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The chemical components in plant cuticular wax can be used as markers to estimate the species composition of the diet of grazing animals. In this experiment, composition of the diet of yak on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau was estimated using n-alkane analysis. During the grazing period, samples of whole plants of the species present, plus fecal samples voided by the yak, were collected, air-dried and ground prior to the extraction of cuticular wax n-alkanes. The species composition of the yak diets was estimated by relating fecal alkane contents to those of the plant species, using the ‘EATWHAT’ software package. The results showed that the n-alkane technique can detect the main dietary components selected by yak. The diet consumed by yak contained 33% Kobresia humilis, 67% Stipa aliena in summer pasture; 26% Potentilla anserine, 74% Carex qinghaiensis in autumn pasture; 52% Carex qinghaiensis, 32% Heteropappus bowerii and 16% Saussurea semifasciata in winter pasture and 5% Carex qinghaiensis, 95% Achnatherum splendens in spring pasture. The apparent selection for forbs is likely to be a reason for nutritional constraint of yak inhabiting alpine environments.
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瓷器는 중국 고대의 독창적인 예술의 한 분야 이며 고대인들의 생활수준을 한 단계 업그레이드 시켰을 뿐만 아니라 중국 전통 手工業의 발전을 보여주는 지표이다. 瓷器業은 지속적인 발전을 하였고 宋代에 이르러 한 단계 더 발전을 하였으며 定窯系, 鈞窯系, 磁州窯 등의 窯系가 등장하게 되었다. 定州曲陽을 중심으로한 定窯瓷器는 定窯系를 代表하였고 당시 瓷器製造業이 최고의 수준이었음을 보여준다. 북송시기에 定窯가 성행하였던 주요 이유는 세 가지가 있다. 첫째, 定州에는 자기업이 발전하는데 필요한 원료가 풍부하였다. 둘째, 하북의 邢窯의 영향을 받아 靑銅器鑄造 기술과 邢州窯의 工藝 技術을 바탕으로 하여 覆燒法과 印花, 刻花를 주로 하는 새로운 공예 기술을 창조하였다. 셋째, 唐宋社會變革의 시기에 고대 귀족들이 몰락을 하고 金銀器, 靑銅器 등이 시장에서 퇴출당하고 瓷器가 民間에서 日用品으로 사용되게 되었다. 北宋 末年에 이르러 定瓷를 중심으로 하는 北方b陶瓷器業은 衰落을 하였는데 수많은 원인이 있지만 戰爭으로 인한 쇠락이 가장 큰 원인이고 대량으로 瓷器를 생산 하게 되면서 자기의 원료가 부족하게 되었고 模造品이 시장에 등장하면서 이로 인해 窯瓷器 시장이 위축되게 되었다. 이외에도 北宋後期에 宋 徽宗時期에 통치자들 사이에서 靑器를 많이 사용하였고 白瓷를 중심으로 하는 定瓷는 高級 瓷器 시장에서 퇴출되게 되었다. 定窯系를 중심으로 한 宋代 北方 窯系는 중국 고대 瓷器史에서 南方의 瓷窯와 北方의 金元瓷器業에 큰 영향을 끼쳤으며 다른 나라의 瓷器業에도 많은 영향을 주었다. There are mainly three reasons why Ding kiln reached its heyday in Northern song dynasty: first, Ding kiln had the abound porcelain which were needed in the development of porcelain industry; second, because of the influence of Hebei Xing kiln, as well as on the basis of local bronze casting technology and Xing Zhou kiln craft technology, it made innovation the “inverse burning” as well as new craft like printing and engraved designs; three, it adapted to the social change of Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, after the fall of ancient aristocratic, golden ware, silver ware and bronze ware exited the mainstream market, china became the main commodity of common people, and it suitable for the social needs. But in the end of Northern song dynasty, North china ceramics whose representative is Ding kiln declined gradually. There were many reasons, but the destruction of the war was the most direct factor, while the large quantities of porcelain production caused the exhaustion and shortage of porcelain clay resources and fuel,; at the same time, many similar products of the generic competition compressed the market of Ding kiln; In addition, the ruling circle whose head was Emperor Huizong of Song was favor of Qing porcelain, Ding kiln which mainly produced White porcelain retreated from the top grade of china ceramic market. However, the North ceramics whose representative is Ding kiln in Song Dynasty had an important influence in ancient Chinese porcelain history, which mainly reflected in its influence to the South ceramics and the North Jin Yuan devices.
