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Byoung-Soo cho. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Effect of Siryungtang, Steroid, Interferon-γand Cyclosporin-A on Mitogen Interleukin4-Activity in Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome. Proceedings of International Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 183-186, 1999. -We have reported that patients with childhood minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) express higher levels of IL-4 mRNA expression by mitogen activated T cells using Northern blot(Cho,et al, JASN 1:518,2:590). Siryungtang(SA-1) is an oriental medicine shich has long been used in chronic renal diseases. In order to evaluate the efficacy of SA-1 on IL-4 sctivity from the monouclear cells isolated from the MCNS patients(n=5) and controls(n=5). Cells were adjusted to 2×107cells/ml with 10% FCS-RPMI and added test drugs such as SA-1, steroid(hydrocortisone, HC), CsA, IL-4& combination of SA-1+HC,SA-1+CsA&SA-1+IFN-γand mitogens(PHA-P:20㎕/ml, Con-A:20㎕/ml & PMA:50ng/ml) were added. Cells were cultured at 37℃,5% CO2 incubator for 24,48 & 72hrs. Results were as follows. 표 Mean ³[H]thymidine incorporation(cpm) was higher in controls(44,920±7,482cpm)that in patients with MCNS(30,495±2.135). However ³[H]thymidine incorporation was reduced by adding SA-1,HC, CsA & IFN-γ,or which CsA was the most effective, by combination treatment with SA-1 to steroid and CsA, significant additive effects were noted in MCNS group. In conclusion SA-1 has a steroid and CsA sparing effect and could reduce side effects of steroid and Cas significantly if clinically applicated.
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This study investigates the nature and extent of return and volatility spillovers among 10 East Asian exchange rates using the variance decomposition results from a generalized VAR and the corresponding generalized spillover index given by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012), which overcomes the drawbacks generally found in identification schemes of variance decompositions. Several results are remarkable. First, the spillovers have increased dramatically, but fluctuate periodically. The upward trend of spillovers is consistent with a continuous increase in financial market integration. Second, the return and volatility spillovers show large variability over time and are positively associated with extreme economic episodes, such as the Asian crisis of 1997, the dollar crisis of 2005, the global financial crisis of 2008‐2009, and the ongoing European debt crisis. Third, the time‐varying patterns of the return and volatility spillovers are very different across exchange rates. For example, the Korean won has been experienced the most dramatic increase in the return spillover from others, and the Singapore dollar is the most dominant net transmitter of return spillover, hence playing the role of a leader. These results have important implications for exchange rate forecast, risk management, central bank interventions and international trade.
본 연구는 운동이 건강에 좋다는 것을 알면서도 운동실천을 시작하지 못하는 사람들을 어떻게 운동실천을 시작하도록 하며 운동실천을 지속시킬 것인가에 대한 중재전략에 대해 선행연구들을 토대로 정리한 것이다. 운동중재(intervention)는 건강과 관련된 지식, 태도, 기준, 및 행동을 구체적인 목표를 가지고 운동을 하지 않는 사람들에게 인식시켜 운동을 시작케 하거나 운동을 지속적으로 유지시킬 목적을 가지고 건강관리 전문가로 이루어진 팀에 의해 실행되는 건강증진활동을 의미한다(Gauvin, Levesque, & Richard, 2001). 김병준(2006)은 운동실천 중재전략을 이론에 근거한 중재전략, 행동수정 전략, 인지행동전략, 내적동기 전략 등으로 구분하였다. 이론에 근거한 중재전략은 혜택인식, 방해요인 극복, 자기효능감 향상으로 운동실천을 하도록 동기유발을 일으킨다. 행동수정전략은 의사결정단서를 제공하고 출석상황을 게시하며 보상제공, 피도백 제공을 통해 운동실천을 하도록 유도한다. 인지전략으로는 목표를 현실적으로 구체적으로 제시하며 의사결정 균형표를 비교하며 운동일지 작성, 운동계약시 회원이 참여하도록 하여 책임감을 갖도록 하여 운동실천을 하도록 유도한다. 마지막으로 내적동기 전략으로 운동을 할 때에 즐거움을 체험하도록 하며 몰입상태에 임하도록 지도하여 운동실천 동기유발을 하도록 한다. 운동이 주는 긍정적인 효과를 인식하면서도 쉽게 운동실천을 시작하지 못하고 시작하더라도 오래가지 못하고 포기하고 중단하는 사람들을 다시 운동시킨다는 것은 쉬운 일은 아니다. 이러한 운동 실천을 하지 못하는 사람들을 다시금 운동실천을 하도록 동기유발을 하고 실천하도록 의지력을 갖도록 하는 것이 중요하다. 이것이 바로 운동실천을 위한 중재전략이다. The purpose of this study was to review the Intervention Strategies for increasing and keeping physical activity. The Intervention is growing of physical fitness with starting and maintenance physical activity by promotion of health expert team. Kim, byoung-Jun(2006) classed 4 theories intervention strategy. The theory authority of intervention strategy bring about motive for practicing physical activity with benefit recognition, interruption factor overcoming and self-efficacy growing. The behavior adjustment strategy induct into practice physical activity with decisional balance, attendance notice, offering of reward and offering of feedback. The knowledge strategy induct into practice physical activity with offering of detail target, comparing with decisional balance, completing sheet of physical activity and participation agreement of physical activity. Finally, internal motive strategy induct into practice physical activity with enjoyment experience. The intervention strategy for increasing physical activity is starting and maintenance physical activity who used not to practice physical activity and stop practice physical activity.
