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陳尙義 해적집단은 “四口通商의 시대”가 시작된 이래 廣東에서 출발하여 중국 동부 연해 전체에 걸쳐 활동했으며, 특히 조선과 가까운 遼東과 山東연해에서 활동한 해적들이었다. 조선에서는 이 해적집단의 존재를 파악하기 전부터 이미 중국 동부 연해에 나타나는 해적에 대해 상당한 관심을 가지고 관련 정보를 모으고 있었다. 따라서 연행사의 정보수집 활동을 통해서 陳尙義 해적집단을 알게 된 것은 결코 우연이 아니었다. 그 이후로도 이 해적집단에 대해서 지속적인 관심을 가졌으며, 그들이 재차 소요를 일으켰다는 정보도 입수하였다. 조선연행사는 陳尙義 해적집단 관련 정보 수집활동에서 주로 현지인 탐문을 진행하거나 청조의 공문서를 구입하거나 필사하는 등 방법을 활용하였다. 그리하여 조선 측 사료, 특히 연행록에는 陳尙義 해적집단과 관련된 기사가 다수실리게 되었다. 조선연행사에 의해 수집된 題本, 塘報와 같은 일부 청조 공문서는 그 眞僞를 더 검토해야 하지만 현재 중국에도 남아 있지 않는 희귀한 자료로서 그 나름의 가치를 지니고 있다. 조선연행사들의 관련 정보 수집활동 사례를 분석하는 것은 중국에서 발생한 특정 사건에 대한 조선사절단의 정보수집활동의 전모를 밝힐 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 조선 측 사료에 실린 중국 기록의 가치를 역시 잘 보여줄 수 있다고 본다. Chen-Shangyi (陳尙義) pirates group rose from Guangdong Province in 168 4,the times of Four Port Trade System, and then expanded to the whole eastern coast with frequent activities covering Liaodong and Shandong, near Korea. The Joseon government had already got substantial information on pirates` rampancy on Chinese eastern coast before overhearing Chen-Shangyi pirates group through Joseon Emissaries` information collection. After that the government kept an eye on this pirate group and got the news of their rebellion again. Joseon Emissaries` obtained the information of Chen-Shangyi pirates group` activities mainly by inquiring local people as well as buying and copying Qing`s official documents, hence Korean historical documents, especially the Records of Trips to Beijing (燕行錄) include a lot of information on Chen-Shangyi pirates group. Although it is still need to recheck the facticity of Qing`s official documents such as Ti-Ben (題本) and Tang-Bao (塘報), these precious Korean documents that no longer exist in China have unique value. Through analyzing Joseon Emissaries` intelligence gathering of Chen-Shangyi pirates group, one can get a full view of Joseon Emissaries` process of intelligence gathering on China, and realize the value of the records relating to China in Korean historical documents.
Ratcheting deformation of pressurized Z2CND18.12N stainless steel 90° elbow pipe with local wall thinning subjected to constant internal pressure and reversed bending was studied using finite element analysis. Chen-Jiao-Kim (CJK) kinematic hardening model, which was used to simulate ratcheting behavior of pressurized 90° elbow pipe with local wall thinning at extrados, flanks and intrados, was implemented into finite element software ANSYS. The local wall thinning was located at extrados, flanks and intrados of 90° elbow pipe, whose geometry was rectangular cross-section. The effect of depth, axial length and circumferential angle of local wall thinning at extrados, flanks and intrados on the ratcheting behaviors of 90° elbow pipe were studied in this paper. Threedimensional elastic-plastic analysis with Chen-Jiao-Kim (CJK) kinematic hardening model was carried out to evaluate structural ratcheting behaviors. The results indicated that ratcheting strain was generated mainly along the hoop direction, while axial ratcheting strain was relatively small.
