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<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives with long alkyl chains were synthesised and spectrally characterised. Experimental spectroscopic techniques were supplemented by the DFT calculations of equilibrium geometries, normal mode frequencies and time-dependent DFT simulated UV–vis spectra. Comparison between the symmetrical and unsymmetrical substitution of alkyl chains resulted in some changes like bathochromic shift of absorption, excitation and emission spectra, significant reduction of molar absorption coefficient in UV–vis range, increase of fluorescence quantum yield, and slight increase of fluorescence lifetimes. The influence of the length of the alkyl chain on the properties of material was also discussed. The experimental spectroscopic data together with the calculated results show that presence of the alkyl substituent at the nitrogen atom influences more on the properties of the investigated DPPs than the length of attached chain.</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Two diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives (DPPs) with spatial substituents (di-<I>tert</I>-butylbenzyl groups) and alkyl chains have been synthesized and investigated using DFT and TD-DFT calculations, vibrational (IR and Raman), electronic (absorption, fluorescence) spectroscopies, and electrochemical methods. Moreover, the creation of Langmuir layers was also investigated. The most of spectral investigations show only small differences between the investigated species as well as the electrochemical data. The electronic spectra show a small shift of the Soret and Q bands while the vibrational spectra in comparison with DFT calculation results suggest the presence of additional interactions involving the thiophene rings in one of the samples. The significant difference is observed in the formation of Langmuir layers of the mentioned molecules. The DPPs with spatial substituents form more densely packed layer in comparison with alkyl chain-substituted DPPs. Moreover, substitution with di-<I>tert</I>-butylbenzyl groups enhances the fluorescence quantum yields (up to 0.77) and slightly prolonging the fluorescence lifetimes (to over 5 ns). Spectroscopic studies of varied polarity solutions indicates J type aggregation of DPPs.</P>
The set of three oligothiophenes covalently linked to fullerene was investigated using Raman scattering and the infrared absorption spectroscopies. Additionally, the quantum chemical calculations of the equilibrium geometry and normal mode vibrations of the dyads were performed. It was shown that vibrational spectroscopy can be successfully used for characterization of such complex molecular systems. It was stated that infrared spectra in the region 700-900cm<SUP>-1</SUP> act as fingerprints for the investigated dyads.
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in <Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 118, (2014) 204 - 209>, http://dx.doi.org/<10.1016/j.saa.2013.08.102>. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Memantine and other glutamatergic agents have been currently investigated in some off-label indications due to glutamatergic involvement in several psychoneurological disorders. We assumed that memantine similarly to ketamine may positively influence mood, moreover having a potential to improve cognition and general quality of life. We report a case of a 49-year-old male hospitalized during a manic and a subsequent moderate depressive episode. After an ineffective use of lithium, olanzapine and antidepressive treatment with mianserin, memantine was added up to 20 mg per day for 10 weeks. The mental state was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Clinical Global Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale and psychological tests. After 10 weeks the patient achieved a partial symptomatic improvement in mood, anxiety and quality of sleep, but his activity remained insufficient. We also observed an improvement in the parameters of cognitive functioning and quality of life. There was neither significant mood variations during the memantine use nor mood changes after its termination. No significant side effects were noted during the memantine treatment. We conclude that using memantine in bipolar depression may improve mood, cognitive functioning and quality of life.