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고대 중국에서 民은 有德者의 통치로 보호받아야 될 수동적인 존재로서 여겨져 왔다. 그러나 『좌전』이나 『논어』에는 民의 또 다른 면모가 보인다. 民은 통치자의 교화를 기다리는 수동적인 존재가 아니라, 자신의 욕구를 충족시켜 줄 군주를 찾아 나서기도 하고, 불합리한 정책에 적극적으로 대응하기도 하며, 통치자의 다스림을 공고하게 할 수 있는 결정적인 요소인 `신뢰`를 제공하는 존재로서 나타나 있다. 그러므로 본고에서는 수동적 존재로서만 부각되어 왔던 民이 개체적 존재로서 결단을 내리기도 하고, 부당한 정책에 대해서는 적극적으로 대응하는 면모를 밝히고자 하였다. 民의 개체성 양상은 욕구 충족적인 특징을 지녔다. 民은 기본적인 욕구를 충족시켜줄 군주를 찾아 `떠남`으로써 개체성을 표출하였다. 民의 개체성은 春秋時代까지 이어져서 사회전반의 현상에서 불합리한 정책에 직면하였을 때, 民은 일탈하는 행동을 통해 개체성을 표출하게 되었다. 춘추시대는 각 제후국들 간의 전쟁으로 인하여 축성작업이 자주 진행되었고, 民으로부터의 부역을 부과하는 일이 비일비재하였다. 지배층의 과도한 축성작업은 民의 일탈현상을 초래하였다. 民은 과도한 축성작업을 견디지 못하고 도주하기도 하였고, 과도한 부역으로 지친 民은 축성작업을 중단시키기도 하였다. 또한 民은 고된 부역에 자신들을 징발하는 위정자를 풍자하는 노래를 지어 부르기도 하였고, 축성작업 중에 民을 부당하게 대우한 감독관을 죽이기도 하였다. 이로써 보면 축성작업에 동원된 民은 위정자의 부당한 처사에 대해 적극적으로 대응함으로써 개체성을 표출하였음을 알 수 있다. 본고는 西周時代에 태동한 욕구충족적인 民의 개체성이 春秋時代로 이어지면서 부당한 정책에 대응하는 적극적인 양상으로 발전하고, 이러한 民의 개체성 표출은 戰國時代에 이르러 여러 사상가들이 `民`을 국가의 근본으로 인식할 수 있는 계기를 마련해 준 것으로 보고, 그 과정을 밝히는 것을 목적으로 한다. The people in the Ancient China were considered as passive beings to be protected by the rule of a virtuous man. However, we can see another aspect of the people in "Joajun" and "The Analects of Confucius". The people were not passive any more in here. They tried to look for a monarch who could satisfy their desires and rise to unreasonable policies actively rather than wait for edification of the ruler. They were the people providing `confidence` which must be the decisive factor of solid rule of the ruler. Therefore, in this study I tried to clarify another phase of the people who came to a definite decision as individuals and rose to unjust policies actively rather than were passive beings. The aspect of `the individuality` had a characteristic of satisfying their desires. The people expressed the individuality by `leaving` to look for a monarch who could satisfy their basic desires. `The individuality` of the people continued until Chun-chu era and they expressed the individuality through deviation movements when they faced unjust policies throughout the society. In Chun-chu era there were lots of work of building castles due to wars between feudal lords, and therefore the people were forced to work hard very often. Too much work of building castles caused the people to depart from their works. Some people fled from excessive work and others who were bone tired of overwork made the work stopped. Furthermore, the people made songs to satirize statesmen who put in requisition for excessive work and they sometimes killed supervisors who treated them unjustly during the work. Through this fact we can see that the people who were forced to work expressed the individuality by coping with the raw deal of the statesmen actively. Therefore, the individuality of the people satisfying their desires in Suh-Ju era was revealed in Chun-chu era in a way that they were against the unreasonable policies. And the expression of the individuality by the people made many philosophers recognize that `the people` are the foundation of a nation in the age of civil wars.
