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The concept of poly-victimization of early adolescents has been an important topic of research. This study aims to investigate the early adolescents’ exposure to various types of violence in families, schools and communities. In addition, the study examines the mediating effects of psychological distress on the relationship between poly-victimization and suicide attempts of early adolescents. Cross-sectional data from 6,321 adolescents were obtained by National Youth Policy Institute in 2013. Frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, and logistic regression analysis were conducted utilizing Stata 13.0. The findings of this study are as follows. First, 178 adolescents(5.8%) were revealed to be poly-victims, and all types of violence, crime and abuse except bullying at school had a significant impact on them. Second, 31.2% of poly-victimized group attempted suicide, whereas only 1.9% of non-victimized group, and 9.0% of less victimized group attempted suicide. This demonstrates that the suicidal problem is significant among poly-victimized adolescents. Third, psychological distress had a mediating effect between poly-victimization and suicidal attempts. Based on the results, the roles of poly-victims, homes, school, and communities are suggested. Intervention strategies to address poly-victimized adolescents’ suicidal attempts are discussed as well.
Kang, Beom-mo. 2009. Lexical and Semantic Aspects of the Titles of Korean Films. Korean Semantics, 30. We collect and examine titles of all the Korean films ever made since 1919 until 2007, while using the corpus linguistic methods. The total of around 6,800 titles are analyzed in terms of the use of words and semantic considerations. Frequencies of words are counted and relatively high frequency words are categorized into semantic groups. Some characteristic words, namely words meaning "love", "woman", "man" etc, are examined in terms of negative and positive semantic prosodies. Moreover, the change of the usage of some important words as time proceeds are studied, from the first period(l919-1925) through the eleventh period(2003-2007). The two main factors of the change of words used in the film titles are diversification and gender equality. The words used in the film titles reflect the content of the films, which again would reflect the interests of general public of the times.
The purpose of this article is to investigate writing student’s response to the comments provided by the teacher. This paper first categorizes the comments of the teacher into the two aspects: the focus and the mode, and then it attempts to classifies the student’s response to the teacher’s comments into two types: acceptance and rejection. In this article, the students’ responses of acceptance and rejection are analyzed in accordance with the teacher’s comments, which deal with either the focus or the mode. First, the student’s acceptance of the teacher’s comments is as follows. As for the comment that emphasizes the focus, the students showed the acceptance rate of 62.64%. The students with the comment of in the focused area showed somewhat higher acceptance rate of 76.00% when the comment was shaped as the ‘command’. On the other hand, the teacher’s comments in ‘criticism’ yielded a somewhat lower acceptance rate of 54.69%. Those fact shows that, when the students react positively about the teacher’s comments dealing with the focus, they prefer the commentary which suggests a relatively straightforward and clear suggestions in the ‘command’. In addition, the comments asking for ‘correction’ was found to be effective way of helping students to revise, especially when the teacher uses the modes of ‘closed question,’ ‘correction,’ ‘command,’ and ‘criticism.’ On the other hand, the students acceptance of the comment regarding the mode, the acceptance rate when applying the style of ‘command’ was higher than that of the other modes. And there are symmetrical relationship among ‘closed question’, ‘open question’, ‘criticism’ and ‘qualified criticism’, which are the ways of asking for answers among the modes of commentary provided to writing students. When the teacher provides comments on ‘context’ or ‘organization,’ the student tends to easily take the comment regardless of the modes of ‘closed question’ or ‘criticism.’ Therefore, it is effective for the teacher to consider such a tendency when composing comments for students. Secondly, the rejection of the comment provided by the teacher is analyzed as follows. In the rejection of the comment regarding what it focuses, the students showed the rejection rate of 17.94% against the teacher’s comments. The rejection of the comment regarding the focus did not show a biased rejection rate. However, the ‘correction’ as the modes of comment does not effectively induces the student’s participation, while the modes of ‘open question,’ ‘advice,’ and ‘qualified criticism’ showed the higher rejection rate. The acceptance and rejection as the students’ responses were partially symmetrical but not completely symmetrical. In the rejection aspect of writing students with the comment on the mode, the method of ‘command’ showed a somewhat lower rejection rate. This signifies that the students are likely to reject to the comments in the mode of ‘criticism.’ The response of rejection shows a slight difference between ‘closed question’ and ‘open question,’ while it reveals smaller gaps among ‘closed question’ and ‘criticism’, ‘open question’ and ‘qualified criticism.’
