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        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats

          Chong,Zhi,Zhang,Hai,Zhou,Sun,Sheng,Li,Li,Dan,Sang,Chun,Hua,Zhang,Lu,Jin,Marco,Antonini,Cun,Fa,Zhao 아세아·태평양축산학회 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.4

          Objective: This study investigated the effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle (HF) activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats. Methods: Twenty-four female (non-pregnant) Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats aged 1 to 1.5 years old with similar live weights (mean, 20.36±2.63 kg) were randomly allocated into two groups: a natural daily photoperiod group (NDPP group:10 to 16 h light, n = 12) and a short daily photoperiod group (SDPP group: 7 h light:17 h dark, n = 12). All the goats were housed in individual pens and fed the same diets from May 15 to October 15, 2015. The digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were measured in different months, along with secondary hair follicle (SHF) activity, concentration of melatonin (MEL), and cashmere quality. Results: Although there was no significant difference in the live weights of goats between the SDPP and NDPP groups (p>0.05), the CP digestibility of goats in the SDPP group was significantly increased compared to the NDPP group in July, September, and October (p<0.05). For the DM and NDF digestibility of goats, a significant increase (p<0.05) was found during in September in the SDPP group. Furthermore, compared to the NDPP group, the SHF activity in July, the MEL concentration in July, and the cashmere fiber length and fiber weight in October were significantly increased in the SDPP group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The cashmere production of Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats was increased without obvious deleterious effects on the cashmere fibers in the SDPP group (metabolizable energy, 8.34 MJ/kg; CP, 11.16%; short daily photoperiod, 7 h light:17 h dark).

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Driving shaft fatigue optimization design of W type profile twin-screw pumps

          Zhi-Jie,Liu,Yu-Chong,Zhao,Zhi-Qiang,Gan,Dong-Lin,Hui 대한기계학회 2018 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.32 No.11

          Under changeable pumped medium and working environment, the twin-screw pump is prone to be broken by fatigue failures. A structure optimization design model and method of the driving shaft are presented based on response surface methodology and finite element analysis. In this model, the shaft diameter, chamfering degree and the shaft extension of the power end are selected as optimization variables, the limit values of the variables and maximal normal deformation of the spindle are considered as the constraint conditions, and the minimization of the equivalent alternating stress on the dangerous shaft section is taken as the optimization objective so as to improve the shaft fatigue reliability. The optimization results of a case show that the equivalent alternating stress on the dangerous spindle section reduces by 26.2 %, and the maximal normal deformation decreases by 25.2 % compared with the original design. In addition, the infinite life reliability and fatigue safety factors both meet the design requirements.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

          Zhi,Liu,Xin,Wen,Chong-Zhi,Wang,Wei,Li,Wei-Hua,Huang,Juan,Xia,Chang-Chun,Ruan,Chun-Su,Yuan 고려인삼학회 2020 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.44 No.3

          Background: Amino acids are one of the major constituents in Panax ginseng, including neutral aminoacid, acidic amino acid, and basic amino acid. However, whether these amino acids play a role in ginsenosideconversion during the steaming process has not yet been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, to elucidate the role of amino acids in ginsenoside transformation fromfresh ginseng to red ginseng, an amino acids impregnation pretreatment was applied during thesteaming process at 120 C. Acidic glutamic acid and basic arginine were used for the acid impregnationtreatment during the root steaming. The ginsenosides contents, pH, browning intensity, and free aminoacids contents in untreated and amino acidetreated P. ginseng samples were determined. Results: After 2 h of steaming, the concentration of less polar ginsenosides in glutamic acidetreatedP. ginseng was significantly higher than that in untreated P. ginseng during the steaming process. However,the less polar ginsenosides in arginine-treated P. ginseng increased slightly. Meanwhile, free aminoacids contents in fresh P. ginseng, glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng, and arginine-treated P. ginsengsignificantly decreased during steaming from 0 to 2h. The pH also decreased in P. ginseng samples at hightemperatures. The pH decrease in red ginseng was closely related to the decrease in basic amino acidslevels during the steaming process. Conclusion: Amino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. Theywere the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidatingwhy andhowsteaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside in P. ginseng and also provides an effectiveand green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Ginseng berry polysaccharides on infl ammation-associated colon cancer: inhibiting T-cell differentiation, promoting apoptosis, and enhancing the effects of 5-fl uorouracil

          Chong-Zhi,Wang,Lifei,Hou,Jin-Yi,Wan,Haiqiang,Yao,Jinbin,Yuan,Jinxiang,Zeng,Chan,Woong,Park,Su,Hwan,Kim,Dae,Bang,Seo,Kwang-Soon,Shin,Chun-Feng,Zhang,Lina,Chen,Qi-Hui,Zhang,Zhi,Liu,Clara,Sava-Segal,Chun 고려인삼학회 2020 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.44 No.2