김시습의 삶을 이해할 수 있는 자료는 다음과 같은 세 군을 형성하고 있다. 첫째, 김시습 자신이 쓴 것으로 <자사진찬(自寫眞贊)>, <동봉육가(東峰六歌)>, <상유양양진정서(上柳襄陽陳情書)> 등이며, 둘째, 홍유손(洪裕孫)의 <제김열경시습문(祭金悅卿時習文)>, 윤춘년(尹春年)의 <매월당서(梅月堂序)> 등. 셋째, 이자(李.)의 <매월당집서(梅月堂集序)>, 이산해(李山海)의 <매월당집서(梅月堂集序)>, 이이의 <김시습전> 등이 그것이다. 이들 자료는 김시습 관련 서로 다른 이해의 시선을 보여준다. 김시습은 낙백(落魄)한 소광한 은자로 자신을 규정한다. 낙백의 원인은 젊은 시절의 좌절과 어긋남 때문이다. 개인적 비극인 박명과 불우, 선(善)의 좌절과 이교(異敎)의 번성이라는 사회적 불합리와 모순 때문이다. 그리고 그런 것이 누적되며 자신은 영원히 화합할 수 없이 어그러졌다고 보았다. 다음으로 홍유손을 비롯한 이들은 김시습을 생이지지(生而知之)한 성인, 자유자재한 대인(大人) 혹은 부처로 이해했다. 이들은 김시습을 천부적 자질을 지닌 초월적 인물로 규정하려 했다. 물론 김시습을 미친 사람이라고 하거나, 색은행괴의 무리에 불과하다고 본 경우도 있다. 이이나 이산해의 김시습 이해는 천부적인 문장가이자 절의를 표방하고 윤기를 붙든 백세의 스승이라는 시선에 바탕한다. 또한 이들은 김시습이 한 때 세상을 등진 것은 비분강개하는 기질 상 어쩔 수 없는 것이라고 보았다. 김시습을 성리학적 의리관으로 분식(粉飾)하여 이해했다. 이런 이해는 하나의 전범(典範)이 되어, 이후 연구자들에게 많은 영향을 끼쳤다. There are three kinds of materials concerning Kim, Si-sup"s life. The first kind of materials are written by Kim Si-sup himself, for examples Jasajinchan(自寫眞贊), Dongbongyukga(東峰六歌), Sangyuyangyangjinjeong-Seo(上柳襄陽陳情書) etc. Second are JeKimyeolgyeongsiup-mun(祭金悅卿時習文) by Hong, Yuson, Maewuoldang-seo(梅月堂序) by Yun, Chun-nyeon etc. Third are Maewuoldangjip-Seo(梅月堂集序) by Lee, Ja, Maewuoldangjip-Seo(梅月堂集序) by Lee, San-Hae and Kimsisup-Jeon(金時習傳) by Lee, Yi etc. These materials shows different aspects of comprehend Kim, Si-sup. Kim prescribed himself as a dejected hermit. Reasons of dejection are a misfortune and sad fate, a frustration caused by social contradictions etc. He experienced these difficulties continuously, and tuned his back on the world at last. He explained himself as a sad and frustrated hermit. The next group of people regarded Kim as a genius like Kong Zi(孔子), a great man(大人) with perfect freedom, and a living Buddha. The Confucian thought Kim as a reborn of Kong Zi, and the Taoist regard him as a freely upright man, and of course, the Buddhist respected him as a spiritually awakened man, a living Buddha. These people tried to comprehend Kim as a mythic person with a transcendent abilities. Of course, there is a group of people who thought Kim as a madness with a odd and strange behaviour. The third group of people, especially Lee, Yi or Lee, San-Hae, understood Kim as a quite and genuine writter and a model man. They gave him a honorible name for adhering Confucian principles. They thought the fact that Kim tuned his back on the world as a inevitable fate because of his righteous wrath. These people"s understanding became a model. The next generations generally comprehend Kim on the basis of this understanding.
In this study, we examine why there exist different legal systems in electronic commerce or online financial trading. When a fraud online transaction occurs and the online customer disputes the transaction, the online customer takes responsibility for the proof of her/his argument in many European countries while in the U.S., the burden of proof lays on the firm. This paper analyzes how these two different legal systems exist and how these can be applied to electronic commerce law. In particular, this paper intends to find the optimal level of e-commerce firms' investment on security and analyzes how security investments can be related to firm's profits and consumer's welfare depending on IT infrastructure and social trust environment. More on, this paper can be contributed to provide guidelines for regulatory framework on ecommerce online transactions and discuss social welfare implications.
