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      • The association between insulin resistance and depression in the Korean general population

        Lee, Jae-Hon,Park, Sung Keun,Ryoo, Jae-Hong,Oh, Chang-Mo,Mansur, Rodrigo B.,Alfonsi, Jeffrey E.,Cha, Danielle S.,Lee, Yena,McIntyre, Roger S.,Jung, Ju Young Elsevier 2017 Journal of affective disorders Vol.208 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P><B>Background</B></P> <P>Previous studies showed that the insulin resistance (IR) could be related to depression. However, this association is still equivocal in the general population. Herein, we aimed to investigate the association between IR and depressive symptoms in a large sample in South Korea.</P> <P><B>Methods</B></P> <P>A cross-sectional study was carried out for 165,443 Korean men and women who received a health checkup including various clinical parameters and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales (CES-D). Subjects were stratified into subgroups by CES-D score, sex, age, and presence of diabetes. The odd ratios (ORs) for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were compared between groups using multivariable logistic regression analyses.</P> <P><B>Results</B></P> <P>After adjusting covariates (e.g. smoking, family income, marriage state, unemployment status, average alcohol use, BMI, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, diabetes), increased IR was weakly associated with greater depressive symptoms (adjusted OR=1.01 [95% CI 1.0001–1.03]). Subgroup analysis revealed this association was statistically significant in females (adjusted OR=1.03, [95% CI 1.001–1.06]), non-diabetic group (adjusted OR=1.04, [95% CI 1.02–1.06]), and young participants under the age of thirty (adjusted OR=1.17, [95% CI 1.07–1.27]). But we couldn’t find significant association in diabetic and middle to elderly participants.</P> <P><B>Conclusions</B></P> <P>This study demonstrates that there is a relationship between IR and depressive symptoms in the Korean general population. Results from this epidemiological study revealed that young adults and non-diabetic individuals with increased IR may be related with depressive symptoms.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Increased insulin resistance was associated with depressive symptoms in the Korean general population (N=165,443). </LI> <LI> The subgroup analysis revealed the association was statistically significant in female, non-diabetic and young groups. </LI> <LI> Increased insulin resistance in non-diabetic participants was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms. </LI> <LI> These findings suggest that early management of insulin resistance may prevent progression toward depressive symptoms. </LI> </UL> </P>

      • NMR study of hydrogen exchange during the B-Z transition of a DNA duplex induced by the Zα domains of yatapoxvirus E3L

        Lee, E.H.,Seo, Y.J.,Ahn, H.C.,Kang, Y.M.,Kim, H.E.,Lee, Y.M.,Choi, B.S.,Lee, J.H. North-Holland Pub ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2010 FEBS letters Vol.584 No.21

        The Yaba-like disease viruses (YLDV) are members of the Yatapoxvirus family and have double-stranded DNA genomes. The E3L protein, which is essential for pathogenesis in the vaccinia virus, consists of two domains: an N-terminal Z-DNA binding domain and a C-terminal RNA binding domain. The crystal structure of the E3L orthologue of YLDV (yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB>) bound to Z-DNA revealed that the overall structure of yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> and its interaction with Z-DNA are very similar to those of hZα<SUB>ADAR1</SUB>. Here we have performed NMR hydrogen exchange experiments on the complexes between yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> and d(CGCGCG)<SUB>2</SUB> with a variety of protein-to-DNA molar ratios. This study revealed that yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> could efficiently change the B-form helix of the d(CGCGCG)<SUB>2</SUB> to left-handed Z-DNA via the active-mono B-Z transition pathway like hZα<SUB>ADAR1</SUB>1.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Multiple novel H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, South Korea, 2016

        Lee, E.K.,Song, B.M.,Lee, Y.N.,Heo, G.B.,Bae, Y.C.,Joh, S.J.,Park, S.C.,Choi, K.S.,Lee, H.J.,Jang, I.,Kang, M.S.,Jeong, O.M.,Choi, B.K.,Lee, S.M.,Jeong, S.C.,Park, B.K.,Lee, H.S.,Lee, Y.J. Elsevier Science 2017 INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Vol.51 No.-

        <P>We report the identification of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N6, Glade 23.4.4, that presumably originated from China. In addition, reassortant strains with Eurasian lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated in wild birds and poultry in South Korea. The emergence of these novel H5N6 viruses and their circulation among bird populations are of great concern because of the potential for virus dissemination with intercontinental wild bird migration. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Spiral-shaped SU-8 cantilevers for monitoring mechanical response of cardiomyocytes treated with cardiac drugs