본고는 1342년 원 제과(壬午科)에 급제한 이인복(李仁復)의 시문을 토대로 그의 삶과 인적 네트워크를 재구성하고자 시작되었다. 우선 이인복은 조부이조년(李兆年)의 강인한 정신과 의를 향한 실천력을 경모하며 자신의 멘토로 삼았다. 그래서 수많은 노력을 통해 자신의 성품을 ‘강직(剛直)’하고 ‘진중(鎭重)’하게 만들었다. 이는 그의 정치생활의 기반이 되었고 군주와 국가를 향한 한결같은 충절을 유지할 수 있었다. 그의 제과 응시는 충혜왕에게 직언하다 뜻을 거슬러 낙향한 조부의 상황과 연계되어 있었다. 혹시 모를 가문의 환란을 막고 대외적 능력 검증을 통해 도약했다는 점에서 신의 한수였다. 이후 조일신의 난, 기씨 일파 주살과 반원정책, 원의 공민왕 폐위 책동 등을 거치면서 공민왕의 충신으로 활약했다. 현존하는 시문에 드러나는 그의 인적 네트워크는 정치 선배에 대한 존경과 예의(李齊賢·李嵒·韓宗愈·王煦 등), 개인적 친분과 동료로서의 교우(李穀·柳淑·李穡·柳濯·朴宜中 등), 제과 동년과 사신인 원 문인과의 만남과 인연(偰斯·郭永錫·馬彦翬·傅亨·劉傑·拜住)으로 나눌 수 있다. This paper analyzes the poetry of Yi In‒bok, who passed the Yuan Dynasty’s imperial state examination held in 1342, to recreate his career and interpersonal relationships. Yi revered his grandfather, Yi Jo‒nyeon, for his strong spirit and righteousness and looked up to him as his mentor. The upright and prudent character he strove to build and the consistent loyalty he accordingly maintained toward the king and his country became the basis of his political career. His choice to take the imperial examination was related to his grandfather’s return to his hometown after being forthright to the king, as it could prevent the calamities possibly befalling his household as well as jumpstart his career by demonstrating his abilities. Throughout the hardships that hit Goryeo one after another—the rebellion of Jo Il-sin, the execution of the Gi family, anti‒Yuan Dynasty policies, and the Yuan Dynasty’s machinations to depose King Gongmin—he faithfully served King Gongmin. The analysis of his poetry shows that his interpersonal relationships can be largely divided into the following: respect and propriety towards seniors in politics, personal friendships with his companions, and encounters and correspondences with his dongnyeon (同年), fellow examinees who had passed the imperial state examination that same year, as well as envoys from the Yuan Dynasty.
This paper is a Research on the bilingual and Japanese of the Korean(Joseon) film in 1941. The Korean(Joseon) film in the early 1940"s colonial period faced a general change, and had a close relation with the specific conditions of the period. Korean film was to be largely changed After the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. It also affected the language in a film. Korean film made during this period were closely, directly associated with Japan and Japanese. Japanese increased on the Korean film from the 1940s. The bilingual situation was reflected with the <tuition(Su-eopryo)> exhibited in 1940. And such a tendency continued also films opened in 1941, such as <Angels on the Streets (Jib-eobneun cheonsa)>, <Voluntrre (Jiwonbyeong)>, <Spring of the Korean Peninsula (Bando-ui bom)>, and so on. There are various bilingual and Japanese situations in these works, and the subject of speech is set to the special characters in these films. It is also connected with the main theme. Such changes cannot be realized outside the specific conditions of the Second Sino-Japanese War and wartime regime in colonial Korea(Joseon).