In order to compare selective characteristics of electrodeposited electrode and dipping electrode with a surface condition of electrodes, the surface of ion selective electrode have been taken a photograph by Optial Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope, respectively. Ion selective electrode were prepared from Ag-TCNQ(7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane). The electrodes were constructed in two type methods of fabrication which were electrodeposited and dipping coated wire electrode. The electodeposited electrode was faster and smaller than dipping electrode about response rate and selectivity with respective to interferring ions. It was found that homogeneous of surface condition, formation of stable complex and thickness of electroactive materials were important factors in characterics of ion selective electrode.
Background: Superior colliculus is a part of midbrain, and participates in the visual reflexes, It receives afferent fibers from optic nerve, visual cortex, and spinotectal tract. After optic deprivation, the microscopic structure of the superior colliculus changed. Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) Play an important role in the neuronal protection, differentiation and reorganization of the central nervous system, Objectives and Methods: The effects of neonatal retinal deafferentation on a CBPs, calbindm D-28k (CB), Parvalbumin (PB) and calretimn (CR), and the existence of colocalization between the CBPs were examined immunohistochemically in the rat superior colliculus. Results: On the experimental (contralateral to enucleation) side of superior colliculus, the number of CB-immunoreactive (IR) cells was reduced (77.4% compared to control), but not fibers. The number of PB-IR neurons and fibers was also reduced on the experimental side (88.5% compared to control), In the other hand, the CR-IR cells were dramatically increased (642% compared to control), but CR-IR fibers were markedly decreased on the experimental side. The colocalization between CB-CR and PV-CR was rarely observed in the superior colliculus Conclusion: These results suggest that the changes of retinotectal projection may alter the expressional pattern of CBPs in different manners; relatively stable in CB- and PV-IR neurons and plastic in CR-IR neurons.
Park, Y.S., Kim, J.K. and Kim, J., 201, Petrochemistry of Granitoids322 Ji-Hoon Kim, Byoung-Wo Yum, Rak-Hyeon Kim, Dong-Chan Koh, Tae-Jin Cheong, Jeongho Lee and Ho-Wan Changin the Youngwang-Kimje area, Korea. Economic and Environ-mental Geology, 34, 55-70 (in Korean with English abstract).Price, B.N. and Calvert, S.E., 1977, The contrasting geochemicalbehaviors of iodine and bromine in resent sediments from theNambian Shelf. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 41, 1769-1775.Richter, B.C., Kreitler, C.W. and Bledsoe, B.E., 1993, Geochemicaltechniques of identifying sources for groundwater salinization.CRC Pres, New York, 285 p.Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J., 196, Aquatic chemistry: chemicalequilibria and rates in natural waters. 3rd edn. Wiley, New York,1022 p.
The Role of Indeterminacy in the Post-modern Era: Focused on Inter-disciplinary Art Works Sohn, Byoung-Dohn With my thesis paper, I am intending to the question 'do-construction', which has been said by Jacqes Derrida who is one of the contemporary French philosopher about post-modernism, that involved a way of reading that concerned itself with 'do-centering' with unmasking the problematic nature of a center. It has been reinforced the notion that we are prisoners of our personal perspective(called Certainty), and so it has been paid attention to the subversive practice of reversing ones perspective. Both reverse (and re-reverse) have been opposites such as subject/object; truth/error; moral/amoral which are called 'binary opposites', with one term of the opposition central and the other marginal. Keeping an eye on the idea of post-modernism, I try to analyze Indeterminacy, one of the factor being made up post-modernism, into art area how to have an effect on it. This thesis paper, therefore, focuses on comparing inter-disciplinary art works, and then revealing the structure of aesthetic distance between modernism and post-modernism. In the modern era, inter-disciplinary art works assumed parody aspects. It connotes that through borrowing other disciplinary works or the part of them, they have an intention in which they overthrow the aura of borrowing objectives as well as make firmly the position of parody ones, but rather cooperates with other disciplinary works or the part of others. In that point, I argue that there are both the reform and the conservation of modernism ironically in a sense, the mixed denotative sense and connotative one of modernism. Another powerful influence on Indeterminacy in recent years has been post-structuralism. This is a diverse movement, but I shall mention Just two of its most influential strands: Derrida's 'deconstruction', I have already mentioned above, and the work of Foucault. Foucault's work is also based on a rejection of modernism. He stresses the fact that society is a socio-historical phenomenon, one which functions as part of the process of surveillance and control, which he sees as the central feature of modern society, Its products reflect its social character, rather than representing some world that is independent of it. Foucault argues that different 'regimes of truth' are established in different contexts, reflecting the play of diverse sources of power and resistance. Thus, what is treated as true and false is constituted through the exercise of power Like philosophical hermeneutics, Foucault also led to questioning of the idea that we can capture the meanings even on the basis of which people act, and it did this on related grounds: that meanings are not stable. Thus I have tried to fill in the void in various ways, have tried to establish a new center: with Modernist art, with myth, with music, with poetry, with absolute scientific certainty, with structuralism, with Modernism.