The arrival of the experience economy has diversified patterns of consumption, especially in tourism. Tourists travel more to seek the pleasure of new feelings, confirmation of their personality and realization of their self-worth. Food is one of the most basic elements of tourism consumption, and plays a pivotal role in tourism activities. Food festivals have in turn become a popular place for tourists to gather, and an area of growing interest among tourism scholars. Despite the growing body of literature dealing with food festivals however, there is limited information available on the measurement of food festival visitor experience. This paper attempts to fill this gap by developing a multiple-item scale to measure food festival visitor experiences. A questionnaire was designed to survey visitors attending the 14th Macau Food Festival. Following the construction procedure suggested by Robert F. DeVellis, an experiential scale was finalized with 20 embedded items in five dimensions: entertainment, food culture, nostalgia, stress relief and healthy diet education. The scale was tested for its internal consistency and validity. The findings provide tourism practitioners with a better understanding of the experiential features of food festivals, and assist them with more effective market segmentation and experiential product development.
최근 지역 문화 발전과 도시 다양성의 맥락에서 각각의 관광지들은 독특한 민속 문화를 발굴하여 관광객의 관심과 방문을 유도하고 있다. 지속 가능한 관광의 일환으로 미식 관광은 명승지 환경을 해치는 건설을 할 필요도 없 고, 지역 주민과 관광객에게 서비스를 제공하기 위한 시설 개선 만하면 되는 장점도 있다. 그러나 기존의 미식 관광은 관광객을 풍속 현장에만 두게 되어 주체 간에 다른 문화적 차이를 넘어 민속 문화의 핵심을 체험할 수 없었다. 본 논문 은 관찰 방법, 융복합 주제 연구 및 사례 연구를 통해 민속 문화를 이해하는데 있어서 푸드 도슨트 가이드 투어의 역할 을 연구하였다. 특히 도슨트 가이드 투어에서 미식 관광이 지속 가능 발전이라는 목표를 잘 달성할 수 있도록 가이드가 관광객들로 하여금 민속 문화의 핵심에 보다 효과적으로 동화되어 체험할 수 있도록 돕는 방법을 연구하였다. Under the background of regional cultural development and cities' diversity, various tourist destinations attract tourists' attention and visit by mining their unique folk culture. As a part of sustainable tourism, gastronomy tourism can provide residents and tourists services only by improving the residents' facilities without damaging the environment. However, the existing gastronomy tourism only makes tourists in the folk scene, and tourists can not overstep the cultural differences caused by intersubjectivity to experience the core of folk culture. This paper attempts to use the observation method, cross-subject study, and case study to study the role of food docent-guided tours in understanding folk culture. Moreover, the docent-guided tour studies how the docent can help tourists go deep into the core of folk culture better to realize the sustainable development goal of gastronomy tourism.
