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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate ziprasidone plasma concentration, daily dose and clinical efficacy and safety in Han Chinese and Mongolian patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 123 inpatients affected by schizophrenia were recruited from the Mental Health Center of Inner Mongolia in China. Ziprasidone plasma concentration, clinical efficacy and side effects were systematically evaluated at baseline, and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Metabolic measures such as changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides, and cholesterol, were also recorded. Results: 90 patients completed the study. Compared with Han patients, on average, Mongolian patients received a significantly higher ziprasidone dosage for adequate symptom control during the 6-week period and had a lower plasma concentration-to-dose ratio. The Mongolian patients also experienced greater increases in weight and BMI. No significant differences between the two ethnic groups were found in the rate of reduction in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score, Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) total score, FBG, triglycerides, cholesterol or Q-Tc interval. Conclusion: Compared to Han Chinese patients, Mongolian patients appeared to have increased ziprasidone clearance and require higher doses to achieve effective treatment for schizophrenia.
This paper considers the problem of fault estimation and accommodation for a class of switched systems with time-varying delay. An adaptive fault estimation algorithm is proposed to estimate the fault, moreover, constant or time-varying fault can be estimated. Meanwhile, a delay-dependent criteria is obtained with the purpose of reducing the conservatism of the fault estimation algorithm design. On the basis of fault estimation, an observer-based fault tolerant controller is designed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system. Additionally, simulation results are presented to il-lustrate the efficiency of the proposed results.
The global analysis of B ! PP, PV charmless decays with QCD factorization (QCDF) is presented. The predictions of QCDF are in good agreement with experiments. The best tted CKM angle is around 79. The predicted branching ratios of B ! 00, !K+, !+, +K0 etc. are also in good agreement with new data of BaBar and Belle.
In this paper, the problem of actuator fault detection for discrete-time switched systems with outputdisturbance is investigated. By using the descriptor observer method, an H∞ fault detection filter is designed toguarantee that the augmented system is admissible and satisfies a prescribed H∞ performance index. By utilizingswitched Lyapunov function approach, a sufficient condition for the admissible of the augmented system is obtained. Based on the obtained results, a desired fault detection filter can be designed. All the results are formulated in theform of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is proposed to illustrate the effectiveness of the developedmethod.
In order to improve the fault diagnosis theory of switched systems, observer-based method is proposed to deal with the fault diagnosis issue subjected to the parameter uncertainty, unknown process disturbances and unexpected faults. By employing proportional-integral observer (PIO) technique and the average dwell-time (ADT) method, an H∞/H− performance level is considered to ensure the worst case of robustness to the disturbance and sensitivity to the fault simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained fault diagnosis observer can give accurate fault estimation online for the piecewise constant fault. Finally, a two-tank system example is introduced in the end to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.