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Gemcitabine is used in the treatment of several solid tumors as one of anticancer nucleoside analogues and is necessary to administer high doses to achieve the desired therapeutic response. However, this treatment may be related to severe side effects. For improvement of the encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine for gemcitabine-loaded nanoparticle composed of biodegradable polymer and reducing the side effects due to the high concentration of gemcitabine, we formulated gemcitabine- loaded PLGA particles using chitosan and different type of surfactant. The gemcitabine-loaded particles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effects of surfactants to modify the size of gemcitabine-loaded particles were different. The mean diameters of gemcitabine-loaded particles ranged from 400.8 nm to 1712.7 nm. The surface charge of gemcitabine particles was − 5.62 mV to 1.46 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine-loaded particles was found to be 29.56–34.38%. Interestingly, the addition of surfactant could be improved an encapsulation efficiency of gemcitabine.
Cheong‑Weon Cho,Gi‑Ho Son,Hye‑Jin Lee,Young‑Guk Na,Hong‑Ki Lee,Sung‑Jin Kim,Hyun‑Wook Huh,Kyung‑Tae Kim,Jong‑Seong Kang,Young‑Ho Kim,Chang‑Seon Myung,Min‑Ho Yoon,Seok Jin Kim,Hyun So Cho,Jae‑Young Lee 한국약제학회 2019 Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation Vol.49 No.6
It has reported that Morus alba has properties to treat fever, protect liver damage, improve eyesight, strengthen the joint, facilitate discharge of urine, and prevent high blood pressure. Extracts from herbal plants, have hygroscopic and low flowability characteristics. Due to these properties, it is difficult to develop the formulation using herbal extracts in pharmaceutics. In this study, Morus alba leaf extract (MLE) was fermented by Viscozyme ® (MLE-V) and Pectinex ® (MLE-P) as well as non-fermented MLE (MLE-C). Physicochemical properties of MLEs were evaluated for optimization of formulation. As a result, cell viability was higher MLE-V than MLE-P, although there was no difference in flowability depending on the enzyme type. Based on the pre-formulation study, MLE-V was selected. Wet granulation method was used to overcome the poor flowability of MLE and MLE tablet was developed by statistical-based experimental design method. A Box-Behnken design, one of the models of experimental design, was constructed using lactose content in lactose plus microcrystalline cellulose (X1), disintegration agent (X2), and binding agent (X3). The dependent variables were hardness (Y1), friability (Y2), and disintegration time (Y3). Finally, MLE tablet with hardness (11.83 ± 0.36 Kp), friability (0.26 ± 0.01%) and disintegration time (1395.56 ± 49.84 s) were optimized. This is the first work to report the formulation design using herbal extracts fermented with enzyme through quality by design.
<최척전(崔陟傳)>은 명종 말년에 태어나 선조·광해군·인조 대에 정치 활동을 했던 조위한(趙緯韓;1567~1649)이 1621년에 창작한 작품이다. 조위한은 현곡(玄谷), 또는 소옹(素翁)이란 호로 불렸으며 당쟁과 잦은 전란으로 인해 치열한 삶을 살았다. 이러한 질곡의 삶은 작품에 고스란히 응집되어 표현되었다. 조위한은 임진왜란을 직접 경험하였다. 그는 전란 중에 어머니와 아내, 어린 딸을 잃었다. 심지어 신혼 생활 중이던 동생의 처까지 순절하는 것을 보았다. 이산의 체험뿐 아니라 의병이 되어 왜적을 물리치는 일에도 참여하고, 또 명나라 군사들과도 교우하며 전장에서 몸으로 고통과 맞섰다. 약탈로 인한 빈곤과 기아, 포로와 이산, 여성 문제 등은 비단 현곡만이 아닌 조선의 모든 백성에게 상처로 남았다. 현실의 상처는 <최척전>에 그대로 표현되었다. 최척과 가족은 전쟁의 화를 피하기 위해 장소를 불문하고 피난생활을 하며 만남과 이별을 반복한다. 이들은 조선과 중국, 해상 등을 오가며 가족, 조선인, 타국인에 이르기까지 많은 사람들을 만난다. 이러한 만남의 양상은 사건의 도화선이 되기도 하고, 위기를 해결하는 실마리가 되기도 한다. 이에 본 논문에서는 조위한이 전란 경험을 바탕으로 창작한 <최척전>에 나타나는 이합(離合)에 주목하여 논의하였다. 먼저 2장에서는 조위한의 생애를 통해 그의 삶에 나타나는 사별(死別)과 별리(別離)의 정서를 살폈다. 3장에서는 작품의 다중구조를 통해 중첩된 이합(離合)의 양상을 분석하고, 이를 통해 작가의식을 읽어보았다. 4장에서는 <최척전>에 나타나는 이합의 문학사적 의미를 확인하였다. 작품의 이해를 높이고 그 안에 담겨 있는 작자의 의식을 읽어 내기 위해 본 논문에서 시도한 이합의 의미를 살피는 작업은 적절한 시도였다고 생각한다. 