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      • KCI등재

        복식소절개난관불임술

        배병주(BJ Bai) 대한산부인과학회 1975 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.18 No.5

        복식소절개난관불임술중 출혈로서 개복이 부득이 할 경우, 저자의 거상기를 이용하면 그냥 소절개로 처리할 수 있어서 입원의 필요가 없으리라고 본다. In Korea, the IUD and oral pill programs which are given priority as major contraceptive methods have confronted with some difficulties because of their side effects, complexity of use, and high drop out. Therefore recently a high interest is given to tubal sterilization for woman which is the method that a better contraceptive effectiveness and can be brought by single procedure. Since 1966, the author have performed Pomeroy through a suprapubic small incison and have tried to develop a new method to elevate the uterine body, using utilizing Schroeder`s cervical dilator No.6 or /and male urethral metal bougie a round metal plate located 6cm from the tip of the device and the stem is bent like the pelvic cavature. As a whole it was very similar to today`s Vitoon`s elevator coincidentaly. In the early study prior to the main surgeries for some gynecological diseases such as mild ectopic pregnancy small uterine myoma small ovarian cyst, chronic metritis et cervicitis, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding Pomeroy procedures were tried via suprapubic tiny laparotomy under the procaine local anesthesia, and their results were satisfied in 25 cases but no pubication of this experiences has been provided even though the technic has been demonstrated to the residents of our department. Recently Dec. 1974 three kinds of uterine elevatoe for tiny-lap were devided by author, namely Bai`s IYT elevator, IT elevator and 17 elevator Among them Bai`s 17 elevator would be most useful and safety, Bai`s 17 elevator consists of handle, stem, intrauterine bending part and cavature and the manipulation technic showed in Fig 13, 16, 17. Once an adequte insertion is attained in the uterine fundus the Bai`s 17 elevator can be used to extend the uterus and vagina, elevate antevert and axis rotate(twist).

      • Female Sterilization by Minilaparotomy using BAI'S Uterine Elevator

        Bai, Byoung Choo 中央醫學社 1997 中央醫學 Vol.62 No.3

        This is the clinical data on 2,000 women's voluntary sterilized by interval minilaparotomy procedures using author's uterine elevator in Seoul, Korea. From 1976 to 1990, 2000 outpatients minilaparotomy sterilization using the uterine elevator, devised by author, were performed mainly(97 %) under the local anesthesia. The minilaparotomy technique, using standard operating room equipment and Bai's elevator is described. Access to the Fallopian tubes were achieved by elevating the uterus with uterine elevator. Elevator is mentioned and its usefulness pointed out in relation to practice in developing countries. Ninety seven percent of the procedures were performed with local anesthesia, the modified pomeroy technique were used for tubas legation. The mean operating time was 9.8 minutes and the minor complication rate was 1.1 % and postoperative complication rate was 0.8%. The mean time of the postoperative hospital stay was 4 hours, however the postoperative intra uterine pregnancies and tubal pregnancies have been occurred in 2 cases respectively. None of the patient in this study group required readmission to the hospital and there was no death. The result of this study suggest that tubal legation via Bai's minilaparotomy is practical, safe, simple, effective and inexpensive.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재후보

        Minilaparotomy 불임술(不妊術)과 복강경불임술(腹腔鏡不妊術)에 관(關)한 비교연구(比較硏究)

        배병주,Bai, Byoung-Choo 대한생식의학회 1977 Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine Vol.4 No.1

