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Epilepsy occurs in all age groups with a variety of diseases that alter neuronal function in a specific way. In spite of the development in diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, epileptic patients were treated inappropriately and are often handicapped by the psychosocial consequence of their conditions, The purpose of this study is to provide reference and education to patients and their families. Clinical study via chart review was carried out on 110 patients with seizure who visited outpatient department of neurology and were consulted from other departments, Kon Kuk University Hospital from July, 1990 to August, 1993. The results were as follows : Males were more affected than females in the ratio of 1.89 :1. In their distribution of age, teens were most frequent(38.18%). seizure occured most frequently in the first decade(35.45%). The seizure types were : generalized seizure 86.36%(tonic-clonic 74.54%, tonic 8.18%, clonic 1.82%, atonic0.19%, atypical absence 0.91%) : Partial seizure 13.63%(complex partial 7.27%, secondary generalized6.37%). Causes of seizure were idiopathic(58.18%), trauma(13.63%), developmental(8.18%), cerebrovascular disease(7.27%), etc. The major part of all idiopathic cases had their attack of seizure before 30 years of age and those of symptomatic cases were rather late over age of 30. On EEG, abnormal findings were noted in 66.99%. Abnormal EEG findings were found more commonly in complex partial seizure(71.43%) than generalized seizure(66.67%) and secondary generalized seizure(66.67%). On brain CT scan, abnormal findings were noted 52.94%, and the abnormal findings were found more commonly in complex partial seizure(66.77%) than generalized seizure(54.54%) and secondary generalized seizure(25%). Abnormal brain CT scan findings were noted in 46.67% of normal EEG patients and in 51.52% of abnormal EEG patients. Most frequently used antiepileptic drug was carbamazepine. The serum level of antiepileptic drugs was in therapeutic ranges and clinical effect was good. Epileptic patients can perform daily activities without any handicap if they are properly treated. We should educate the community against the miss-belief about epilepsy.
The HTTP Protocol composed of WWW's client/server model is unconnected and not keep state, so, there is one connection for one request. In this condition, it has no guarantee to memory which is needed in sequential processing, and HTTP Protocol has no choices to transfer the information from client to server's CGI or the information exchange. This paper uses the word 'key' instead of this 'state information'. We studied the key which creates automatically the HTML document for data search hierarchically in WWW environment and to confirm applied this to multimedia order and sale system of agricultural and marine products.
In dieser Arbeit wurde vor allem versucht, den Blick auf zwei Punkte zu richten: Erstens sollte das Forschungsvorhaben, das im Rahmen eines zweija¨hrigen Projekts unter finanzieller Unterstu¨tzung des Koreanischen Research Foundation (KRF) durchgefu¨hrt wurde, in grobem Abriss vorgestellt werden. Zweitens werden die Probleme skizziert, die wa¨hrend der Durchfu¨hrung des Projekts auftauchten, und aus denen sich schließlich unmittelbar einige Verbesserungs- vorschla¨ge ergeben. Das Projekt hatte die Aufgabe, ein auf digitalisierten Daten basierendes Informationssystem u¨ber Deutschland zu erstellen. Das System der Wissenschaftsinformationen, das in der vorliegenden Arbeit vorgestellt wurde, wird beispielsweise aufgrund seiner umfangreichen Informationsdaten dem Fach Germanistik zur weiteren und vertiefenden deutschlandeskundlichen Forschung von großem Nutzen sein. Daru¨ber hinaus aber kommt es auch den Lehrenden zugute, da ihnen dann ein vielseitiges und reichhaltiges Lehrveranstaltungsmaterial als Veranstaltungsthemen zur Verfu¨gung steht. Um ein solches Wissenschaftssystem der Deutschlandforschung zu erstellen und weiter zu entwickeln, wird jedoch nicht nur vie1 Zeit, sondern eine sta¨ndige Aktualisierung der Datenbank no¨tig werden. Um diese Aufgaben zu bewa¨ltigen, sollten mo¨glichst viele Germanisten fu¨r das Projekt zur Verfu¨gung stehen. Zurzeit findet das Internet im privaten und o¨ffentlichen Bereich breite Anwendung wie noch nie zu vor, und diese Tendenz wird sich noch versta¨rken. Forscher suchen und sammeln Informationen anhand des Internets. So nimmt es im Forschungsleben als Forschungswerkzeug einen wichtigen Platz ein. In Zukunft wird sich der Service im Bereich des Netzwerks weiter entwickeln/verbessern. Dies bedeutet fu¨r die Forscher eine Chance im Hinblick auf die Zukunft der Forschung, wenn sie gemeinsam ein wissenschaftliches Kooperationssystem entwickeln, um Wissen unter einander auszutauschen.