毛奇齡是淸代初年一位學識淵博、著述宏富、成就卓著的經學家。狂?不?、特立獨行的性格特点使得他在經學硏究中往往不受傳統思想的束縛,提出許多發千年之覆的獨到見解。在經學思想上,他倡導“以經解經”、實事求是的治經方法;在學術取向上,他雖然表現出明顯的尊漢抑宋的傾向,但他能勾不拘門戶之見,抑宋而不?漢,講實据,重考證,反對空言說經;他具有不迷信學術權威,積極倡導學術爭鳴,敢于向學術權威挑戰的學術品格和思想。毛奇齡的經學主張基本上都是針對理學的空疏學風而發。毛奇齡“以經解經”、講實据、重考證的學術實踐引導了乾嘉學派的治學方向,也奠定了他在淸代學術史上繼往開來的重要地位 Mao Qiling is a scholar applying himself to Confucianism in the early Qing Dynasty. He has profound knowledge,owns magnificent works, and possesses distinguished achievements. Because of his independence in mind and action, he was not restricted by the old ideas and put forward many original views. In the study of Confucian classics, he stressed on the methods of `interpreting classic by iteelf and seeking truth from facts. In academic preference, he shows obvious proneness to appreciating Han rather than Song,but he does not flatter Han. Mao attaches great importance to the substantial evidence and textual research regardless of other various views, and he fights against talking about Confucianism without foundation. He possesses the distinguished learning morals and thought: he does not have blind faith in authority. Instead, he proclaims and orients the academic argument zealously and he is bold enough to challenge the authority. The Confucian claims of Mao are basically dead against the inane style of study of Neo-Confucianism. Mao leads the Qian-Jia school`s direction of pursuing the studies with his academic practice of being practical & realistic, and unscrambling Confucian with Confucian, which establishes his succeeding vital position.
Ding, Yueyun,Zhu, Shujiao,Wu, Chaodong,Qian, Li,Li, DengTao,Wang, Li,Wan, Yuanlang,Zhang, Wei,Yang, Min,Ding, Jian,Wu, Xudong,Zhang, Xiaodong,Gao, Yafei,Yin, Zongjun Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.7
Objective: Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which encodes a critical protein for cholesterol homeostasis and lipid metabolism in mammals, are involved in cardiometabolic diseases, such as familial hypercholesterolemia in pigs. Whereas microRNAs (miRNAs) can control LDLR regulation, their involvement in circulating cholesterol and lipid levels with respect to cardiometabolic diseases in pigs is unclear. We aimed to identify and analyze LDLR as a potential target gene of SSC-miR-20a. Methods: Bioinformatic analysis predicted that porcine LDLR is a target of SSC-miR-20a. Wild-type and mutant LDLR 3'-untranslated region (UTR) fragments were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into the pGL3-Control vector to construct pGL3 Control LDLR wild-3'-UTR and pGL3 Control LDLR mutant-3'-UTR recombinant plasmids, respectively. An miR-20a expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the porcine premiR-20a-coding sequence between the HindIII and BamHI sites in pMR-mCherry, and constructs were confirmed by sequencing. HEK293T cells were co-transfected with the miR-20a expression or pMR-mCherry control plasmids and constructs harboring the corresponding 3'-UTR, and relative luciferase activity was determined. The relative expression levels of miR-20a and LDLR mRNA and their correlation in terms of expression levels in porcine liver tissue were analyzed using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. Results: Gel electrophoresis and sequencing showed that target gene fragments were successfully cloned, and the three recombinant vectors were successfully constructed. Compared to pMR-mCherry, the miR-20a expression vector significantly inhibited wild-type LDLR3'-UTR-driven (p<0.01), but not mutant LDLR-3'-UTR-driven (p>0.05), luciferase reporter activity. Further, miR-20a and LDLR were expressed at relatively high levels in porcine liver tissues. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that porcine liver miR-20a and LDLR levels were significantly negatively correlated (r = -0.656, p<0.05). Conclusion: LDLR is a potential target of miR-20a, which might directly bind the LDLR 3'-UTR to post-transcriptionally inhibit expression. These results have implications in understanding the pathogenesis and progression of porcine cardiovascular diseases.