        Dai, Y.,Oyunbaatar, N.-E.,Lee, B.-K.,Kim, E.-S.,Lee, D.-W. Elsevier 2018 Sensors and actuators. B Chemical Vol.255 No.3

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>In this paper, a spiral-shaped SU-8 cantilever with biocompatibility was proposed to monitor the changes of cardiac contraction in response to injection of drug in real time. The cantilever comprises a thick quadrate body and a filmy spiral cantilever with micro-grooves and gold patterns on the top of its surface. The longitudinally patterned micro-grooves facilitate the aligned growth of cardiomyocytes in order to increase the contraction force. In addition, the spiral shape increases the cantilever’s effective length and decreases its spring constant, which means its bending displacement can be increased for the same force as compared to that observed in a conventional rectangular cantilever. The bending displacement of the spiral SU-8 cantilever induced by the contraction of cardiomyocytes can be precisely measured at the nanoscale using a homemade laser-based measurement system. The displacement in the spiral SU-8 cantilever without micro-grooves was much greater than that in the case of traditional rectangular SU-8 cantilevers. The displacement produced by the spiral cantilever with grooves is 240% greater than that without grooves. Following preliminary experiments, cardiac drugs including Verapamil, Quinidine, Lidocaine, E-4031, and Bay K 8644 were used to evaluate their side effects on cardiomyocytes. Quantitative analysis of measurements shows that not only Verapamil and Quinidine but also Lidocaine and E-4031 treatment can decrease the cell beating frequency, and both the Verapamil and Lidocaine treatment can decrease the cell contraction force. Furthermore, Bay K 8644 assay results indicate that it can decrease the contraction force and increase the beating frequency of cardiomyocytes.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Spiral cantilever integrated with micro-grooves is proposed for a real time monitoring of cardiac contractibility. </LI> <LI> Home-made measurement system is developed to precisely measure the contractibility of cardiomyocytes at the nanoscale. </LI> <LI> Five different kind of drugs have been employed for the preliminary study of drug-induced cardiac toxicity. </LI> <LI> Spiral cantilever arrays are expected to be applied as a new method to support for the drawbacks of conventional methods. </LI> </UL> </P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        The classical and a non-classical pathways associated with NF-κB are involved in estrogen-medicated regulation of Calbindin-D9k gene in rat pituitary cells

        Lee, G.S.,Choi, K.C.,Han, H.J.,Jeung, E.B. North-Holland 2007 Molecular and cellular endocrinology Vol.277 No.1-2

        Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) is a high affinity calcium binding protein that is highly expressed in the duodenum, kidney, uterus, and pituitary glands. Previous studies have shown that CaBP-9k expression is regulated by several steroid hormones, such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, glucocorticoids, 17β-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4), in a tissue-specific manner. However, the promoter elements that mediate transcriptional regulation by these steroid hormones are not clearly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate cell line expressing CaBP-9k. Recently it was shown that CaBP-9k was constitutively expressed in the rat pituitary gland, and is expressed in an E2-dependent manner in a pituitary gland tumor-derived cell line, GH3. In the current study, we examined the activity of the estrogen responsive element (ERE) in rat CaBP-9k gene in GH3 cells, using a luciferase gene reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and mutagenesis. A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the CaBP-9k promoter region was identified (nucleotides -848 to -834 from the transcriptional start site), and we demonstrated that addition of an NF-κB blocker to GH3 cells reduced E2-induced CaBP-9k transcription. In the present study, we further showed a previously reported imperfect ERE (nucleotides +51 to +65) between exon I and intron A of CaBP-9k, indicating that the interaction of estrogen receptor (ER) α with this region is involved in the regulation of CaBP-9k promoter activity and its expression. Taken together, these results suggest that in GH3 cells, both the classical ERα-ERE pathway and a non-classical pathway involving NF-κB are involved in E2-mediatd regulation of CaBP-9k expression in the pituitary gland.