목적 : 이 연구는 납점작업자를 대상으로 납점작업으로 유발될 가능성이 높은 눈, 호흡기, 피부 등의 증상호소율 및 노출강도에 따른 관련성을 파악하기위해 수행되었다. 방법 : 연구참가자 146명중 연구목적에 적합한 20명을 제외한 126명을 대상으로 '눈이 가렵고 충혈됨', '코가 가렵거나 파가움', '재채기', '콧물'. '코막힘' , '목이 따끔거림' , '목에 무언가가 걸려있는것 같음' , '갑자기 연속적인 기침을 함' , '운동 시에 다른 사람에 비해 숨이 가쁨', '숨을 쉴 때 쌕쌕하는 소리가 남', '가래가 끓음', '손이나 안면에 가려움을 느낌' , '안면에 여드름이 날' '손이나 안면에 붉은 반점이 남' 등 14가지 증상에 대한 경험유무와 혈중연농도, 납점작업의 건강위험요인에 대한 지식상태 등을 조사하였다. 결과 : 조사된 14가지의 증상 중, '갑자기 연속적인 기침을 함'이 하루 납점시간 4시간 이상인 군아서 4시간 미만인 군보다 유의하게 증상호소율이 높았으며, 다른 증상의 경우 하루 납땜시간에 따라 유의한 결과를 보이지 않았다. 납땜작업의 건강위험요인에 대한 질문에 12.8 %가 플럭스에 의한 건강위험을 지적하였다. 전체 대상자의 평균 혈중연농도는6.05 rg/dL였으며, 히고치는 15.50 rg/dL이었다.결론 : 납땜작업자에게 호흡기 증상의 위험이 높을 가능성이 있으며, 납땜작업의 건강위험에 대한추가적인 연구와 납점작업자들을 대상으로 납점작업에 의해 유발될 수 있는 건강장해에 대한 적극적인교육 및 홍보활동을 필요로 한다. Objectives : This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of ocular, respiratory and skin symptoms among solderers and to investigate the relationship between symptom prevalence and exposure intensity. Methods : We analyzed 126 eligible participants out of a population of 146 male solder-ers who completed the symptom questionnaires. Fourteen symptoms including 'itchy and red eyes', 'itchy or prickly nose', 'sneezing', 'rhinorrhea', 'blocked nose', 'prickly throat', 'foreign body sensation in throat', 'sudden bouts of coughing', 'exertional breathlessness', 'wheezing', 'sputum production', 'itchy face or hands', 'acneiform erup-tions on the face' and 'red spots on the face or hands' were contained. Blood lead levels of all the 126 participants were tested and the participants' own assessments of the health risk of soldering were collected. Results : Of the 14 investigated symptoms, 'sudden bouts of coughing' was significantly more prevalent in solderers who worked 4 hours or more a day than those who worked less than 4 hours a day, as for the other symptoms, there were no significant differences in the prevalences related to daily soldering hours. 2.8% of the solderers considered the risk of flux exposure to be serious. The mean blood lead bevel was 6.05 μg/dL (maximum 15.50 μg/dL). Conclusions : Soldering may increase the risk of respiratory symptoms. Further invert tigations on the hazards of soldering processes are warranted and solderers should be educarted on these hazards.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Objectives : Diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) was applied to explore the difference in regional distribution and extent of white matter (WM) abnormalities in boys with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus boys with comorbid ADHD and tic disorders. Methods : Fifteen boys with ADHD (mean age 9.3 +1.8), 24 ADHD boys with chronic tic disorder or Tourette's disorder(9.9 =b 1.2) and 9 age-, gender-matched controls (9.2 d= 1.8) received DTI assessments. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) maps of WM were compared between groups with a voxel-wise analysis after intersubject registration to MNI space. Results : Bo groups, ADHD group and ADHD with tic disorder group, commonly showed decreased FA than healthy control group in left cerebellar middle peduncle and right frontal lobe, increased FA in right middle occipital WM. In the common areas of left cerebellar middle peduncle and right middle occipital WM, comorbid group showed broader areas of significant FA. The comorbid group also showed increased FA in right cerebellar peduncle, additionally. Conclusion : The findings in ADHD group support previous ADHD hypothesis of the functional abnormalities in corticocerebellar circuit, and suggest that ADHD might have more complicated pathology of neuronal circuit including occipital visual system. The comorbid group showed common areas of overlapping but more extensive abnormalities and also had additional WM abnormalities. ADHD with chronic tic disorders may represent a severe form of ADHD with additional regions of abnormal connectivity.
