 5 mm mini-port into the middle finger, 12 mm trocar into the thumb. And I made a small hole on the index finger and the hole was used as an entry port without trocar. Hysterectomy was started by ligating the utero-ovarian and round ligament with LigaSure. Then we further dissected the broad ligament and dissected the bladder while retroplexing the Rumi uterine manipulator. After tenting the bladder serosa I dissected the bladder with a monopolar cautery. And then I performed anterior colpotomy as early as possible to delineate the resection site. This anterior colpotomy indicates where to ligate the uterine vessels. After exposing the uterine vessels by dissecting the bladder and broad ligaments I ligate the uterine vessels with LigaSure. Then I completed colpotomy and then uterus was inserted in to a 3XL LapBag. The uterus was removed through the vagina with concealed cold knife morcellation in an endopouch. After removing the uterus, the vaginal cuff was closed intracorporeal continuous suture with Monosyn 1-0. 결과: We successfully completed single-port total laparoscopic hysterectomy in a patient with a extremely huge uterus. There was no specific complication. 결론: SP-TLH in patients with huge uterus was feasible in most cases using conventional laparoscopic instruments without articulated instruments.
본 연구의 목적은 정서억제가 개인의 친밀한 대인관계에 미치는 영향을 검증하고 이 때 자기구성개념의 조절효과를 확인하는 데 있었다. 이를 위하여 한국인 중 현재 연인 또는 부부 등 친밀한 대인관계를 유지하고 있는 20~40대 성인을 대상으로 연구가 진행되었다(N=100). 연구 결과, 정서억제는 대인관계 만족도에 직접적으로 유의한 영향을 가지지는 못하는 것으로 검증되었다. 그러나 자기구성개념의 조절효과 분석결과, 상호의존적 자기구성개념의 유의한 조절효과가 검증되었다. 단순기울기(simple slope)검증을 실시하여 구체적인 상호작용 양상을 살펴 본 결과, 상호의존적 자기구성개념이 낮은 집단의 경우 정서억제에 따른 관계 만족도 차이가 큰 것으로 밝혀졌다. 즉, 상호의존적 자기구성개념이 낮은 경우 정서억제를 많이 할 수록 낮은 관계 만족도를 보였다. 본 연구 결과는 국외 연구 결과와 상충되었던 기존의 국내 연구결과와 달리 정서억제는 상호의존적 자기구성개념과 상호작용할 때 친밀한 대인관계 만족도에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 검증되었다는 의의를 가진다. 연구 결과를 통해 알 수 있는 정서억제가 대인관계에 미치는 영향, 그리고 이 때 자기구성개념의 조절효과에 대한 함의와 함께 연구의 제한점, 후속연구의 필요성 등이 논의되었다. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of emotional suppression on satisfaction in intimate relationships, and to determine the mediating effect of self-construal on the relationship. The effect of emotional suppression on reported degree of relationship satisfaction in participants currently involved in intimate interpersonal relationships was examined (N=100). Emotion suppression did not have a significant direct effect on relationship satisfaction. However, interdependent self-construal was found to have a significant mediating effect. As a result of simple slope analysis, to examine the specific interaction patterns, a significant difference was found in intimate relational satisfaction between participants with low interdependent self-construal and those with high interdependent self-construal. In other words, when individuals reported lower interdependent self-construal and the more they suppressed their emotions in intimate relationships, less relationship satisfaction was reported. Whereas previous studies conducted with Koreans failed to examine the significant effect of emotional suppression on individuals' adjustment, the results of the current study demonstrated the effect of emotional suppression for Koreans. The implications and limitations of this research, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
정서억제가 개인의 신체증상에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 검증하고 이 때에 자기구성개념의 조절효과를 확인하는 것이 이 연구의 목적이다. 성인 한국인(N=201, 여: 148, 남: 53)을 대상으로 실시한 온라인 설문을 통해 정서억제, 신체증상, 자기구성개념을 측정하였다. 그 결과, 정서억제는 신체증상에 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 검증되었는데 높은 정서억제 경향은 신체증상에 부정적인 영향을 주는 것으로 보고되었다. 자기구성개념의 조절효과를 검증한 결과 정서억제와 신체증상과의 관계에서 독립적 자기구성개념의 경우에만 유의한 조절효과가 검증되었다. 단술기울기 검증(slope analysis)을 통해 상호작용의 양상을 살펴 본 결과, 독립적 자기구성개념이 평균에서 1 표준편차 이상 높은 경우에만 조절효과가 유의했다. 이는 독립적 자기구성개념이 높은 사람들의 경우에만, 정서억제를 할수록 더 많은 신체증상을 보고하는 것을 의미한다. 이 연구 결과는 정서억제에 대해 일관되지 않던 기존의 국내 연구결과와 달리, 한국인도 정서를 억제할수록 신체적 건강에 부정적인 영향을 미침을 검증하였고, 특히 이 때 개인이 두드러지게 보이는 자기구성개념의 종류나 그 패턴에 따라 정서억제가 신체적 건강에 미치는 영향력이 달라질 수 있음을 검증하였다는 의의가 있다. A majority of studies conducted in Western cultures suggest that emotion suppression has a negative effect on physical and psychological health. However, recent studies indicate that such negative effects may differ depending on one's self-construal. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of emotion suppression on physical and depressive symptoms and to determine if self-construal moderates this effect in a community adult sample in Korea. Results demonstrated that emotion suppression significantly affected participants' physical as well as depressive symptoms. Independent self-construal showed a significant moderating effect only on the relationship between emotion suppression and physical symptoms. Whereas previous studies conducted with Koreans failed to examine the significant effect of emotion suppression on individuals' adjustment, the results of this study demonstrated the effects of emotion suppression in Koreans. The results highlight the role of independent self-construal in explaining the effect of emotion suppression on physical health.