본 논문은 방한준 감독의 경우를 통해 1930년대 식민지 조선 영화인의 발성영화 연출 활동에 대해 탐색한 연구의 결과물이다. 방한준은 1930년대 초반 일본 영화계에서 경력을 쌓은 후 1930년대 중반부터 본격적으로 조선에서 영화 활동을 전개하였다. 무성영화 〈살수차(撒水車)〉(1935)로 감독 데뷔한 그는, 1930년대 말에 발성영화 〈한강(漢江)〉(1938)과 〈성황당(城隍堂)〉(1939)을 완성하고 〈수업료(授業料)〉(1940) 일부 및 문화영화 〈승리의 뜰(勝利の庭)〉(1940) 등을 제작하였다. 이를 통해 그는 자신의 영화적 표현 기법을 구축하였고, 조선 발성영화의 특징 가운데 하나의 조류를 형성하였다. 이들 작품의 플롯에는 세상에 대한 긍정적 시선이 반영되어 있다. 작품의 분위기는 대체로 밝고 명랑하며 익살스럽고 희망적이다. 그리고 이는 단조롭고 여유로운 화면구성과 카메라 동작에 의한 극적 표현 수법을 통해 시청각 이미지로 형상화되었다. I researched the production and direction activity of talkie by the colonial Joseon cineaste in 1930s through the case of Bang Han‐Joon on this study. Bang Han‐Joon experienced film making in Japan in the beginning of the 1930s, and went back Joseon the middle stage of the 1930s. He completed talkies of a total of three such as Han River(한강, 1938), Alter for a Tutelary Deity (성황당, 1939), Tuition(수업료, 1940) ect. He tried (sound) film making steadily all the time in the 1930s, participating also in production company establishment and management also actively. And he built his cinematic expression technique, which contributed to peculiarity formation of the Joseon cinema. The affirmative look to a world is reflected in Director Bang Han‐Joon"s movie in the plot side. The atmosphere of these movies are bright, light, humor‐like, and wishful on the whole. The sense of stability to life and reliability to society appear. And it is represented in the visual image through dramatic presentation method which makes a screen and a camera the center and has quietness and margin. It can be called result of his earnest observation to the human world, and fine depiction.
무저항주의 기조의 ‘순연한 비폭력운동’이었다는 오랜 통념과 달리, 또는 ‘비폭력에서 폭력으로’ 전화했다는 근래의 대체설과도 달리, 3·1 운동은 처음부터 평화적 시위와 폭력시위의 두 얼굴을 내보였음을 이 글은 밝혀내 강조한다. 원시적 도구에 의존하여 농민층이 앞장선 유혈적 폭력행동은 즉응적·저항적인 것에서 계획적·공세적인 것으로 바뀌어 갔고, 그러한 민중적 폭력항쟁이 결과적으로 일제의 통치정책만 아니라 임시정부의 독립운동 지도노선도 급전하게끔 만들었다. 그 전환에 국내민중이 폭력적 항일활동의 재개로 곧장 호응했고, 의열단은 암살파괴운동으로 일제 폭력통치의 종결을 도모하였다. 이에 영감을 얻어 신채호는 3·1 운동에서 시현된 민중적 의기와 아직 충분히 발현되지 않았다고 본 폭력의 결합에 의한 일제 타도의 총봉기를 규호하고, 그것이 건설해낼 ‘이상적 조선’의 상도 제시했다. 그와 같은 혁명사상이 재중국 독립운동 진영에서 계속 흡수·전파되어 간 끝에 혁명무력들이 설립되고 ‘전민혁명’을 추동하였다. 결국 이러한 전 과정은 3·1 운동에서의 민중적 폭력이 의열적 대항폭력의 필터를 거쳐 혁명적 폭력의 사상적 모태요 발원지로 되었음과도 같다. 또한 혁명적 폭력은 식민주의적 체제폭력을 섬멸하여 동양평화의 초석을 놓아줌과 동시에 스스로 소멸해갈 것으로 상정된 점에서 이념형적 ‘반폭력’의 새로운 의미자원으로 삼아질 수 있다. This paper clarifies and argues that the March 1<SUP>st</SUP> Movement of 1919 in colonial Korea showed a violent face from the very beginning besides peaceful one which has been the conventional notion of that movement for a long time. At the same time, it criticizes and opposes recent claims that the movement evolved from a nonviolent to violent one. Violent and bloody demonstrations staged by the Korean peasantry, who took the frontline of the movement armed with primitive instruments, eventually transformed themselves from instant and resistant to planned and aggressive ones. This resulted in bringing about a rapid change not only in the Japanese imperialist policy but also in the direction of the national independence movement led by the Korean Provisional Government in Shanghai. In response, grassroots people in Korea promptly acted in concert by taking up anti-Japanese violent activities. Also, the secret society Euiyoldan executed the assassination-and-destruction movement with the aim of terminating the Japanese violent rule. Inspired by these moves, Shin Chae-ho implored a general uprising to overthrow Japanese imperialism and proposed to build an ideal New