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Purpose: This study is not a fragmentary study on characteristics of respiratory synergist when breathing, however it was intended to determine the effect of currently available respiratory exercise and to provide basic clinical information through investigation of oxygen demand and respiratory synergist that mobilizes for respiration during application of respiratory exercise. Methods: Experimental group I was selected from second grade of severity classification of GOLD, which has the highest percentage among patients with COPD, and experimental group II was selected from third grade of severity classification as a clinical sampling. After respiration pursing up lips and diaphragm respiration exercise were mediated together for six weeks, activity of respiratory muscles and oxygen saturation were measured and analyzed. Results: In comparison of change of respiratory synergist and oxygen saturation, activity of respiratory synergist in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle showed a meaningful decrease in experimental group I. And, in comparison of change of respiratory synergist and oxygen saturation, activity of respiratory synergist in rectus abdominis muscle showed a meaningful increase in experimental group II. In comparison of change of respiratory synergist and oxygen saturation, activity of respiratory synergist in sternocleidomastoid muscle, scalene muscle, and rectus abdominis muscle showed a meaningful difference between experimental groups. Conclusion: Respiratory synergists work mainly as agonist of chest and upper limbs. Therefore it is very important to lower mobilization of respiratory synergist when breathing. It is considered that a multilateral approach and continued clinical research for improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD will be needed in the future.
Here, a case of a patient with incidental finding of a carcinoid tumor of the ampulla of Vater, who was treated with endoscopic snare papillectomy, is reported. A 62-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to a carcinoid tumor of the ampulla of Vat
( Keun Woo Park ), ( Chang Jin Seo ), ( Dae Young Yun ), ( Min Keun Kim ), ( Byung Seok Kim ), ( Young Seok Han ), ( Hoon Kyu Oh ), ( Chang Hyeong Lee ) 대한간학회 2015 Clinical and Molecular Hepatology(대한간학회지) Vol.21 No.3
Hepatoblastoma usually occurs in children under the age of 2 years, with very few cases reported in adults. We experienced a case of adult hepatoblastoma in a 36-year-old female with chronic hepatitis B . She had experienced sudden onset abdominal pain. Her serum alpha-fetoprotein level was markedly elevated, and abdominal CT showed a 9-cm mass with internal hemorrhage in the right hepatic lobe with hemoperitoneum, so an emergency hepatic central bisectionectomy was performed. The initial histologic examination revealed that the mass mimicked combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma with spindle-cell metaplasia of the cholangiocarcinoma element. Follow-up abdominal CT performed 3 months later showed a 5.5-cm metastatic mass in the left subphrenic area. Laparoscopic splenectomy with mass excision was performed, and hepatoblastoma was confirmed histologically. A histologic re-examination of previously obtained surgical specimens also confirmed the presence of hepatoblastoma. Metastatic hepatoblastoma was found at multiple sites of the abdomen during follow-up, and so chemotherapy with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and vincristine was applied, followed by carboplatin and doxorubicin . Despite surgery and postoperative chemotherapy, she died 12 months after symptom onset. (Clin Mol Hepatol 2015;21:300-308)
During the process of screening for antioxidative effects of natural plants in Korea, by measuring the superoxide quenching activity, methanol extract of the whole plant, Galium verum var. asiaticum (Rubiaceae), was found to show potent antioxidant activity. Subsequent activity-guided fractionation of methanol extract of Galium verum var. asiaticum led to the isolation of five phenolic compounds. Using spectroscopic techniques, the chemical structures were elucidated as: caffeic acid (1), narcissin (2), rutin (3), luteolin-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). These compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Among them, compound 1 showed the most significant riboflavin-originated superoxide and xanthine-originated superoxide quenching activities. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited mild superoxide quenching effects compared with vitamine C.