      • Association of Extracellular Cleavage of E-Cadherin Mediated by MMP-7 with HGF-Induced in vitro Invasion in Human Stomach Cancer Cells

        Lee, K.H.,Choi, E.Y.,Hyun, M.S.,Jang, B.I.,Kim, T.N.,Kim, S.W.,Song, S.K.,Kim, J.H.,Kim, J.-R. S. Karger AG 2007 European surgical research Vol.39 No.4

        <P><I>Background:</I> Proteolytic shedding of the ectodomain of a variety of transmembrane proteins, including cell-to-cell adhesion molecules, has been observed in solid cancers. We have investigated whether extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is involved in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced in vitro invasion in stomach cancer cells. <I>Methods:</I> The effects of HGF on the expression of E-cadherin/β-catenin and MMP-7 at both the protein and mRNA levels were assessed in stomach cancer cells, NUGC-3 and MKN-28, and in cells in which the expression of MMP-7 was downregulated by transfection with a MMP-7 short hairpin RNA plasmid. <I>Results:</I> Treatment with HGF increased the extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and the release of MMP-7 and reduced the level of E-cadherin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HGF treatment repressed the phosphorylation of β-catenin in a Triton-soluble fraction, but enhanced this phosphorylation in a Triton-insoluble fraction. The association of E-cadherin with β-catenin was decreased by HGF treatment in the Triton-soluble fraction. In addition, treatment of MMP-7 short hairpin RNA transfected NUGC-3 cells with HGF resulted in no extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin and also decreased the in vitro cell invasion. <I>Conclusions:</I> These results suggest that incubation with HGF mediated the release of MMP-7, resulting in extracellular cleavage of E-cadherin from stomach cancer cells. This might be a key mechanism in HGF-induced in vitro invasion and metastasis.</P><P>Copyright © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel</P>

      • Silencing of homeobox B9 is associated with down-regulation of CD56 and extrathyroidal extension of tumor in papillary thyroid carcinoma

        Kim, J.H.,Kim, Y.H.,Han, J.H.,Lee, K.B.,Sheen, S.S.,Lee, J.,Soh, E.Y.,Park, T.J. W. B. Saunders Co ; Centrum Philadelphia 2012 Human pathology Vol.43 No.8

        Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid malignancy, and CD56, a neural cell adhesion molecule, is typically down-regulated in almost all cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Homeobox B9 is a transcription factor, belongs to the products of the homeobox transcription factor gene family, and has been known to regulate transcription of CD56 and to promote tumorigenicity and metastasis in some malignancies. In this study, we investigated the expression and relation of homeobox B9 to reduced expression of CD56 in papillary thyroid carcinomas and also a relationship between their expression and clinicopathologic parameters. Therefore, we performed CD56 and homeobox B9 immunohistochemical staining on 72 papillary thyroid carcinomas and Western blotting on 31 papillary thyroid carcinomas. CD56 protein staining revealed that it was reduced or absent in 65 papillary thyroid carcinomas (90.3%) and was related to silencing of homeobox B9 (77.8%) (P = .003). The loss of homeobox B9 expression was associated with extrathyroidal extension (P = .002), pathologic stage of tumor (P = .01), and age older than 45 years (P = .032). However, the CD56 staining did not reveal any significant relationship with clinicopathologic features (P > .05). In conclusion, reduced expression of CD56 is associated with homeobox B9 in papillary thyroid carcinomas. Furthermore, silencing of homeobox B9 is more common in older age and is linked to extrathyroidal extension and advanced pathologic stage of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

      • 간호 전공과 비 간호 전공 여대생의 여성 갱년기에 관한 지식, 태도 및 어머니와 친밀감에 대한 연구

        이다영,이다은,이정원,김봄경,황은주,류정미,김하연,신은지,박혜미,임은지 이화여자대학교 간호과학대학 2015 이화간호학회지 Vol.- No.49

        Purpose: This study investigated the difference of menopausal knowledge, attitude between nursing students and non-nursing students. The relationships of the level of menopausal knowledge and attitude and the level of closeness to mother were investigated. Methods: A correlational descriptive design was used with a convenience sample. The survey was conducted with 206 female college students, 106 nursing and 100 non-nursing students, between September 1 and September 14, 2014. The instruments were the Knowledge of Menopause scale, the Menopausal Attitude Measurement scale, and the Level of Closeness to Mother scale. SPSS v22.0 is used to statistical analysis of descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, correlation and χ2-tests. Results: The difference in menopause knowledge between nursing students and non-nursing students is statistically significant (t=6.085, p<001). Nursing and non-nursing college students’ menopause knowledge had a positive relationship with attitude (r = 0.241, p<001). In closeness to mother, there is no significant difference was shown between nursing and non-nursing college students, even though the levels of menopause knowledge are different (t=1.336, p=.183). Conclusion: Results showed having menopausal knowledge positively influences students’ attitudes about menopause. Educators should develop programs imparting menopausal knowledge for non-nursing college students to increase positive menopausal attitude.

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