Korea. He asserted that such an uprising should be realized only by joining the popular vigor which had been demonstrated during the March 1<SUP>st</SUP> Movement with violence which was, in his view, yet to be sufficiently manifested. The successive adoption and dissemination of this notion by Korean independence fighters in China resulted in founding two revolutionary armies and driving grassroots people’s revolts. After all, the grassroots violence displayed in the March 1st Movement became the womb and origin of revolutionary violence by passing through the filter of Euiyoldan’s resistant violence. Moreover, this revolutionary violence can be regarded as a new source of meaning of the ideal-typical ‘anti-violence,’ in that it was supposed to disappear by itself immediately after annihilating the systemic violence of Japanese colonialism and laying the foundation of peace in Asia.
Lee, Beom-jin. 1997. A Study of Compensatory Lengthening with Coda Consonant Deletion. Linguistics, 5-2, 309-325. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the compensatory vowel lengthening with coda consonant deletion within the framework of Moraic Phonology (Hayes 1989). Compensatory lengthening with consonant deletion occurs in the following cases: a. VηX > V X b. VNC > V C, Vg (C) > V (C) c. Vg > V Accounting for the consonant deletion and compensatory lengthening in (a), Hayes (1989:291-3) posits three moras in primitive Germanic. However, his analysis is untenable for cases such as (b). If we permit three moras in a syllable, there is a problem to analyze the so-called gemination. In this paper, I show that we can account for (b) by invoking the notion 'extrasyllabicity'.(Wonkwang University)
Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson Disease (PD). The contribution of many environmental factors including dietary factor remains unproven. The purpose the study was to investigate the dietary habits, nutrient intake and dietary quality of Korean PD patients according to the duration of disease. PD patients were recruited from K and S university hospitals from May 2005 to January 2006. This study was carried out after approval by the Institute Review Board (IRB). British Brain Bank criteria was used to diagnose PD. The subjects were classified into 2 groups based on the duration of PD: < 25 months and ≥ 25 months groups. General characteristics, anthropometric measurements, food habits and dietary intakes were investigated. The results of this study were as follows: 1) The mean age of < 25 months group (66.9 ± 8.0 yr) was significantly higher than that of ≥ 25 months group (62.2 ± 8.8 yr) (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found for academic background, occupation, living status and social activity, however, numbers of diseases, exercise and family history of PD were significantly different. 2) Anthropometric measurements were not different between the two groups. 3) The frequency of taking snacks was significantly higher in < 25 months group and the amounts of alcohol consumption were significantly higher in ≥ 25 months group. 4) Daily intakes of most nutrients were very low compared with DRI. 5) The MAR score was significantly lower in < 25 months group (p < 0.05;) however, the scores of DVS, DDS and DQI were not significantly different. As a conclusion an overall nutrient intake and dietary quality of the Parkinson's Disease patients need to be improved regardless of duration of the disease and a well-balanced diet should be emphasized.