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Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy postmenopausal women to BMD in type 2 diabetic hypertensive postmenopausal women with hyperlipidemia. Methods: Fifty type 2 diabetic and hypertensive postmenopausal women with hyperlipidemia and 51 age and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy postmenopausal women were included. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were noted in both groups. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium and phosphorous were also measured. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to establish the relationship between various clinical characteristics. Results: There were no significant differences between two groups in respect to lumbar and vertebral BMD values, age, BMI, gravidity, parity. Serum cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were significantly different between each groups (P = 0.0001, P = 0.002). Conclusion: We found that, accompanying chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia don't affect the BMD measurements at postmenopausal period. So these postmenopausal women don't have excess risk regarding osteoporosis. (J Menopausal Med 2015;21:36-40)
In this study, Ni and Co-gahnite pigments were produced from Al2O3 powder and ZnO powder obtained from industrial metal slags. Different pigment compositions were prepared by adding metal oxides (NiO or Co3O4) and mineralisers (NaF, CaF2 or Li2CO3). Pigments were calcined in an electric furnace at 1300, 1400 and 1450 oC for 4 h at a heating rate of 2 K·minute−1. The pigment powders obtained were added to a transparent ceramic glaze and to porcelainised tile bodies. The pigment colours were determined using L*a*b* measurements from a spectrometer. On one hand, the results show that Ni-gahnite pigment is not useful for industrial applications because it has poor colour intensities and stabilities. On the other hand, our results also show that Co-gahnite pigments can be produced using ZnO from industrial metal slags, and that they have an intense blue colour.
PURPOSE. This study evaluated the adhesion to acrylic resin specimens and biofilm formation capability of Candida albicans strains isolated from HIV positive subjects'oral rinse solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The material tested was a heat-cured acrylic resin (Acron Duo). Using the adhesion and crystal violet assays, 14 oral Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive subjects and 2 references Candida strains (C. albicans ATCC 90028 and C. albicans ATCC 90128) were compared for their biofilm production and adhesion properties to acrylic surfaces in vitro. RESULTS. There were no significant differences in adhesion (P=.52) and biofilm formation assays (P=.42) by statistical analysis with Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION. Denture stomatitis and increased prevalence of candidal carriage in HIV infected patients is unlikely to be related to the biofilm formation and adhesion abilities of C. albicans to acrylic resin materials.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the diameter and direction of the plunger and simulation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) affected the stress distribution in endodontically treated premolars. Methods: A fracture strength test was simulated via finite element analysis. A base model was set up, and the following parameters were modified: plunger diameter (3 mm vs. 6 mm), plunger direction (vertical vs. 135° angular to the central fossa), and PDL simulation. The analysis was conducted using the CosmosWorks structural analysis program, and the results are presented in terms of von Mises stresses. Results: The smaller plunger increased the stresses at the contact area of the crown, but the plunger diameter had no effect on the stress distribution within the root. An angular plunger direction increased stresses within the root, as well as at the buccal cusp of the crown, compared with the vertical direction. Simulation of the PDL caused higher stress accumulation, especially in the cervical region of the root. Conclusions: The plunger diameter had no effect on the stress distribution in the roots, whereas the plunger direction and PDL simulation did affect the stress distribution. More stringent standards can be established by taking such parameters into account when performing fracture testing in future studies.
Objectives To determine the effect of size and insertion depth of irrigation needle on the amount of apical extruded debris and the amount of penetration depth of sealer using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Materials and Methods Twenty maxillary premolars were assigned to 2 groups (n = 10), according to the size of needle tip, 28 G or 30 G. Buccal roots of samples were irrigated with respective needle type inserted 1 mm short of the working length (WL), while palatal roots were irrigated with respective needle type inserted 3 mm short of the WL. Prepared teeth were removed from the pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. Canals were filled with F3 gutta-percha cone and rhodamine B dye-labeled AH 26 sealer. Teeth were transversally sectioned at 1 and 3 mm levels from the apex and observed under a CLSM. Eppendorf tubes were incubated to evaporate the irrigant and were weighed again. The difference between pre- and post-weights was calculated, and statistical evaluation was performed. Results Inserting needles closer to the apex and using needles with wider diameters were associated with significantly more debris extrusion (p < 0.05). The position of needles and level of sections had statistically significant effects on sealer penetration depth (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusions Following preparation, inserting narrower needles compatible with the final apical diameter of the prepared root canal at 3 mm short of WL during final irrigation might prevent debris extrusion and improve sealer penetration in the apical third.