        Anderson(1937), Power and Barnes(1941) reported a study concerning a method of tubal sterilization in association with peritoneoscopy or laparoscopy in which they cauterized the tubes. There appears to have been a hiatus of interest in sterilization (cold or hot) associated with laparoscopy until reintroduction by Palmer(1963), Frangenheim(1964) and Steptoe(1967). On the other hand, for interval female sterilization, however, minilaparotomy is relatively new. By Saunder and Munsick(1972), John Lyle(1974), Frank Stubb(1974), Vitoon(1973) and B.C. Bai(1975), their own technique for interval female sterilization requires 2.0 to 2.5cm, incision at the margin of the mons pubis. In Korea, female sterilization by means of minilaparotomy firstly reported by B.C. Bai using Bai's uterine elevator, of his own device, early in 1975. Recently inteval female sterilization by laparoscopy and minilaparotomy are widely accepted throughout the world especially in Asian countries. Minilaparotomy is carried out from 1974, laparoscopic sterilization from 1976, and in this study each of 250 cases of those were analysed and discussed for the comparison at Seoul Red Cross Hospital. (1) In the age distribution, numerous clients were in their age of $31{\sim}35$ in laparoscopy as well as minilaparotomy. Average 33.7 years in L and 33.2 years in M. (M=minilaparotomy, L=laparoscopic sterilization) (2) As regarding living children, women having 3 children represented the greatest number, 113 cases out of 250 in M group and 102 cases out of 250 in L group. Average No. of child are 2.9 in Land 3.1 in M. (3) Concidering the operation day in the menstrml cycle, the greatest number of cases, those who underwent tubal sterilization during the days of $26{\sim}$, next during the $6{\sim}10$ days of the cycle in both group. (4) Concidering the operation time, 188 cases by laparoscopy were performed in $6{\sim}10$ minutes, 33 cases within 5 minutes and 24 cases in $11{\sim}15$ minutes. Maximum 50 minutes, minimum 4 minutes and average 8.3 minutes. The majority of cases (154 cases) by minilaparotomy required $6{\sim}10$ minutes and 67 cases $11{\sim}15$ minutes, 6 cases within 5 minutes. Maximum 30 minutes, minimum 4 minutes and average 10.4, minutes. In both groups, most of the reasons for the extra length were surgical difficulties such as thick abdominal wall, pelvic adhesion, less cooperation of patients in early period of this study. (5) Hospital stay after operation in L group required $3{\sim}4$ hours in 125 cases, $2{\sim}3$ hours in 41 cases, $4{\sim}5$ hours in 32 cases out of 250. Maximum 8 hours, minimum 1 hour and average 3.8 hours. In M group hospital stay required $6{\sim}7$ hours in 100 cases, over 7 hours in 85 cases, $5{\sim}6$ hours in 46 cases and so on. Maximum 14 hours, minimum 2 hours and average 6.5 hours. (6) The time between operation and gas passing in the majority cases of both groups, were $12{\sim}36$ hours. A veragetime 20.3 hours in L and 27.2 in M. (7) Laparoscopic sterilization coincident with induced abortion were carried out in 27 cases, laparoscopy with minilaparotomy to control for mesosalpingeal hemorrhage in 1 case. Minilaparotomy coincident with induced abortion were performed in 65 cases, D and C whit polypectomy, menstrual regulatian, and remaval of IUD in 1 case respectively. (8) In L group, 1 case of mesosalpingeal hemorrhage, 1 case of abdominal wall infection were complicated during operation. In M group, 1 case of uterine perfaration, 1 case of abdominal wall infection, 1 case of hemorrhage from omentum and 1 case of bloody vaginal discharge were complicated. No intensive medical treatment was required for those minor complications in both groups. (9) No failure has been recognized and these two sterilization techniques might be the simple, safe and the most effective method fo

      • A Comparison of Minilaparotomy and Laparoscopic Sterilization

        Bai, Byoung Choo 中央醫學社 1997 中央醫學 Vol.62 No.4

        The relative important of research objectives to improve female sterilization technology varies between developed and less developed countries. Less developed countries are more interested in technology which can be applied out side of the hospital setting, by paramedical personnel, and with equipment that is simple to use, low cost, and easy to maintain. Of the currently available methods, minilaparotomy may be the method of choice in most program in developing countries. Laparotomy has proponent, but the technical expertise and, for the ecndoscopic methods, and complex and expensive equipment required for this method limit their applicability. A retroscopic compared study of Bai's minilaparotomy and laparoscopic Falope-Ring tubal sterilization performed in 500 cases respectively. This review indicated somewhat greater mean operative time (9.5 versus 8.7 minutes), time of hospital stay (6.5 versus 4.2 hours), time of gas passing after procedure (20.8 versus 2.7 hours) in the minilaparotomy group than the Laparoscopy group. Minilaparotomy coincident with induced abortions were performed in 130 cases, D. and C, with polypectomy, menstrual regulation and removal of LU.DR in 2 cases. respectively. Laparoscopic sterilization coincident with induced abortions were carried out in 54 cases, mesosalpingeal hemorrhage in 2 cases. No intensive medical treatment was requested for those minor complication in both group. No failure has been recognized and these two sterilization techniques might be the simple safe and the most effective method of permanent contraception at present time. In this study, there is no greater significant clinical difference between minilaparotory and laparoscopic sterilization.