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 encoding gene (NRAMP1) plays an important role in immune response against intracellular pathogens. To evaluate the effects of NRAMP1 gene on immune capacity in pigs, tissue expression of NRAMP1 mRNA was observed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the results revealed NRAMP1 expressed widely in nine tissues. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.130 C>T) in exon1 and one SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.657 A>G) in intron1 region of porcine NRAMP1 gene were demonstrated by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis. A further analysis of SNP genotypes associated with immune traits including contain of white blood cell (WBC), granulocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte (MO), rate of cytotoxin in monocyte (MC) and $CD4^-CD8^+$ T lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was carried out in four pig populations including Large White and three Chinese indigenous breeds (Wannan Black, Huai pig and Wei pig). The results showed that the SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.130 C>T) was significantly associated with level of WBC % (p = 0.031), MO% (p = 0.024), MC% (p = 0.013) and $CD4^-CD8^+$ T lymphocyte (p = 0.023). The other SNP (ENSSSCG00000025058: g.657 A>G) was significantly associated with the level of MO% (p = 0.012), MC% (p = 0.019) and $CD4^-CD8^+$ T lymphocyte (p = 0.037). These results indicate that the NRAMP1 gene can be regarded as a molecular marker for genetic selection of disease susceptibility in pig breeding.
People are increasingly demanding to experience realistic behavior of virtual characters in computer games. In this article, we build a computer model for simulating a bicycle rider's behavior in a virtual riding system. A method to calculate the speed of a bicycle rider is proposed to improve the reality in a virtual riding system. In this method, the property of physical energy is introduced, and the bicycle-riding speed is calculated in real time according to the relationship between the rider's physical energy and bicycle-riding speed. Then based on the analysis of the behavior of a cyclist in a real competition, various behaviors of the virtual rider are designed and a behavior-tree for the virtual bicycle rider is constructed accordingly. On the basis of these, a virtual riding system is developed. The experiments results show that our system can simulate the behavior of a virtual bicycle rider, and thus encourage exercise on a stationary bicycle.
Ding, Yueyun,Qian, Li,Wang, Li,Wu, Chaodong,Li, DengTao,Zhang, Xiaodong,Yin, Zongjun,Wang, Yuanlang,Zhang, Wei,Wu, Xudong,Ding, Jian,Yang, Min,Zhang, Liang,Shang, Jinnan,Wang, Chonglong,Gao, Yafei Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2020 Animal Bioscience Vol.33 No.2
Objective: Considering the physiological and clinical importance of leptin receptor (LEPR) in regulating obesity and the fact that porcine LEPR expression is not known to be controlled by lncRNAs and miRNAs, we aim to characterize this gene as a potential target of SSC-miR-323 and the lncRNA TCONS_00010987. Methods: Bioinformatics analyses revealed that lncRNA TCONS_00010987 and LEPR have SSC-miR-323-binding sites and that LEPR might be a target of lncRNA TCONS_00010987 based on cis prediction. Wild-type and mutant TCONS_00010987-target sequence fragments and wild-type and mutant LEPR 3'-UTR fragments were generated and cloned into pmiRRB-REPORT<sup>TM</sup>-Control vectors to construct respective recombinant plasmids. HEK293T cells were co-transfected with the SSC-miR-323 mimics or a negative control with constructs harboring the corresponding binding sites and relative luciferase activities were determined. Tissue expression patterns of lncRNA TCONS_00010987, SSC-miR-323, and LEPR in Anqing six-end-white (AQ, the obese breed) and Large White (LW, the lean breed) pigs were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; backfat expression of LEPR protein was detected by western blotting. Results: Target gene fragments were successfully cloned, and the four recombinant vectors were constructed. Compared to the negative control, SSC-miR-323 mimics significantly inhibited luciferase activity from the wild-type TCONS_00010987-target sequence and wild-type LEPR-3'-UTR (p<0.01 for both) but not from the mutant TCONS_00010987-target sequence and mutant LEPR-3'-UTR (p>0.05 for both). Backfat expression levels of TCONS_00010987 and LEPR in AQ pigs were significantly higher than those in LW pigs (p<0.01), whereas levels of SSC-miR-323 in AQ pigs were significantly lower than those in LW pigs (p<0.05). LEPR protein levels in the backfat tissues of AQ pigs were markedly higher than those in LW pigs (p<0.01). Conclusion: LEPR is a potential target of SSC-miR-323, and TCONS_00010987 might act as a sponge for SSC-miR-323 to regulate LEPR expression.