This paper proposes a simple current control method without a grid voltage sensor for a rectifier of traction solid-state transformer. The proposed control scheme estimates the phase angle of grid voltage from the fundamental frequency current of the grid. The extracted phase signal is normalized to generate a sinusoidal current reference by adopting a scaling factor to achieve a unity gain. Since the proposed control method operates without the grid voltage sensor for power factor correction (PFC), it offers a cost-effective solution with a simple implementation structure. However, this method cannot guarantee its control performance under weak grid conditions, where the frequency of grid voltage often varies. Thus, the control parameters of the proposed method are discussed and analyzed to minimize performance degradation. To verify the feasibility of the proposed control method, simulations and experiments are carried out on a 2 kW single-phase PFC converter. The proposed method provides as much control performance as the conventional method, which uses the grid voltage sensor.
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Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) accumulate in the leaves of barley during cold acclimation, where they may inhibit ice recrystallization and produce freezing resistance of the plant. Four parental diallel crosses of the barley varieties were used to determine the heritability of AFPs and the relationship between the accumulation level of AFPs and freezing resistance. The concentration of apoplastic proteins in the cold-acclimated leaves was increased in the mean by four-fold over as compared with that of nonacclimated. The diallel cross analyses revealed that the gene of Sacheon 6 was dominant and those of Reno and Dongbori 1 were recessive. The AFPs had high narrow-sense heritabilities. The general combining ability effects of Reno and Dongbori 1 were much higher than the other parents. The bands of 32-kD for GLP, 35-& 28-kD for CLP and 25-, 22- & 16-kD for TLP were observed in the apoplastic extracts from cold-acclimated plants, but there were no clear differences between the parents and Fl hybrids. The concentrations of AFPs were significantly correlated with the degree of freezing resistance, indicating that the concentration of AFPs in the plant is the very important factor for freezing resistance.
Concerns about food safety continue to rise and under this situation, governments of some countries have reinforced their regulations more strictly for food safety. In order to prevent food safety incidents or, at least to minimize the impact, the preparedness is very important. As a consequence of this, traceability system has become an essential tool for food safety. Recently, it requires more prevention-based food safety control system. One of the most generally used systems for food safety control is Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). Both traceability and HACCP systems can be integrated through Electronic Product Code (EPC) Sensor Network technologies which have four value propositions. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of product and process traceability system (P2TS) through the integration of three systems to improve food safety management. The final aim is to find out the added values of the P2TS.
The stereotyping of females and their use as sex objects in advertisements has been a hot topic of research. Advertisers tend to use women as 'decorative' items in various promotional strategies. This study focuses on the nature of female stereotyping in Singapore's television industry. A content analysis of one working week of television commercials was conducted on Singapore's English language channel. The coding technique was derived from works such as Craig (1992) and Furnham and Bihar (1993), while various variables were employed to examine how and in what situations women were portrayed in these commercials. The study revealed that women were depicted in diverse roles―ranging from homemaking and baby-caring to endorsing beauty products and working in offices. However, some degree of sex-stereotyping is still prevalent. The study argues that advertisers should portray men and women in more equal partnerships, since the latter now have to manage the increasing demands imposed by work and family.
The bankruptcy problem is concerned with how to divide the net worth of a bankrupt firm among its creditors. Aumann and Maschler(1985) argue that the Talmud rule is based on the equal-gain principle until mid-point (when the total amount to divide is less than or equal to half of the sum of claims) and the equal-loss principle afterwards. Moreover, it coincides with the nucleolus of the corresponding transferable utility coalitional form game. In this paper, we propose a new rule based on the equal-loss principle until midpoint and the equla-gain principle afterwards. As it turns out, for 2- and 3-person bankruptcy problems, this rule coincides with the random arrival rule, which coincides with the Shapley value of the corresponding transferable utility coalitional form game. However, this relation does not hold for more than 3-person problems.