Background and objectives:A recent study has demonstrated a possible involvement of leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) gene polymorphism in ASA-intolerant asthma (AIA) in a Polish population, while no significances were noted in other populations. To investigate the role of genetic polymorphism in AIA development, we screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the key enzymes involved in arachidonate metabolism, and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) in a larger scale of Korean population with AIA. Materials and methods:93 AIA and 181 ASA-tolerant asthma (ATA) patients, and 123 normal controls (NC) were enrolled. Single base extension method was applied for genotyping of SNPs in 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5, -1708G>A, 21C>T, 270G>A, 1728G>A), ALOX5 activating protein (FLAP, 218A>G), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2, -162C>G, 10T>G, 228G>A), LTC4S (-444A>C), and CYSLTR1 (927T>C). Haplotype analyses for ALOX5 were performed as well. Results:There were no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the SNPs among the three groups (p>0.05). However, the frequency of ALOX5-ht1[G-C-G-A] containing genotype in the AIA group was significantly higher than those of the ATA group (p=0.01, OR =5.0, 95%CI=1.54-17.9) and the normal controls (p=0.03, OR=4.5, 95%CI=1.1-18.4) with a dominant model. Conclusion:These results suggest a lack of association between FLAP, COX2, LTC4S, and CYSLTR1 gene polymorphisms, and AIA phenotype in Korean population. However, a possible involvement of ALOX5-ht1[G-C-G-A] in AIA development was suggested. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 800-9, 2003)
Cephalosporins are the most important β-lactams that induce IgE-mediated reactions. Also, cephalosporins have been known as a causative agent for occupational asthma in pharmaceutical workers. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cephalosporin-induced bronchial asthma in a housewife with no histroy of occupational exposure. We experienced a 30-year old female who had developed shortness of breath, coughing and itching sensation of the skin since 3 years ago whenever she handled drug powder for upper respiratory infections (URI) prescribed for her two sons with bronchial asthma. She had handled drug powder for 7 years because her sons had experienced frequent URI. Skin prick test with cefadroxil (10mg/ml) and cefaclor (10mg/ml) showed positive reactions. Bronchial challenge test with cefadroxil showed immediate asthmatic reaction, and bronchial challenge with cefaclor showed immediate urticaria and angioedema without significant fall in FEV1. We confirmed cefadroxil-induced bronchial asthma sensitized by intermittent inhalation in a non-occupational setting. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 22: 736-41, 2002)
Background : Abalone, which is a member of the shellfish family, can often induce severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals, but there have been only a few studies on its allergenic components. A recent study has identified two major allergens with molecular weights of 38 and 49 kDa in South African abalone. Objectives : The aim of this study is to evaluate skin test prevalence and IgE sensitization to northern disk abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) which is one of the major abalones in this country, and to identify its allergenic components. Methods : Skin prick tests were performed with 62 home-made extracts of domestic foods including abalone, turban shell, triton shell, shrimp etc. in 1,738 patients with various allergic diseases. Serum specific IgE antibodies to abalone were determined by ELISA in 81 positive responders on skin prick tests to abalone extract and 40 non-atopic healthy controls. ELISA inhibition tests were performed to evaluate cross-allergenecity between abalone and other sea fooddturban shell, triton shell, shrimp and house dust mite). Allergenic components of Haliotis discus hannai were identified by SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblot analysis. Results : The positive response rate(A/H ratio≥2+) to abalone on skin prick test was 4.7% in patients with various allergic