Objectives. To investigate the effect of rhinophototherapy with medical therapy on quality of life in persistent allergic rhinitis. Methods. A prospective, randomized study was being performed between December 2009 and March 2010. The study included65 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive skin tests. All of the patientshad house dust mite allergies. We divided the patients into two groups. First group (n=33) was given topicalmometasone furoate 200 mcg/day and levocetirizine 5 mg/day for a month. Rhinophototherapy was applied withthe same medical therapy to the second group (n=32), twice a week for three weeks continuously. Rhinophototherapyincluded visible light, ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B. We evaluated patients before the treatment, at the first monthand at the third month after treatment with rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scoresand visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Results. Improvements of all variables of the quality of life questionnaire, nasal symptom scores and VAS were statisticallysignificant in the second group both on the first and the third months when compared with the first group. Conclusion. Allergic rhinitis is a social problem and impairs quality of life. Rhinophototherapy with medical therapy improvesthe quality of life in allergic rhinitis.
Objectives: This study compared the ability of several techniques to remove calcium hydroxide (CH) from the root canal and determined the influence of CH residues on the accuracy of the electronic apex locator. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 90 human maxillary lateral incisors with confirmed true working length (TWL) were prepared and filled with CH. The teeth were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups according to the CH removal technique (n = 14): 0.9% saline; 0.9% saline + master apical file (MAF); 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA); 17% EDTA + MAF; 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 5.25% NaOCl + MAF. Six teeth were used as negative control. After CH removal, the electronic working length was measured using Root-ZX (Morita Corp.) and compared with TWL to evaluate Root-ZX accuracy. All specimens were sectioned longitudinally, and the area of remaining CH (CH) and total canal area were measured using imaging software. Results: The EDTA + MAF and NaOCl + MAF groups showed better CH removal than other groups (p < 0.05). Root- ZX reliability to prevent overestimated working length to be > 85% within a tolerance of ± 1.0 mm (p < 0.05). There was strong negative correlation between amount of CH residues and EAL accuracy (r = -0.800 for ± 0.5 mm; r = -0.940 for ± 1.0 mm). Conclusions: The mechanical instrumentation improves the CH removal of irrigation solutions although none of the techniques removed the dressing completely. Residues of CH medication in root canals affected the accuracy of Root-ZX adversely.
Objectives: Breast density increases the risk of breast cancer, but also in the interpretation of mammography is also important. This study examine the risk factors affecting breast density in postmenopausal women. Methods: Between January 2013 and January 2014, 215 patients admitted to The Clinics of Gynecology and Obstetrics with complaints of menopause were taken. According to the results of mammography, Group I (non-dense, n = 175) and Group II (dense, n = 40) were created. The informations of the caseswere analyzed retrospectively. Results: In Group I, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, parity were significantly higher than group II (P < 0.05). In group II, the withdrawal period of menstruation and progesterone levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, BMI for dense breasts and number of pregnancies were found to be an independent risk factor (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increased BMI, pregnancy and parity, result of reduction in density , but longer duration of menopause and increased progesterone cause an increase in density. BMI and the number of pregnancy was found to be independent risk factors for reducing breast density. (J Menopausal Med 2015;21:82-88)
The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococci and Streptococci were assessed from subclinical mastitis cases. One hundred Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and 34 Streptoccocci were identified. The most frequently isolated species were Staphylococcus haemolyticus (27%) and Staphylococcus simulans (24%). Susceptible CNS species revealed the highest resistance to penicillin G (58%), ampicillin (48%), neomycin (20%), and oleandomycin (14%). CNS methicillin resistance rates within 82 isolates were 21.95% and 1.22% by disk diffusion and PCR methods, respectively. These results suggested the disk diffusion method was more prone to yield false positives. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA region from the mecA carrying isolate (S. haemolyticus) was homologous with S. haemolyticus sequences/accessions obtained from GenBank. However, the mecA gene sequence from this isolate was more closely allied with the S. aureus mecA gene of human origins. Identical sequence data was acquired from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, suggesting horizontal gene transfer between the two species. CNS β-lactamase activity within 81 isolates was 29.63%. The most frequently isolated Streptococcus species were S. uberis (52%) and S. agalactiae (15%). Oleandomycin was the least effective antimicrobial agent on these isolates with 59% susceptibility. Results indicated that CNS and Streptococci exhibited various antimicrobial resistance responses. Consequently, isolation and identification of udder pathogens in herds suffering from subclinical agents is essential to select the most effective antimicrobial agent. Moreover, multiple resistance features of methicillin resistant (MR) isolates should be considered during antimicrobial susceptibility tests.
For analytic functions f(z) in the open unit disc D, an operator Nα(f(z)) relating with starlike functions is introduced. The object of the present paper is to discuss some properties of the operator Nα(f(z)). For analytic functions f(z) in the open unit disc D, an operator Nα(f(z)) relating with starlike functions is introduced. The object of the present paper is to discuss some properties of the operator Nα(f(z)).