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There has been so much controversies about the position of upper and lower jaws, and their first permanent molars in normal occlusion and Angle's class ⅠㆍⅡㆍⅢ malocclusions. So, the purpose of this study is to compare the position of upper and lower jaws, and their first molars in normal occlusion and Angle's class ⅠㆍⅡㆍⅢ malocclusions by lateral cephalometric analysis. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty girls(thirty in each group) who had completed growth. The findings of this study were as follows : 1. In class Ⅰ malocclusion, both maxilla and mandible were slightly posterior position than normal occlusion, but they showed harmonious relationship. 2. In class Ⅱ malocclusion, the mandible was greatly retruded, and the maxilla was also slightly retruded to the cranial base as compared with normal occlusion. 3. In class Ⅲ malocclusion, the maxilla was significantly retruded to the cranial base, but no significant difference was found in mandibular position as compared with normal occlusion. 4. The maxillary first molar was located at posterior position in class Ⅱ malocclusion, and anterior position in class Ⅲ malocclusion to the cranium, so that the rotation of mandible was influenced by that. 5. The mandibular first molar showed constant relationship to the mandible in all four group, but different position to the cranial base in direct proportion to the mandibular position. 6. On the treatment planning of class Ⅲ malocclusion, it seems to be better to promote the mandibular horizontal growth by ingibiting the verbical growth of masillary molar area, and on the treatment planning of class Ⅲ malocclusion, it seems to be better to promote the antero-inferior growth of maxilla and to promote the mandibular vertical growth by inducing the vertical growth of maxillary molar area.
This experiment was carried out to compare the efficacy of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(DMSA) and calcium ethylenediamine tetraacetate(CaEDTA) as chelating agents for lead poisoning. The rats had been fed water containing 0.5% lead acetate for 3 months and randomly divided into three groups. We administered DMSA only for group I(n=5), CaEDTA only for group II(n=5), and both DMSA and CaEDTA for group III(n=10), for 4 days. We evaluated urinary lead(PbU) level, blood lead(PbB) level and blood zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) level before and after administration of the chelating agents. The results obtained were as follows; 1. After administration of chelating agents, the mean PbU levels, which were 248.2㎍/dl, 252.6㎍/dl and 270.0㎍/dl in group I, II and III before administration, were increased to 484.6㎍/dl, 479.9㎍/dl and 1,792.1㎍/dl in group I, II and III, respectively(p<0.05). 2. After administration of chelating agents, the mean PbB levels, which were 67.4㎍/dl, 59.9㎍/dl and 62.5㎍/dl in group I, II and III before administration, were decreased to 38.1㎍/dl, 36.3㎍/dl and 31.3㎍/dl in group I, II and III, respectively(p<0.05), but there were no different changes of ZPP level among groups. 3. The blood lead clearances, which were calculated by PbB level before and after administration of chelating agents, were 49.8%, 43.5% and 39.5% in group III, I and II, respectively.
In the proposed research plan, the effects of anisotropic and time-dependent mechanical properties on nanoindentation measurements of osteonic lamellae in a human cortical bone are investigated. The most popular method(Oliver-Pharr method) in nanoindentation data analysis is based on the assumption of elastic isotropy. Since cortical bone has exhibited anisotropy, it is necessary to consider the effects of anisotropy on nanoindentation measurement for cortical bone. By comparison with the contact area obtained from monitoring the contact profile in FEA simulations, the Oliver-Pharr method was found to underpredict or overpredict the contact area due to effects of anisotropy. The mount of error depended on the indentation. The indentation modulus results and were also similar to moduli calculated from mathematical model. The Oliver-Pharr method has been shown to be useful for providing first order approximations in analysis of anisotropic mechanical properties of cortical bone, although the indentation modulus is influenced by anisotropy.