          Background: Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in treating various medical conditions. Chronic gut inflammation is a recognized factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In thisproject, Asian ginseng berry polysaccharide preparations were used to assess their effects on CRC andrelated immune regulation mechanisms. Methods: Ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and purified ginseng berry polysaccharideportion (GBPP) were used to evaluate their activities on human HCT-116 and HT-29 CRC cell proliferation. Interleukin-8 secretion analysis was performed on HT-29 cells. Naive CD4 cell isolation and T-helper celldifferentiation were performed and determined using flow cytometry for Th1 and Treg in addition to cellcycle and apoptotic investigation. Results: GBPE and GBPP significantly inhibited interleukin-8 secretion and cancer cell proliferation,inhibited CD4þIFN-gþ cell (Th1) differentiation, and decreased CD4þFoxP3þ cell (Treg) differentiation. Compared to the GBPE, GBPP showed more potent antiinflammatory activities on the malignant cells. This is consistent with the observation that GBPP can also inhibit Th1-cell differentiation better, suggestingthat it has an important role in antiinflammation, whereas Treg cells hinder the body's immuneresponse against malignancies. Supported by cell cycle and apoptosis data, GBPE and GBPP, at variousdegrees, remarkably enhanced the anticancer activities of 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: Data from this project suggested that Asian ginseng berry potentially has clinical utility inmanaging enteric inflammation and suppressing CRC through immunomodulation mechanisms.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Tri-objective co-evolutionary algorithm and application of suspension parameter design based on lizard behavior bionics

          Song,Chong,Zhi,Zhao,Youqun,Wang,Lu 대한기계학회 2014 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.28 No.12

          Using bionic research based on three types of male side-blotched lizard behavior and multiple survival mechanisms, a co-evolutionaryalgorithm for tri-objective optimization is proposed. This method takes three design objectives as three lizards and maps the design variablesas the lizard population's chromosomes; three types of lizard self-genetic factors are formed from the chromosomes. Based on thesethree types of lizard behavior, the mapping relationship between a self-adaptive function and the three objective functions is established. A new chromosome is made with the optimal genes. Based on a convergence condition, the optimal chromosome is obtained with multigenerationevolution. Considering road surface damage and ride comfort, it sets an acceleration RMS, with the tire's relative dynamicload and suspension's maximum dynamic stroke as multi-objective functions, which establishes the tri-objective optimization model. Thecalculation results show the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

        • Determination of polyphenolic compounds in grape seed extracts using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography

          Wang,,Chong-Zhi,Osinski,,Joachim,Shao,,Zuo-Hui,Basila,,Daniel,Kim,,Stephen,Yuan,,Chun-Su Kyung Hee Oriental Medicine Research Center 2004 Oriental pharmacy and experimental medicine Vol.4 No.4

          Oxidative stress is associated with many kinds of chronic diseases. Antioxidants such as polyphenols are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species. Grape seeds are considered good resources of polyphenols, and grape seed extracts have a very strong antioxidant effect. In the present study, we established a simple gradient reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method to determine polyphenol content from three different grape seed resources. An ODS (2), $150\;{\times}\;3.2\;mm$ column has been employed, and six polyphenols have been determined: gallic acid, protochatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and epicatechin gallate. Catechin and epicatechin were the main polyphenol compounds in all three extracts. The amount of procyanidin B2 was higher in Extract 1 (from a company of China), while Extract 2 (extracted in our lab) and Extract 3 (from a company of USA) contained higher proportions of epicatechin gallate. For the total polyphenol content, Extract 1 was much higher than that of Extract 2 and 3. The results suggest that the dietary dose of grape seed extracts from different resources should be adjusted according to polyphenol content.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Ginseng berry polysaccharides on inflammation-associated colon cancer: inhibiting T-cell differentiation, promoting apoptosis, and enhancing the effects of 5-fluorouracil

          Wang,,Chong-Zhi,Hou,,Lifei,Wan,,Jin-Yi,Yao,,Haiqiang,Yuan,,Jinbin,Zeng,,Jinxiang,Park,,Chan,Woong,Kim,,Su,Hwan,Seo,,Dae,Bang,Shin,,Kwang-Soon,Zhang,,Chun-Feng,Chen,,Lina,Zhang,,Qi-Hui,Liu,,Zhi,Sava-Se The Korean Society of Ginseng 2020 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.44 No.2

          Background: Ginseng is a commonly used herbal medicine in treating various medical conditions. Chronic gut inflammation is a recognized factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this project, Asian ginseng berry polysaccharide preparations were used to assess their effects on CRC and related immune regulation mechanisms. Methods: Ginseng berry polysaccharide extract (GBPE) and purified ginseng berry polysaccharide portion (GBPP) were used to evaluate their activities on human HCT-116 and HT-29 CRC cell proliferation. Interleukin-8 secretion analysis was performed on HT-29 cells. Naive CD4 cell isolation and T-helper cell differentiation were performed and determined using flow cytometry for Th1 and Treg in addition to cell cycle and apoptotic investigation. Results: GBPE and GBPP significantly inhibited interleukin-8 secretion and cancer cell proliferation, inhibited CD4<sup>+</sup>IFN-γ<sup>+</sup> cell (Th1) differentiation, and decreased CD4<sup>+</sup>FoxP3<sup>+</sup> cell (Treg) differentiation. Compared to the GBPE, GBPP showed more potent antiinflammatory activities on the malignant cells. This is consistent with the observation that GBPP can also inhibit Th1-cell differentiation better, suggesting that it has an important role in antiinflammation, whereas Treg cells hinder the body's immune response against malignancies. Supported by cell cycle and apoptosis data, GBPE and GBPP, at various degrees, remarkably enhanced the anticancer activities of 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: Data from this project suggested that Asian ginseng berry potentially has clinical utility in managing enteric inflammation and suppressing CRC through immunomodulation mechanisms.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