“心具衆理”是朱子處理“心與理”關係的重要命題之一, 朱子在《四書章句集注》中提出該命題,此後又在《文集》、《語類》中有許多相關的詮釋, 直至朱子去世前的晩年還對此命題有諸多論述。對此命題, 學術界已有一定的注意, 但因衆學者對朱子學的理解和關注的重點各有不同, 以至最終詮釋的結果有所分岐, 大致以牟宗三的“後外具說”、唐君毅的“能具內說”、錢穆的“後內具說”以及陳來的“本內具說”爲代表。從基本立場來看, 牟、錢都是“後具”, 與唐、陳的“本具”形成鮮明立場;幷且牟之“外具”與唐的“具內”、陳的“內具”也形成明顯差異。本文通過對朱子相關文本的梳理, 發現“心具衆理”本身蘊含了兩個向度的涵義, 一是心未發而爲中時, 理本內具於心的狀態, 此是“結構義”;二是心爲知覺全體時, 能將理具于內而居主宰地位, 此是“功能義”, 幷且在朱子處, 結構義優先於功能義。但無論從哪一種向度上言說, “心具衆理”這一命題都是限於存有層面言說, 幷未走向工夫層面。 “Xin ju zhong li” 心具衆理 is one of the important propositions of Zhu Xi 朱熹 to investigate the relations between mind (xin 心) and principle (li 理). Zhu Xi first proposed this term in the Sishu zhangju jizhu 四書章句集注, and later further elaborated it in the Wenji 文集 and the Yulei 語類, and even till the later years before his death. As it has had much attention from the academia, because of scholars’different understandings and focuses on studying Zhu Xi’s thinking, the results of the final interpretations became divergent. There were Mou Zongsan’s 牟宗三 “hou wai ju shuo” 後外具說 which means principle is embraced by mind through practices, Tang Junyi’s 唐君毅 “neng ju nei shuo” 能具內說 means the mind originally has the ability to embrace principle. Qian Mu’s 錢穆 “hou ju shuo” 後具說 means principle embraced by mind as oneness through acquired practices. Chen Lai’s 陳來 “ben nei ju shuo” 本內具說 means principle is innately and originally embraced by mind. Basically, Mou and Qian both suggest “hou ju” while Tang and Chen took a stand on “ben ju” 本具. Also, Mou’s “wai ju” 外具 shows significant contrast against Tang’s “ju nei” 具內 and Chen’s “nei ju” 內具. It can be found that the meaning of “xin ju zhong li” contains two dimensions by researching through a combination of Zhu Xi’s related texts. First is called “jie guo yi” 結構義 meaning when mind is in the undisturbed status, principle is innate together with mind as one,. Second is called “gong neng yi” 功能義 meaning when mind is the entity with complete consciousness, it has the ability to become dominant and embrace the principle into itself as one. In Zhu Xi’s works, the “jie gou yi” takes precedence over the “gong neng yi.” However, no matter from which direction it is examined, Zhu Xi’s proposition of “xin ju zhong li” is confined to the ontological level rather than the practical level.
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Mechanism design theory (MDT) which gained Nobel Prize in 2007 provides a formal way to mechanism design in Economics. It not only emphasizes on the phenomenon of modern economics, also gives an idea on the engineering side of economic theory, in particular, the implications for economic policy making. Despite the success of MDT in economics, it is difficultly migrated to management field. In managerial practices, especially emergent situation, people cannot make free choice and voluntary exchange due to the fact that some policies are sing-directed or half-compulsory. While the managerial mechanism is actively investigated for specific usages, a less studied issue is to study the unified framework of managerial mechanism which is of major importance to managers. This paper aims to provide a unified framework of managerial mechanism with an attempt to provide some insights into the fundamental of managerial mechanism design. Firstly, we discuss the difference between economical and managerial mechanism design from the perspectives of background, basic hypothesis, and weak obligation characteristic. Afterwards, we propose a unified framework of managerial mechanism design theory, composed of an order seven-tuple and some fundamental design modes. Lastly, we give a case study to show the applicability of the proposed mechanism design theory in emergency management.
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International cooperation on emergencies is significant to the response of these emergencies. Firstly, the connotation and characteristics of international cooperation on emergencies were analyzed. Secondly, the typical types of emergencies in need of international cooperation, the types of countries involved in international cooperation and the typical types of international cooperation modes on emergencies were analyzed in order to explain the mechanism of international cooperation. Finally, some strategies of international cooperation on emergencies were proposed. The result shows that, in order to have a better international cooperation, international cooperation modes on emergencies should be determined according to the types of emergencies, the situations of countries and organizations involved in it.