Objective: Endometriosis is correlated with various cancers. However, the risk of cancer has not been established in a nationwide, population-based cohort of patients newly diagnosed with endometriosis. Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study was performed using claims database of the Korean National Health Insurance from January 2008 to December 2018. Patients diagnosed with endometriosis between 2010 and 2013 were included; those who underwent appendectomy but were not diagnosed with endometriosis during the study period served as controls. None of these participants had been diagnosed with cancer prior to enrollment. ICD-10 cancer diagnoses were compared between these groups. Results: A total of 179,865 patients with endometriosis and 87,408 controls were analyzed, and the incidence rates of cancer were 644.3 and 543.8 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, patients with endometriosis had a significantly increased overall risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.281.40; P < 0.001) after adjustment for age, insurance type, and comorbidities. They showed significantly increased risk of uterine (HR, 4.59; 95% CI, 3.565.91; P < 0.001), ovarian (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.993.16; P < 0.001), cervical (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.492.28; P < 0.001), breast (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.311.58; P < 0.001), and thyroid (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.241.45; P < 0.001) cancers. The median age at diagnosis was <50 years for all cancer types. Conclusion: Endometriosis was correlated with an increased risk of cancer, specifically uterine, ovarian, cervical, breast, and thyroid cancers. Patients with endometriosis should begin cancer screening early.
목적: To reduce toxicities of cisplatin-based intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, cisplatin was substituted with carboplatin. We compared toxicities and long term survival outcomes of carboplatin- and cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. 방법: We conducted a retrospective study of patients receiving carboplatin-based (n=21, IP carboplatin AUC 5 on Day 1, IV paclitaxel 175mg/m2 on Day 2, and IP paclitaxel 60mg/m2 on Day 8) and cisplatin-based IP chemotherapy (n=16, IV paclitaxel 135mg/m2 on Day 1, IP cisplatin 100mg/m2 on Day 2, and IP paclitaxel 60mg/m2 on Day 8) after primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at Severance Hospital between Jan 2006 and Jun 2009. Toxicity data in a total of 210 cycles of IP chemotherapy were analyzed and survival data in each group was compared. 결과: There was significantly more grade 3 granulocytopenia (56.2%vs23.8%, p=0.044) and leukopenia (62.5%vs23.8%, p=0.018) in the IP cisplatin group. Patients treated with cisplatin based IP chemotherapy were more likely to suffer from chemotherapy related grade 2 or 3 nausea/vomiting (75.0%vs19.0%, p=0.001), abdominal pain (62.5%vs23.8%, p=0.018), hepatotoxicity (43.8%vs9.5%, p=0.016) and neuromuscular effects (56.2%vs19.0%, p=0.019). The proportion of patients who received 6 or more cycles in carboplatin based IP chemotherapy group was significantly higher than that in cisplatin based IP chemotherapy group (82.4%vs50.0%, p=0.049). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with FIGO stage 3, 4 were 19 and 50 in carboplatin group and 22 and 90 in cisplatin group. We found no significant between-group differences in PFS and OS (p=0.249 and 0.252). 결론: Carboplatin based IP chemotherapy is an acceptable alternative to cisplatin based IP chemotherapy for EOC. With the potential advantages of carboplatin based IP chemotherapy in the view of toxicity, carboplatin based IP chemotherapy may have an impact on the therapeutic strategy of EOC.
Objective: To evaluate the role of adjuvant surgical procedures in the management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Methods: In a retrospective review of medical records at the Severance Hospital, we identified 174 patients diagnosed with GTN between 1986 and 2006. Of the 174 patients, 129 (74%) were assigned to the nonmetastatic group, and 45 (26%) to the metastatic group; of the metastatic group patients, 6 were in the low-risk group and 39 were in the high-risk group. Thirtytwo patients underwent 35 surgical procedures as part of the GTN treatment. The procedures included hysterectomy, lung resection, craniotomy, uterine wedge resection, uterine suturing for bleeding, salpingo-oophorectomy, pretherapy dilatation and curettage, adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, and uterine artery embolization. Results: Of the 32 patients who underwent surgical procedures, 28 (87%) survived. Eleven patients underwent surgery for chemoresistant disease after receiving one or more chemotherapy regimens. Twelve patients underwent procedures to control tumor hemorrhage. Nine (81%) of 11 patients with chemoresistant disease survived, and 8 patients who underwent salvage surgery for chemoresistant disease received further chemotherapy. Of 21 patients who underwent hysterectomy, 19 (90%) achieved remission. All of three patients who had resistant foci of choriocarcinoma in the lung achieved remission through pulmonary resection. Conclusion: Adjuvant surgical procedures, especially hysterectomy and pulmonary resection for chemoresistant disease, as well as procedures to control hemorrhage, are pivotal in the management of GTN.