          Liu,,Zhi,Wen,,Xin,Wang,,Chong-Zhi,Li,,Wei,Huang,,Wei-Hua,Xia,,Juan,Ruan,,Chang-Chun,Yuan,,Chun-Su The Korean Society of Ginseng 2020 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.44 No.3

          Background: Amino acids are one of the major constituents in Panax ginseng, including neutral amino acid, acidic amino acid, and basic amino acid. However, whether these amino acids play a role in ginsenoside conversion during the steaming process has not yet been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, to elucidate the role of amino acids in ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng, an amino acids impregnation pretreatment was applied during the steaming process at 120℃. Acidic glutamic acid and basic arginine were used for the acid impregnation treatment during the root steaming. The ginsenosides contents, pH, browning intensity, and free amino acids contents in untreated and amino acid-treated P. ginseng samples were determined. Results: After 2 h of steaming, the concentration of less polar ginsenosides in glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng was significantly higher than that in untreated P. ginseng during the steaming process. However, the less polar ginsenosides in arginine-treated P. ginseng increased slightly. Meanwhile, free amino acids contents in fresh P. ginseng, glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng, and arginine-treated P. ginseng significantly decreased during steaming from 0 to 2h. The pH also decreased in P. ginseng samples at high temperatures. The pH decrease in red ginseng was closely related to the decrease in basic amino acids levels during the steaming process. Conclusion: Amino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. They were the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidating why and how steaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside inP. ginseng and also provides an effective and green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats

          Zhang,,Chong,Zhi,Sun,,Hai,Zhou,Li,,Sheng,Li,Sang,,Dan,Zhang,,Chun,Hua,Jin,,Lu,Antonini,,Marco,Zhao,,Cun,Fa Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2019 Animal Bioscience Vol.32 No.4

          Objective: This study investigated the effects of photoperiod on nutrient digestibility, hair follicle (HF) activity and cashmere quality in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats. Methods: Twenty-four female (non-pregnant) Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats aged 1 to 1.5 years old with similar live weights (mean, $20.36{\pm}2.63kg$) were randomly allocated into two groups: a natural daily photoperiod group (NDPP group:10 to 16 h light, n = 12) and a short daily photoperiod group (SDPP group: 7 h light:17 h dark, n = 12). All the goats were housed in individual pens and fed the same diets from May 15 to October 15, 2015. The digestibility of crude protein (CP), dry matter (DM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were measured in different months, along with secondary hair follicle (SHF) activity, concentration of melatonin (MEL), and cashmere quality. Results: Although there was no significant difference in the live weights of goats between the SDPP and NDPP groups (p>0.05), the CP digestibility of goats in the SDPP group was significantly increased compared to the NDPP group in July, September, and October (p<0.05). For the DM and NDF digestibility of goats, a significant increase (p<0.05) was found during in September in the SDPP group. Furthermore, compared to the NDPP group, the SHF activity in July, the MEL concentration in July, and the cashmere fiber length and fiber weight in October were significantly increased in the SDPP group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The cashmere production of Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats was increased without obvious deleterious effects on the cashmere fibers in the SDPP group (metabolizable energy, 8.34 MJ/kg; CP, 11.16%; short daily photoperiod, 7 h light:17 h dark).

        • Correlation Between Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules CD<sub>44</sub> v6 and E-cadherin and Lymphatic Metastasis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

          Su,,Chong-Yu,Li,,Yun-Song,Han,,Yi,Zhou,,Shi-Jie,Liu,,Zhi-Dong Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.5

          Objective: To explore the relationship between expressions of cell adhesion molecules CD44 v6 and E-cadherin (E-cad) and lymphatic metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Eightyseven tissue samples obtained from patients with primary NSCLC were collected in our hospital from Dec., 2007 to Dec., 2012, and the expressions of CD44 v6 and E-cad gene proteins in these samples were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: In the tissue without lymphatic metastasis, the positive expression rate of CD44 v6 was significantly lower, whereas the normal expression rate of E-cad was notably higher than that with lymphatic metastasis (55.6% vs. 78.4%, 47.2% vs. 21.6%), and both differences had statistical significance (P<0.05). Besides, CD44 v6 and E-cad expressions had a significant correlation in the NSCLC tissue with lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusions: The positive expression of CD44 v6 and abnormal expression of E-cad may play a very important role in promoting lymphatic metastasis of NSCLC, with synergistic effect. Hence, detection of CD44 v6 and E-cad expressions is conductive to judging the lymphatic metastasis in NSCLC.

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