Performance capability of emergency management refers to the actual performance of the emergency management of an organization, individual or region. The improvement of the government's emergency management capacity is of great significance to the effective response of a country or local emergency. Performance capability evaluation of emergency management for an organization, individual or region can reflect their capability of emergency management, so as to help them make a more clear and comprehensive judgment to the ability of emergency response, enhance the ability of emergency response, promote China’s emergency response capability and reduce the loss of life and property caused by emergency. The report of Evaluation of performance capability for emergency management in 31 provinces of China in 2014-2015 is jointly issued by Public Management Professional Committee in Society of Management Science of China, Ouhua’ antai Risk and Crisis Emergency Research Institute, Emergency Management Institute of Henan Polytechnic University in 21th January, 2016. In the report, firstly, the 10 worst disaster incidents of each province in 2014-2015 are selected, and then every index of the accidents is graded through being analyzed with consulting American evaluation index system for emergency management and the reaction of the different kinds of accidents. At last, the weighted averages of the indexes are worked out. Meanwhile, the performance capability for emergency management in 31 provinces of China in 2014-2015, including precautions, responses and aftermath, is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively from aspects of natural disasters, human disasters and comprehensive performance. Based on it, the relevant performance capability is ranked and classified according to four grades: excellent, good, medium and poor. The evaluation report shows that comprehensive performance of Beijing and other 5 provinces is excellent; comprehensive performance of Jiangxi and other 13 provinces is good; comprehensive performance of Chongqing and other 10 provinces is medium; comprehensive performance of Tianjin and some other provinces is poor. To sum up, the excellent evaluation depends on whether the reasonable measures have been taken and whether the better result have been seen; the good and medium evaluation implies that there is some situation discovered in those provinces, just like the worse results in several accidents and lack of risk consciousness; the others are evaluated for the poor performance capability because of their faults full from the precautions to the aftermath. The report also attracts some friends from domestic mainstream media, such as the Paper, Sohu, China News, Science Net and China Youth Online, who consider that the performance capability for emergency management of China’s provinces is cognized deeply and the feasible blueprint is drawn on improving capability for emergency management in China through the report.
The essay, dealing with heroic novels of Jin-Yong(金庸), is extracted from professor Chen's latest work, the Form and the Structure of the History of Literature(1999.3, Guangsi Education Publishing). The author of the essay, Chen Ping-Yuan received M. A in literature at Zhongshan University and Ph. D at Beijing University and presently he is the professor of the Chinese literature department and the academic adviser of the doctor's course in Beijing University. His academic concern has wide range, such as 20th century's Chinese literature, modem Chinese history of science, Chines novel and Chinese prose, and it came out in his writings, like Narrative Form of Chinese Novel and Chines Novel of 20th Century. Hitherto, Chinese heroic novel was always under-valued in the field of literature but the enormous popularity of one writer, Jin-Yong, was so powerful that his heroic novel became the matter of scientific concern not mention in Chinese academic world but in the international academic world. The essay, with reflection, criticizes his success from the viewpoint of modern Chinese literature so its subject is the interior case of the Chinese literature. For all, some issues, like the problem of vulgarity in literature, the excessive inclination toward pure literature and the inheritance of the literary tradition, which arise from argument on Chinese heroic novel, are crucial points of the history of Korean new literature. Therefore, our reviewing this essay can be a lesson for studying the history of modern Korean literature.