      • KCI등재

        Selection and evaluation of reference genes for gene expression using quantitative real‐time PCR in Mythimna separata walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

        Bai‐Zhong Zhang,Jun-Jie LIU,Xi-Ling CHEN,Guo-Hui YUAN 한국곤충학회 2018 Entomological Research Vol.48 No.5

        In order to precisely assess gene expression levels, the suitable internal reference genes must be served to quantify real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐qPCR) data. For armyworm, Mythimna separata, which reference genes are suitable for assessing the level of transcriptional expression of target genes have yet to be explored. In this study, eight common reference genes, including β‐actin (β‐ACT), 18 s ribosomal (18S), 28S ribosomal (28S), glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate (GAPDH), elongation fator‐alpha (EF1α), TATA box binding protein (TBP), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), and alpha‐tubulin (α‐TUB) that in different developmental stages, tissues and insecticide treatments of M. separata were evaluated. To further explore whether these genes were suitable to serve as endogenous controls, three software‐based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder), the delta Ct method, and one web‐based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were employed to analyze and rank the tested genes. The optimal number of reference genes was determined using the geNorm program, and the suitability of particular reference genes was empirically validated according to normalized HSP70, and MsepCYP321A10 gene expression data. We found that the most suitable reference genes for the different experimental conditions. For developmental stages, 28S/RPL7 were the optimal reference genes, both RPL7/EF1α were suitable for experiments of different tissues, whereas for insecticide treatments, 28S/α‐TUB were suitable for normalizations of expression data. In addition, 28S/α‐TUB were the suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, tissues and insecticide treatments. Our work is the first report on reference gene selection in M. separata, and might serve as a precedent for future gene expression studies.

      • KCI등재

        Convergence rates of spectral distributions of large dimensional quaternion sample covariance matrices

        Huiqin Li,Zhidong Bai 한국통계학회 2015 Journal of the Korean Statistical Society Vol.44 No.1

        In this paper, we study the convergence rates of empirical spectral distributions of largedimensional quaternion sample covariance matrices. Assume that the entries of Xn (p×n)are independent quaternion random variables with means zero, variances 1 and uniformlybounded sixth moments. Denote Sn = 1nXnX∗n. Using Bai’s inequality, we prove that theexpected empirical spectral distribution (ESD) converges to the limiting Marčenko–Pasturdistribution with the ratio of dimension to sample size yp = p/n at a rate of O n−1/2a−3/4n  when an > n−2/5 or O n−1/5when an ≤ n−2/5, where an = (1 − √yp)2. Moreover, therates for both the convergence in probability and the almost sure convergence are alsoestablished. The weak convergence rate of the ESD is O n−2/5a−1/2n when an > n−2/5 orO n−1/5when an ≤ n−2/5. The strong convergence rate of the ESD is O n−2/5+ηa−1/2n  when an > κn−2/5 or O n−1/5when an ≤ κn−2/5 for any η > 0 where κ is a positiveconstant.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • 孔子의 仁과 哲學的 人問學에 있어서의 〈만남〉

        徐培植 청주대학교 인문과학연구소 1989 人文科學論集 Vol.8 No.-

        Die 《Jen》(仁) bei Konfutse ist eigentlich das angeborene Wesen des einzelnen Menschen(Ich), aber wenn der Mensch dem underen nicht begegnet, kann es nicht hervorkeimen, weil die Jen nur ein Same als die Potenz ist. 「Jen ist das Wesen des Menschen」 bedeutet 「Der Mensch ist eigentlich das gesellschaftliche Wesen」 d.h. die Begegnung ist das Wesen der Menschen. Die Jen heißt die Begegnung zwei Menschen, d.h. Gesellschaftlichkeit des Menschen. Die Jen setzt die Begegnung des 《Ich und Du》) voraus. Damit geho¨rt die Begegnung zu der urspru¨nglichen Bedingung menschlichen Seins und Werdens. Es ist die Wahrheit, die erst als Begegnung wirklich wird, in ihr selbst entspringt und fu¨r sie sichtbar wird, nicht vorher feststehend da ist und dann mitgeteilt wird. Die Wahrheit ist auch nicht das Ziel, das am Ende ohne Begegnung an sich gu¨ltig ist, sondern die Wahrheit selbst ist im Miteinundersein der Menschen durch die Begegnung, in der sie erst selbst werden. Die Wahrheit enthu¨llt sich immer nur in der Begegnung, well die Jen das Wesen des Menschen und zugleich der Welt (Wir) ist.

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