diseases. Serum specific IgE to abalone was detected in 23 (34.5%) of 67 patients. Serum specific IgE levels to abalone tended to increase according to skin test reactivity without statistical significance(p>0.05). ELISA inhibition tests showed significant dose-dependent inhibitions with addition of turban shell, triton shell and shrimp extracts. IgE immunoblot analysis showed ten allergenic components (33, 37, 40, 60, 63, 71, 76, 86, 92, 111 kDa), of which seven allergens(40, 60, 63, 71, 76, 86, 92 kd) were bound to IgE in more than 50% of the sera tested. Conclusion : The sensitization rate to abalone was 4.7% in allergy patients. Serum specific IgE to abalone was detected by ELISA, and 7 major allergens within abalone were identified. Further studies will be needed to elucidate their clinical significances. (J Asthma Allergy ClinIrnrnuiiol 23: 349-57, 2003)
목적 : DMAC에 노출된 후 집단적으로 발생한 독성 간염 7례보고. 방법 : 2000년 2월 신설된 스판덱스 섬유제조 공장에 근무하는 생산직 근로자 178명중 2000년 2월 부터 8월까지 7명이 간장질환이 발생하였다. 환례들의 나이는 23∼47세였고, 남자 5명, 여자 2명이었다. 이들에 대해 혈액검사, 간 초음파 검사 등의 임상검사와 작업장 조사를 실시하였다. 결과 : 근무 부서는 중합 1명, 방사 1명, 권취 4명, 그리고 포장 1명이며 평균근무기간은 10주였다. 주 호소 증상은 심한 피로감, 어지럼증 및 황달이었고, 검사실 소견상 독성간염의 소견을 보였다. A, B 및 C형 간염 표지자 검사는 모두 음성이었고, 간초음파 소견상 특이 소견이 없었다. 문진 상 알코올 성 간염을 일으킬 정도의 음주력이나 최근 약물 복용력을 가지고 있는 환례는 없었다. 입원 후 보존적인 치료로 모두 급속히 호전되었다. 초기에 발생했던 환례에서 퇴원후 DMAC에 재 노출되어 독성 간염이 재발되었다. 이후 모든 환례들은 퇴원 후 DMAC 비노출 부서로 전환하였고, 퇴원후 지속적인 추적검사에서 간 효소 수치가 완전히 정상화되었고, 정상화되는 기간은 1∼2개월 정도 소요되었다. 결론 : 환례들의 임상증상, 검사결파, 노출력 및 과거력상 DMAC에 의한 독성간염으로 추정된다. Dimethylacetamide is widely used in the production of plasics, resins, synthetic fibers, and gums and in purification and crystallization processes. Inhalation of the vapor or skin absorption of the liquid of dimethylacetamide (DMAC) can cause liver damage. Toxic hepatitis possibly attributable to DMAC exposure occurred in seven works among 178 employees who had worked on a new spandex-fiber production line. A large amount of DMAC is used as a spinning solvent for synthetic fibers in the factory. The patients were aged 23-47 years old and composed of five males and two females. They were involved in the process of polymerization(1 patient), spinning(1), take-up(4) and packaging(1). The mean duration of exposure was 10 weeks. They experienced fatigue, dizziness and jaundice. The patients showed elavated total bilirubln, alanlne aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The serologic test for viral hepatitis A, B and C were negative, as were the abdominal ultrasonographic scans. Based on the presumptive diagnosis of DMAC-induced toxic hepatitis, they were removed from the workplaces. One or two months after removal from the work, the transaminase levels returned to normal. The patients had no history of significant alcohol use, blood transfusion, recent medication, and drug abuse. As a result, authors could not find any attributable cause of toxic hepatitis but the toxicity by DMAC exposure.
Cephalosporines are the most important β-lactams inducing IgE-mediated reactions such as urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. There have been a few reports that describes assays of serum specific IgE for cephalosporins. We experienced a case of cefaclor-induced anaphylaxis and detected serum specific IgE to cefaclor-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugate. A 40-year old man was hospitalized due to sudden dyspnea, generalized urticaria, facial edema 30 minutes after taking cefaclor (250mg, PO) for an upper respiratory infection. His systolic blood pressure dropped to 50 mmHg at admission. He had been treated with cefaclor for chronic osteomyelitis of the right heel for 1 year without adverse reactions. He had no personal or family history of allergic diseases nor penicillin hypersensitivity. Skin prick test with cefaclor showed a positive response and serum specific IgE to cefaclor-HSA conjugate was detected by ELISA. ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions with additions of cefaclor-HSA conjugate and cefaclor in a dose- dependent manner. In conclusion, we confirmed that cefaclor-induced anaphylaxis in this patient was an IgE- (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 414-9, mediated reaction to cefaclor-HSA conjugate. 2003)