사회적 약자들에게 특별한 관심을 가져야 한다는 것은 국가의 불가피한 의무라는 점을 현대의 국가가 인정하고 있듯이, 그것은 단순한 법적 의무가 아니라 도덕적 의무이기도 하다. 한국 및 중화민국(대만) 헌법은 어떠한 망설임도 없이 그러한 의무를 확인하고 있다. 그러나 일상의 정치과정에서 헌법이 규정하거나 요구하는 대로 하는 것은 쉬운 일이 아니다. 한국의 판례는 사회적 약자인 국민에게 동정심을 가진 대부분의 국민들에게 만족을 줄 수 있을 것이다. 그것은 또한 헌법재판소가 시각장애인에게 불리한 결정을 내린 이후에 대만 사회로부터 비판을 받는 이유이기도 하다. 그러나 시각장애인을 위한 적극적 우선처우에 대한 논쟁들은 끝났는가? 아니면 결코 끝나지 않을 이야기로 남아 있는가? 내 생각에는 대만 법원은 중국의 전통 의학적 방법을 통한 안마, 한약재를 이용한 안마 (massage in herb), 향기 안마(massage in perfume) 및 의학적 회복치료, 심신이완 및 유행하고 있는 체중감량(body slimmer)과 같은 다양한 목적의 안마를 비롯한 안마 서비스의 다양성을 고려했다. 이러한 안마 서비스의 확대는 전통적인 안마사에게 필요한 순수한 손가락 기술(finger technique)뿐만 아니라 막대한 자본투자 및 특별한 훈련을 필요로 한다. 따라서 한국에서 안마사 자격의 제한은 아직 해결되지 않은 것으로 보인다. 대만 사건으로 되돌아가 보면, 3년의 유예기간 (three-year sunset term)은 만료가 가까워 졌다. 그러나 그 기관(Agency)은 시각장애인을 위한 근로의 기회를 보장하는 어떠한 적극적인 조치도 하지 않고 있는 것으로 보인다. 시각장애인과 같은 사회적 약자들을 위한 국가의 보호 의무에 관한 논의는 분명 헛구호(empty name)로만 존재한다. 대만 헌법 재판소의 결정은 시각장애인을 보호하는데 어떠한 특별한 국가의 의무가 없기 때문에, 안마사 자격 제한법(Prohibition law)을 심리하는 데에 앞서 말한 엄격심사 기준을 적용 하는 것은 부적절한 것으로 판단했어야 했다. 그러한 금지와 관련한 딜레마(prohibition-dilemma)에 관한 논쟁은 영국의 속담, 즉 숲속의 열 마리 새 보다 내손안의 한 마리 새가 낫다는 속담을 생각나게 하며, 시각장애인에게 근로의 기회를 부여하는 문제를 처리하는 데에도 마찬가지이다. 또한 유명한 미국의 대법관인 블랙먼(Harry A. Blackman)이 한 말, 즉 사람들을 평등하게 처우하기 위해서는 우리는 그들을 다르게 처우해야만 한다고 한 말도 생각난다. 결국 정부는 모든 일정 규모 이상의 공공병원 또는 개인병원에게 안마를 제공하는 진료부서(massage section)를 두어야 할 법적인 의무를 부과하고 시각장애인에게 광범위한 근로의 기회를 부여하는 소위 강제적인 고용정책을 입법화함으로써 보다 많은 근로의 기회를 제공할 가능성을 가지고 있다고 사료된다. As a modern country acknowledges that it is unavoidable duty of government to pay the special attention to the disadvantaged groups, it is not merely a legal duty but a moral one. The Korean and ROC (Taiwan) Constitutions confirm such obligation without any hesitation. But in the daily political process it is not an easy task as the Constitutions described or desired. The Korean Case may be satisfied by most citizens with sympathy to the disadvantaged fellow people. That is also the main critics from the Taiwan society after the Constitutional Court has revealed this vision-impaired hostile decision. However, the quarrels on the affirmative action for the vision-impaired have been out of the stage? Or it remains to be a never ending story? In my opinion, as the Taiwan Court has once consider that the diversities of massage service in modern day, including the massage in Chinese traditional medicine way, the massage in herb, the massage in perfume, and the different purpose for massage, such as for medical rehabilitation,body relaxation and even the fashioned body slimmer. These expansions of massage service need not only the pure finger technique as the traditional massager but also require a lot of financial investment and special training. So the restriction of massage market in Korea seems to remain unsolved. Looking back Taiwan case, the three-year sunset term is closed to end. But it seems to us that the Agency has not made any active measures to secure the working opportunity for the vision-impaired. The story about the national duty for the disadvantaged groups like the vision-impaired obviously exists in an empty name. The decision of the Taiwan Constitutional Court used the said strict scrutiny test to check the Prohibition law should be commended as unjust, as there would have no national special duty for protecting the vision-impaired. The dispute about the prohibition-dilemma reminds me of an English dialogue: a bird in hand is better than 10 birds in woods, it is the same to handle the secure working opportunity of the vision-impaired. It also reminds me of a very famous American Justice named Harry A. Blackman who once said; in order to treat some persons equally, we must treat them differently. Therefore it is my opinion that the government has the possibility to offer more working opportunity by enacting the so-called compulsory employment policy; namely, all hospitals public or private over some scales have the legal obligations to establish the massage section and provide the huge working possibility available for the vision-impaired. Maybe this could be the answer to resolve the problem properly