또한 조위한의 <최척전>은 임진왜란을 배경으로 주인공인 최척과 옥영의 만남과 이별, 전쟁으로 인한 가족의 이산, 민중의 고단한 삶의 여정 등을 복합적으로 그려낸 작품임을 확인할 수 있었다. Multiple-structured pattern and the meaning of meeting and separation described in Choicheok-jeon Kim, Cheong-Ah Choicheok-jeon is written by Wui-han, Jo(1567~1649) in 1621 who was born in latter years of Myeonjong`s ruling and had engaged in politic activities through Seonjo, Gwangheagun, and Injo`s ruling. His pen name was Hyeon-gok or So-ong. He had lived fiercely going through party strife and wars whose harsh experience is reflected in his book condensedly. Wui-han, Jo experienced Imjin War in which he lost his mother, wife and young daughter. Even, he had to watch his sister-in-law dying for her chastity. In addition to losing his family, he joined the volunteered civilian army and fought against Japanese enemies in battle fields together with allied troops of dynasty Meng. Poverty, famine, POW, separated families, and women`s issues from being looted at war are left as pain in all Chosun people`s mind. The pain in real life is reflected in Choicheok-jeon. Choicheok and his family were separated and back together repeatedly fleeing from the war. They encountered their family members, Chosun people, and people from the other countries while wandering everywhere from Chosun to China. Those kinds of meeting sometimes became triggers of special events or clues of resolution for them. Therefore, this thesis is mainly focusing on meeting and separation described in Choicheok-jeon written by Wui-han, Jo based on his experience of the war. First of all, In chapter 2, the sentiment of separation by death and parting in his life are spotlighted. Also, the pattern of overlapped meeting and separation is analyzed through the multiple structures in chapter 3. Furthermore, it enablesus to read the writer`s idea. Finally, the literary-historical meaning of meeting and separation described in Choicheok-jeon is verified in chapter 4. The attempt to study the meaning of meeting and separation in order to understand writer`s idea is believed to be an appropriate trial. It is concluded that Choicheok-jeon describes the meeting and separation between Choicheok and Okyoung, family separation at the war and people`s tough lives from multiple points of view during Imjin War.
The various types of home life and organization should be based on the "life consciousness", in which the compllicated essential problems. an individual, home life, techniques of living, and the convinced judgement of discriminating fact from other - got entangled together. Modern women, differently from the ancient, should not so much feel inclined to cultivate the technical field of domestic life as try to study something about development and improvement of living, both material and spiritual. From now on, wives should not be fixed only at home. They as an essential member fo a family, a community and a world, should apply themselves to natural, social and cultural circumstances. The subject of this study is sampled from four hundred parents at four elementary school in Seoul and Cheong-ju city. The reason of sampling two cities, obiously contrasted between two cities, is aimed to study and compare the different view of "living consciousness" between two cities: Cheong-ju is still conservative, and underdeveloped country, far from being contacted with big city; Seoul is a swiftly developed city in the view of "living consciousness". The study didn't cover the whole field of academic investigation of home life -"living consciousness". I could find out sevral points of problem necessary more or less for reference of women's education. Several points of problem discussed here as follow. 1. The various manners at home lite should be simplified. 2. A certain level of the scientific, living manners can be maintained at every home, if the economic problems can be rendered availlable. 3. There is a bright margin that the problem of family planning can be solved brightly by men's cooperation based on the constructive thinking. 5. The majority of women want to have the system of a "nucleus family", intentionally or uninteutionally. 6. The ceremony of marriage & funeral service ahould positively be simplified. 7. It is emphasised that we should cooperate to develop a community. The definite "living consciousness" listed here should be firmly established in the mind of wives living in a large or small cities to perform successfully the works of modernizing our country. In this study, I pointed out there are many a field to be improved on the view of domestic research.